• It is a system which provides the logical framework and rationality of
decision making for the achievement of intended objectives.
• It sets priorities and guides resources allocations.
• Policy adequacy may be measured by the impact on population health.
National health policy (NHP)
1. Health priorities are changing (NCDs increase along with infectious
2. Emergence of a robust health care industry (Double digit increase)
3. Growing incidences of catastrophic expenditure due to health care costs
4. Rising economic growth enables enhanced fiscal capacity
1st NHP 1983
2nd NHP 2002
3rd NHP 2017
Primary aim of NHP 2017
• Is to inform, clarify, strengthen and prioritize the role of the Government in
shaping health systems in all its dimensions
• Investments in health, organization of healthcare services, prevention of
diseases and promotion of good health through cross sectoral actions,
access to technologies, developing human resources, encouraging medical
pluralism, building knowledge base, developing better financial protection
strategies, strengthening regulation and health assurance
• The attainment of the highest possible level of health and wellbeing for all at
all ages, through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all
developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care
services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence
• This would be achieved through increasing access, improving quality and
lowering the cost of healthcare delivery
• The policy recognizes the pivotal importance of SDGs
• Improve health status through concerted policy action in all sectors and
expand preventive, promotive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative
services provided through the public health sector with focus on quality.
Key policy principles
1. Professionalism, integrity and ethics.
5. Patient centered & quality of care
7. Inclusive of partnerships
10. Dynamism and Adaptiveness
Professionalism, Integrity And Ethics
The health policy commits itself to the highest professional
standards, integrity and ethics to be maintained in the entire
system of health care delivery in the country, supported by a
credible, transparent and responsible regulatory environment.
Universality: systems and services are envisaged to be
designed to cater to the entire population- including special
The indicative, quantitative goals andobjectives are
outlined under three broad components
1 • Health status and programme impact
• Health systems performance
3 • Health system strengthening.
1. Health Status and Programme Impact
Life Expectancy and healthy life
– Increase Life Expectancy at birth from 67.5 to 70 by 2025
– Establish regular tracking of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) Index as a measure of
burden of disease and its trends by 2022
– Reduction of TFR to 2.1 at national and sub-national level by 2025 from 2.33
Mortality by Age and/ or cause
– Reduce Under Five Mortality to 23 by 2025 and MMR from current levels to 100 by 2020
– Reduce infant mortality rate to 28 by 2019
– Reduce neonatal mortality to 16 and still birth rate to “single digit” by 2025
1. Health Status and Programme Impact (Contd..)
• Reduction of disease prevalence/ incidence
– Achieve global target of 2020 which is also termed as target of 90:90:90
– Achieve and maintain elimination status of Leprosy by 2018, Kala-Azar by 2017 and
Lymphatic Filariasis in endemic pockets by 2017.
– To achieve and maintain a cure rate of >85% in new sputum positive patients for TB and
reduce incidence of new cases, to reach elimination status by 2025.
– To reduce the prevalence of blindness to 0.25/ 1000 by 2025 and disease burden by one
third from current levels. (i.e. To reduce premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases,
cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases by 25% by 2025)
2. Health Systems Performance
• Coverage of Health Services
– Increase utilization of public health facilities by 50% by 2025.
– Antenatal care coverage to be sustained above 90% and skilled attendance at
birth above 90% by 2025.
– More than 90% of the newborn are fully immunized by one year of age by 2025.
– Meet the need of family planning above 90% at national and sub national level
2. Health Systems Performance (Contd..)
• Cross Sectoral goals related to health
– Relative reduction in prevalence of current tobacco use by 15% by 2020 and 30% by
– Reduction of 40% in prevalence of stunting of under-five children by 2025.
– Access to safe water and sanitation to all by 2020 (Swachh Bharat Mission).
– Reduction of occupational injury by half from current levels (334 per lakh
agricultural workers) by 2020
3. Health Systems strengthening
• Health finance
– Increase health expenditure by Government as a percentage of GDP from the existing 1.15% to
2.5 % by 2025.
– Decrease in proportion of households facing catastrophic health expenditure from the current
levels by 25%, by 2025.
• Health Infrastructure and Human Resource
– Ensure availability of paramedics and doctors as per Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS) norm
in high priority districts by 2020.
– Increase community health volunteers to population ratio as per IPHS norm, in high priority
districts by 2025
3. Health Systems strengthening(Contd..)
• Health Management Information
– Ensure district-level electronic database of information on health system
components by 2020
– Strengthen the health surveillance system and establish registries for diseases
of public health importance by 2020
The Policy Identifies Coordinated Action On Seven PriorityAreas
For Improving The Environment For Health
The Swachh BharatAbhiyan
Balanced, healthy diets and regularexercises.
