Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or computer
instructions that tell the computer how to work.
There are two types of software −
The system software is a collection of programs
designed to operate, control, and extend the
processing capabilities of the computer itself.
System software is generally prepared by the
These software products comprise of programs
written in low-level languages, which interact
with the hardware at a very basic level.
System software serves as the interface
between the hardware and the end users.
Some examples of system software are
Operating System, Compilers, Interpreter,
Close to the system
Fast in speed
Difficult to design
Difficult to understand
Smaller in size
Difficult to manipulate
Generally written in low-level language
Application software products are designed
to satisfy a particular need of a particular
All software applications
It may also consist of a collection of
programs, often called a software package,
which work together to accomplish a task,
such as a spreadsheet package
Close to the user
Easy to design
Slow in speed
Generally written in high-level language
Easy to understand
Easy to manipulate and use
A program that acts as an intermediary
between a user of a computer and the
Operating system goals:
› Execute user programs and make solving user
› Make the computer system convenient to use
› Use the computer hardware in an efficient
A collection of programs which control the
resources of a computer system.
Written in low-level language(machine
An interface between users and hardware
When the computer is on ,OS will first load
into the main memory
The process management activities handled
by the OS are—
1. control access to shared resources like
file, memory, I/O and CPU
2. control execution of applications
3. create, execute and delete a process
(system process or user process)
4. cancel or resume a process
5. schedule a process
6. synchronization, communication and
deadlock handling for processes.
The activities of memory management handled by
1. allocate memory
2. free memory
3. re-allocate memory to a program when a used
block is freed
4. keep track of memory usage
The file management tasks include —
1. create and delete both files and directories
2. provide access to files
3. allocate space for files
4. keep back-up of files
5. secure files
The device management tasks handled by OS are—
1. open, close and write device drivers
2. communicate, control and monitor the device driver
Protection and Security
OS protects the resources of system. User authentication,
file attributes like read, write, encryption, and back-up of
data are used by OS to provide basic protection.
User Interface or Command Interpreter
Operating system provides an interface between the
computer user and the computer hardware. The user
interface is a set of commands or a graphical user
interface via which the user interacts with the applications
and the hardware.
device driver or hardware driver is a group
of files that enable one or
more hardware devices to communicate with
the computer's operating system.
Without drivers, the computer would not be
able to send and receive data correctly to
If the appropriate driver is not installed, the
device may not function properly, if at all
When buying an operating system, many
device drivers are built into the product.
if a user later buys a new type of device that
the operating system did not anticipate, the
new device driver will have to be installed.
A device driver essentially allows smooth
communication between a connected
hardware device and the operating system
A driver acts as a translator between the
device and program
Each device has its own set of specialized
commands that only its driver understands
Eg: print instruction given by user/ program .
Os connect that program with driver. Driver
invoke corresponding set of code to print the
It is a program which is used to translate
instructions that are written in the source
code to object code
Translate from high-level language or
assembly language into machine language.
It also detects and reports the error during
Compiler is a translator which is used to convert programs in high-level
language to low-level language.
It translates the entire program and also reports the errors in source
program encountered during the translation.
Interpreter is a translator which is used to convert programs in high-
level language to low-level language
Interpreter translates line by line and reports the error once it
encountered during the translation process.
It directly executes the operations specified in the source program
when the input is given by the user.
It gives better error diagnostics than a compiler.
Assembler is a translator which is used to translate the assembly
language code into machine language code.
A utility or system utility is computer
system software intended to analyze,
configure, monitor, or help maintain a
Operating systems typically contain the
necessary tools for this, but separate utility
programs can provide improved functionality
a utility is smaller than a standard program in
size and may be included with an operating
system or installed separately.
A virus can be defined as a malicious
program that attaches itself to a host
program and makes multiple copies of itself,
slowing down, corrupting or destroying the
A software that assists the OS in providing
virus free environment to the users is
An anti-virus scans the system for any virus
and if detected, gets rid of it by deleting or
2.File management tools
file management is an important function of
operating systems as all data and instructions
are stored in the computer in form of files.
Utility software providing regular file
management tasks like browse, search, update,
preview, etc. are called file management tools.
3. Disk Cleanup
Disk cleanup tools assist users in freeing up
disk space. The software scans hard disks to
find files that are no longer used and frees up
space by deleting them.
operating systems are always looking at
ways to minimize amount of storage space
taken by files.
