2. AYURVEDIYA REVIEW ON NASA
• Charaka described nose as one of the five
Dnyanendriya as a seat of Ghranendriya.
• During third month, all the senses including
nose and limbs along with their organs
manifest themselves simultaneously.
• Charaka described the source of Ghranendriya
from Prithvi mahabhuta.
• Charaka in vimansthana described the length
of nose as four angula.
3. • According to Charaka a child having the straight
nose, capable of deep breathing, well bridged
and slightly curved in the tip has a long span of
• Sushruta mentioned nine bahirmukha strotasas
i.e. external orifices Out of nine bahirmukha
strotasas, nose is one of the bahirmukha strotas.
• Phana marma presents on both sides of nose
near to the upper part of nasal passage and
inside them. They are two in numbers. Injury to
these produces loss of sensation of smell i.e.
inability to understand odour.
4. • While describing type of asthi, Vagbhata in sharir
sthana mentinoned that tarunasthi present at
nose, ear, neck and eyes.
5. MODERN REVIEW
• The nose is first part of upper respiratory tract.
• It is subdivided in to external nose which opens
anteriorly on to the face through the nostrils or
nares and an Nasal cavity which divided sagitaly
by a septum in to right and left cavities.
• These cavities open posteriorly in to nasopharynx
through the posterior nasal apertures or
6. EXTERNAL NOSE
• Shape- Externally the nose is pyramidal in shape.
• Location - located in the midline of midface and attached to the
facial skeleton by its root.
• The prominent ridge separating the right and left halves of the nose
is called DORSUM
• ROOT OF NOSE- the upper narrow end of the nose just below the
forehead ,is the root of the nose.
• The lower end of the dorsum is called tip of the nose.
7. • At the lower end of nose , we see the right & left Nostrils OR
• These 2 nostrils are separated by a soft Median partition called
• This is continuous with the nasal septum which separates the 2
• Each nostril is bounded laterally by the ALA
8. • External nose has a skeletal framework i.e. partly bony and partly
• The bones are the Nasal bone which form the bridge of the nose,
and frontal processes of maxillae.
• Cartilages are 1) Superior nasal cartilage.
2) Inferior nasal cartilage.
3) Septal cartilage.
4) Alar cartilage.
9. NASAL CAVITY
• The nasal cavity extends from external nares or nostrils to the
posterior nasal apartures
• Nasal cavity has a Roof , a floor, and medial and lateral walls
• Each half measures about 5cm in height, 5-7 cm in length , and 1.5
cm in width near the floor
• The width near the roof is 1-2 mm.
• The roof is 7cm long, 2 mm wide
• It slopes downwards, both in front and behind
• The middle horizontal part is formed by cribriform plate of
• The anterior slope is formed by the nasal part of the frontal and
nasal bone and nasal cartilages
• The posterior slope is formed by inferior surface of sphenoid bone
• The floor is about 5 cm long and 1.5 wide
• It is formed by the palatine process of maxilla and
horizontal plate of palatine bone
• It is concave from side to side
12. NASAL SEPTUM
• The nasal septum is median osseocartilaginous partition between the two
halves of the nasal cavity.
• On each side , it is covered by mucous membrane and form the medial
wall of the nasal cavities.
THE BONY PART IS FORMED BY
1) The vomer
2) And perpendicular plate of
CARTILAGINOUS PART IS FORMED BY
1) Septal cartilage
2) Septal processes
of inferior nasal cartilage
13. • Cuticular part or lower end is formed by fibrofatty tissue
covered by skin
• The lower margin of the septum is called Columella.
• The septum has
4 border – superior, inferior, anterior, posterior
2 surface – right and left.
14. Lateral wall of nose
• Lateral wall of nose is irregular showing shelf
like bony projection called CONCHAE
• The conchae increase the surface area of nose
for effective air conditioning of the inspired air
• The lateral separates the nose
a) From the orbit above
b) From the maxillary sinus below
c) From the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct
15. • The lateral wall can be subdivided into 3 parts
1) Vestibule – small depressed area in the anterior part, lined by
modified skin containing short, stiff, curved hairs called Vibrissae.
2) ATRIUM- middle part is known as atrium of the middle meatus
3) Conchae- posterior part contains the conchae
• spaces separating the conchea are called meatuses
16. • Skeleton of lateral wall is partly bony and partly cartilaginious
1) bony part is formed from before backwards by following
B. Frontal processes of maxilla
D. Labyrinth of ethmoid
E. Perpendicular plate of palatine
A. Medial pterygoid plate.
2) Cartilaginous part is formed by
A. Superior nasal cartilage
B. Inferior nasal cartilage
C. 3 or 4 small cartilages of Ala
17. CONCHAE AND MEATUSES
• The nasal conchae are curved bony projections directed
downward and medially.
• 3 conchae
1) Inferior conchae- is an independent bone
2) Middle conchae- projection from the medial surface of the
3) Superior conchae- this is also a projection from the medial
surface of the ethmoidal labyrinth, this the smallest conchae.
18. • 3 Meatuses of nose
Meatuses are the passages beneath the overhanging conchae
1) Inferior meatus- lies underneath the inferior conchae,
nasolacrimal duct open into it.
2) Middle meatus-lies underneath the middle conchae
3) Superior meatus – lies below the superior conchae. It is the
shortest and shallowest.
19. • LITTLE’S AREA
• Little’s area lies in the anterior and inferior part of
the nasal septum.
• In this area there are anastomses between the
sphenopalatine artery , greater palatine artery and
septal branch of the superior labial artery.
• This area is the site of epistaxis.
20. Blood supply
1) Maxillary artery – terminal branch of external carotid artery.
2) Sphenopalatine artery
3) Greater palatine artery
4) Septal branch of the superior labial branch of the facial
5) Anterior ethmoidal artery
21. Nerve supply
• Special sensation (smell) – the olfactory nerve
• General sensation- nerve of general sensation
are branches of the opthalmic division and the
maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
1) Nasopalatine nerve- supplies the nasal
2) Infraorbital nerve- to the vestibule of the
3) Anterior superior alveolar nerve- to the
lateral wall and the floor.
22. Lymphatic drainage
• Lypmhatic from the anterior half of the lateral
wall pass to the submandibular nodes
• And from the posterior half , to the
retropharyngeal and upper deep cervical
23. Clinical anatomy
1) Common cold or rhinitis is the commonest infection of
the nose, it my be infective or allergic or both
2) Sinusitis is the commonest of such infection
3) CSF Rhinorrhoea- fracture of cribriform plate of
ethmoid with tearing of the meninges. In such cases
CSF may drip from the nasal cavity.
4) Epistaxis- sphenopalatine artery is the artery of
epistaxis (ref. littles area)
5) DNS (deviated nasal septum) – it is the commonest
cause of repeated attacks of rhinitis, common cold,
sinusitis, it require surgical correction