Compression tools are utilities that assist
operating systems in shortening files so that
they take less space.
After compression files are stored in a
different format and cannot be read or edited
It needs to be uncompressed before it can
be accessed for further use.
WinRAR, PeaZip, The Unarchiver, etc.
5 . Disk Defragmenter
Disk defragmenter is a disk management
utility that increases file access speeds by
rearranging fragmented files on contiguous
Large files are broken down into fragments and
may be stores in non-contiguous locations if
contiguous ones are not available.
When such files are accessed by the user,
access speed is slow due to fragmentation.
Disk defragmenter utility scans the hard disk
and tries to assemble file fragments so that they
may be stored in contiguous locations.
Backup utility enables backing up of files,
folders, databases or complete disks.
Backups are taken so that data may be
restored in case of data loss.
Backup is a service provided by all
In stand-alone systems backup may be
taken in the same or different drive.
In case of networked systems backup may
be done on backup servers.
Types of application software
Applications software is capable of dealing with
user inputs and helps the user to complete the
It is also called end-user programs or only an
app. It resides above system software.
Application Software are Word processing
software, Spreadsheets Software, Presentation,
Types of Application Software: According to
the need of users it is categorized into following
Presentation program is a program to show the
information in the form of slides. We can add text,
graphics video and images to slides to make them
The software has three components:
1) Text editor for inputting and formatting text.
2) Inserting graphics, text, video and other multimedia
3) Slideshow to display the information.
Presentation software helps the presenter to
present their ideas with ease and visual information
easy to understand.
Example of presentation software: Microsoft's
PowerPoint and Apple's Keynote.
Spreadsheet software is used to perform manipulation
and calculations on data.
In spreadsheet software data, is stored in intersection
of row and column.
The intersection of row and column is known as a cell.
The cell labelled with the row and column label like A1,
While entering data into the cell, we can also define the
data value like text, date, time, number.
It provides many formula and function to perform
calculations like arithmetic operations, logical
operations, text operation etc.
It provides charts, graphs to display data graphically.
For example Microsoft Excel, lotus 1-2-3 for windows
and number for MAC OS.
Database is a collection of data related to any
every application has some database where data
regarding to the users are stored.
For this purpose, we used database software.
When we operate the application data is accessed
from the database, and after manipulation, it gets
back stored in the database.
Database Management System (DBMS) software
tool used for storing, modifying extracting and
searching for information within a database.
MySQL, MS Access, Microsoft SQL Server and
Oracle is the example of database application
Multimedia is a combination of text, graphics, audio
and Multimedia software used in the editing of
video, audio and text.
Multimedia software used in the growth of
business, educations, information, remote system
Entertainment: This area deal with the general
public, media and telecommunication. With the
growth entertainment mode, many application is
available for mobile phone as well as the system.
Like Music and video entertainment app, navigation
app, social networking application, news and
weather application, educational apps and e-book
reader’s app for preparation of any type of exams.
Process of modeling a real phenomenon with a set of
A program that allows the users to observe an operation
through simulation without performing that operation.
Simulation is an imitation of real world and environment.
The simulation creates a physical environment of the
real world to represent the similar behavior, function and
key nature of the selected topic.
Simulation is technology for education, engineering,
testing, training, video games and for scientific
modeling of natural systems to gain insight into their
Area of technology : flight, economics, automobiles,
Word Processing software is used to manipulate, format the
text, to create memos, letters, faxes and documents.
word Processing Software is used to format and beautify the
It provides a list of features , the option provides synonyms,
antonyms and related words for chosen word or phrase.
Find and replace feature enables users to scan and replace
selected words or phrases in the document.
Font option provides font colours , font style, font effect, font
size to modify the txt.
Word Art option to modify or animated titles, hyphens, columns
and text boxes in documents.
Grammar and Spelling check option available for checking
errors. Many more option is listed here in software.
For example Microsoft Word, Lotus Word Pro, Word pad
and Corel WordPerfect.
Used to describe the creation of printed
documents uing a desktop computer.
It is a technique of using a personal computer
to design image and pages, assemble type
and graphics, and then using a laser printer
or image setter t ouput the assembled pages
onto a paper, film, or printing plate.
Software is used for creation of magazines
and books, newsletters etc.
• System software gets installed when the operating system is
installed on the computer while application software is installed
according to the requirements of the user.
• System software includes programs such as compilers,
debuggers, drivers, assemblers while application software
includes media players, word processors, and spreadsheet
• Generally, users do not interact with system software as it
works in the background whereas users interact with application
software while doing different activities.
• A computer may not require more than one type of system
software while there may be a number of application software
programs installed on the computer at the same time.
• System software can run independently of the application
software while application software cannot run without the
presence of the system software.
The collection of computer programs that
can solve equations or perform
The developing of mathematical equations
that describe a process is called
Once these equations are developed, they
must be solved, and the solutions to the
equations are then analyzed to determine
what information they give about the
Axiom and Maxima are good general
purpose computer algebra systems.
DataMelt is a free Java-based math
software with a lot of examples
GAP is a system for computational discrete
algebra (with particular emphasis on
computational group theory).
Octave is a system for numerical
computations (it is close to Matlab).
Cadabra is a computer algebra system
designed for the solution of the field theory
It is a discipline of mathematics and science
both combined, that deal with
Collection ,Manipulation ,Analysis and
Interpretation of data
Statistics Software: There are number of
Software available to manage statistical data
– Statistical soft wares
These Programs – User Friendly, Menu
driven, Interactive, Attractive, Self-
› Is a programming language and software
environment for statistical computing and
› The R language is widely used among
statisticians and data miners for developing
statistical software and data analysis.
› R was created by Ross Ithaca and Robert
Gentleman. R is named partly after the first
names of the first two R author
The Statistical Lab is an explorative and
interactive tool designed both to support
education in statistics and provide a tool for the
simulation and solution of statistical problems.
The graphical user interface is designed to
make complex statistical relations easy to
It connects and displays data frames,
frequency tables, random numbers or matrixes
in a user-friendly statistical worksheet
allowing users to run calculations, conduct
analyses and perform multiple simulations and
Weka is a collection of machine learning
algorithms for data mining tasks.
The algorithms can either be applied
directly to a dataset or called from your
own Java code.
Weka contains tools for data pre-
processing, classification, regression,
clustering, association rules, and
Enterprise software, also known as enterprise
application software (EAS),
is computer software used to satisfy the needs of
an organization rather than individual users.
Such organizations include businesses, schools,
interest-based user groups, clubs, charities, and
The main goal behind enterprise software is to
improve enterprise productivity and efficiency
through business logic support functionality.
Enterprise software performs business functions
including order processing, accounting and
customer relationship management.
Types of Enterprise Software
Enterprise software is also a hugely broad category.
To illustrate, here is a list of tools that might be
included in a given enterprise software suite:
Customer Information Management
Customer Relationship Management
Online Marketplace: Shopping/Payment
Enterprise Resource Planning
Human Resource Management
graphics software or image editing
software is a program or collection of
programs that enable a person to manipulate
visual images on a computer.
These are the application software which lets
the user to create and manipulate any type
of computer graphics with the use of an
It is the unauthorized copying of an
organization’s internally developed software
Illegal duplication of commercially available
Software piracy is the illegal copying,
distribution, or use of software
The majority of software today is purchased as a
one-site license, meaning that only one computer
may have that software installed on it at one time
. Copying that software to multiple computers or
sharing it with your friend without multiple
licenses is considered software piracy, which is
Software piracy comes in many different forms.
1. soft loading
Also known as soft lifting
Sharing of software with someone who is not
authorized by the license agreement.
Purchasing a single licensed copy of software
and loading that software onto many several
Eg: sharing software with friends, co-workers
Producing fake copies of software and making it
This involve providing packaging box, CDs or
floppies all designed to look like original product
Counterfeit software is sold on street corners,
unknowingly sold in retail store.
Counterfeit software is sold at prices far below
the actual price
3. Internet downloading
Fastest growing form of piracy
With the growing number of online users and
rapidly increasing connection speeds, the
exchange of software on internet Increased
There are many sites that allow users to
unlimited downloading of software(warez sites).
Warez sites is craked to eliminate any copy of
Renting out a copy of software for temporary
use, without the permission of the copyright
Eg: renting a video f a movie, violates the license
5. Hard disk loading
Installing an unauthorized copy of software onto
a computer being sold to the end user.
It is often committed by hardware dealers.
6. license misuse
Software is distributed under special discount
licenses to high volume customers,
manufacturers or academic institutions.
After getting a copy of software, it will
redistribute the software to others who do not
hold or qualify for these license
The ways license can be misused:
1. Original equipment manufacturer unbundling
2. Academic product misuse
3. 3.not for resale product misuse
1. Public domain software
Public domain software is any software that has no
legal copyright or editing restrictions associated with
Public domain software has no ownership and is
available for use, modification and
commercialization by anyone.
It is free and open-source software that can be
publicly modified, distributed or sold without any
It is different from free software and freeware that
does has copyrights and patents associated with it.
SQLite, I2P and CERN httpd are popular examples
of public domain software.
Freeware is any copyrighted software, application or program
that may be freely downloaded, installed, used and shared.
Such programs are available for use at no cost to general end
Freeware differs from free software, as the latter allows a user
to modify source code for republishing or integration with
As small software utilities, freeware is free to use throughout
its lifetime because it does not expire after a certain period.
Freeware may be used for a desktop, mobile or Web-based
Generally, freeware is a concise and limited version of a
larger and paid software program.
large independent software vendors (ISV) publish freeware
to enhance brand buzz and market reputation.
Donation ware is a licensing model that supplies
fully operational unrestricted software to the user
and requests an optional donation be paid to the
programmer or a third-party beneficiary (usually
Postcard ware, also called just card ware, is a
style of software distribution similar to
shareware, distributed by the author on the
condition that users send the author a postcard as
a form of payment.
Abandon ware is commonly used to refer to computer
software that is no longer used or sold by the owner and
for which no product support is available from the
The most popular abandoned products include word
processors, interactive video game
Adware: advertising-supported software, that
generates revenue for its developer by automatically
generating online advertisements in the user interface of
The software may generate two types of revenue: one is
for the display of the advertisement and another on a
"pay-per-click" basis, if the user clicks on the
. The software may implement advertisements in a
variety of ways, including a static box display, a banner
display, full screen, a video, pop-up ad or in some other
Shareware is software that is distributed free on a
trial basis with the understanding that the user
may need or want to pay for it later.
Some software developers offer a shareware
version of their program with a built-in
expiration date (after 30 days, the user can no
longer get access to the program).
Other shareware (sometimes called liteware) is
offered with certain capabilities disabled as an
enticement to buy the complete version of the
4. Commercial software is any software or program
that is designed and developed for licensing or sale
to end users or that serves a commercial purpose.
Commercial software was once considered to be
proprietary software, but now a number of free and
open-source software applications are licensed or
sold to end users.
games or other software those sold in computer
specialty stores or even music stores and grocery
stores, are some examples of commercial software.
Microsoft products such as the Windows Operating
System and MS Office are some of the most well-
known examples of commercial software.
5.Open source software is software with source
code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.
Open-source software (OSS) is software that is
distributed with source code that may be read or
modified by users.
The OSS community generally agrees that open-
source software should meet the following criteria:
The program must be freely distributed
Source code must be included with the program
Anyone must be able to modify the source code
Modified versions of the source code may be
6. Proprietary software is any software that is
copyrighted and bears limits against use,
distribution and modification that are imposed by
its publisher, vendor or developer.
Proprietary software remains the property of its
owner/creator and is used by end-
users/organizations under predefined conditions.
Proprietary software may also be called closed-
source software or commercial software.
Proprietary software is primarily commercial
It can be purchased or licensed for fee, but
relicensing, distribution or copying is prohibited.
7. Firmware is a software program or set of instructions
programmed on a hardware device.
It provides the necessary instructions for how the device
communicates with the other computer hardware.
hardware device such as a keyboards, hard drive, BIOS,
or video cards.
It is programmed to give permanent instructions to
communicate with other devices and perform functions
like basic input/output tasks.
Firmware is typically stored in the flash ROM (read
only memory) of a hardware device. It can be erased and
Firmware also retains the basic instructions for hardware
devices that make them operative. Without firmware, a
hardware device would be non-functional.
Parece que tiene un bloqueador de anuncios ejecutándose. Poniendo SlideShare en la lista blanca de su bloqueador de anuncios, está apoyando a nuestra comunidad de creadores de contenidos.
¿Odia los anuncios?
Hemos actualizado nuestra política de privacidad.
Hemos actualizado su política de privacidad para cumplir con las cambiantes normativas de privacidad internacionales y para ofrecerle información sobre las limitadas formas en las que utilizamos sus datos.
Puede leer los detalles a continuación. Al aceptar, usted acepta la política de privacidad actualizada.