Addressing tobacco, alcohol and substance abuse
Yatri Suraksha – preventing deaths due to rail and road
Nirbhaya Nari –action against genderviolence
Reduced stress and improved safety in the workplace
Reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution
Ensuring Adequate Investment - 2.5% of the GDP in a time bound manner
Preventive and Promotive Health - institutionalize inter-sectoral coordination , Health for All
o Promotion of healthy living and prevention strategies from AYUSH systems and Yoga at the
work-place, in the schools and in the community
ASHA will also be supported by other frontline workers like health workers (male/female) to
undertake primary prevention for non-communicable diseases. Home based palliative care
and mental health services
Policy thrust is to reduce inequities in access to care and increase coverage,
quality and use of health services so as to achieve a healthier national population.
• The policy envisages strategic purchase of secondary and tertiary care services as a
short term measure. (Public sector > not-for profit private sector > commercial
• Policy recognizes the special health needs of tribal and socially vulnerable
population groups, Tribal population in the country is over 100 million (Census
2011), and hence deserves special attention
• Advocates enhanced outreach of public healthcare through Mobile Medical Units
Policy Thrust – 7 shifts
1. In primary care – from selective care to assured comprehensive care
• like geriatric health care, palliative care and rehabilitative care services through upgradation of the existing sub-centres
and reorienting PHCs with linkages to referral hospitals.
• larger package of comprehensive primary health care will be called “Health and Wellness Centres‟.
• every family would have a health card that links them to primary care facility.
• accompanied by an effective feedback and follow-up mechanism
2. In secondary and tertiary care – from an input oriented to an output based strategic purchasing
• Basic secondary care services, such as caesarean section and neonatal care would be made available at the least at sub-
divisional level in a cluster of few blocks
• To have at least two beds per thousand population distributed in such a way that it is accessible within golden hour rule.
• expanding the network of blood banks across the country to ensure improved access to safe blood
Policy Thrust - 7 shifts
3. In public hospitals – from user fees & cost recovery to assured free drugs, diagnostic and
emergency services to all
4. In infrastructure and human resource development – from normative approach to targeted
approach to reach under-serviced areas
5. In urban health – To organize Primary Health Care delivery and referral support for urban
poor (special focus on poor populations living in listed and unlisted slums, other vulnerable
6. AYUSH services
7. In National Health Programmes – integration with health systems for programme
effectiveness and in turn contributing to strengthening of health systems for efficiency
SWOC Analysis- NHP 2017
• SWOC Analysis is an examination and evaluation of an organization’s internal
strengths and weaknesses, its opportunities for growth and improvements and the
threats the external environment poses to its survival and working
– internal factors (Strengths & Weaknesses) and external factors (Opportunities & Challenges)
• The internal factors are considered relatively controllable and can be manipulated by
organization itself. On the contrary, the external factors are somewhat out of the
control of the organization (may be controllable up-to some extent) and imposed by
the environment in which the organization operates
Strength & Weakness
• Strengths are those internal factors that support and illustrate extraordinary
performance of a healthcare organization
– e.g. extra ordinary IT infrastructure, highly qualified and experienced healthcare professionals,
excellent services, etc.
• On the contrary, weaknesses are those internal factors that hinder the working
capability and negatively affect the performance of a healthcare organization.
– E.g. They can be mismanagement of resources, lack of financial resources, incompetent healthcare
professionals, outdated equipment, etc
Opportunities & Challenges
• Opportunities are those factors that are external to healthcare organizations. They
provide initiatives for improvements.
– E.g. collaborations with other organizations for better services, plans for better organization and
management, new funding programs for better IT infrastructure, effective training and informative
programs for community development .
• Challenges are those external factors which are considered to be potential risks or
dangers that could cause harm to the quality of working and performance of
– E.g. budget deficits, rapidly changing technology and political insecurity
SWOC Analysis- NHP 2017
• Rise in expenditure- The policy aims to increase health expenditure to 2.5 percent
by 2025 from 1.15 presently. It also recommends states to enhance their budget
expenditure on health to 8 percent by 2020.
• Shift from sickness to well being- Emphasis on preventive and protective care which
marks a shift from curative care
• Selective care to Comprehensive package: wider coverage of major Non
Communicable diseases, mental health, palliative care, geriatric care etc.
• Provision of Health card to families for basic medications in PHCs
• Upgradation of District hospitals & expansion of institutional capacity. District
hospitals to be strengthened to provide several tertiary care service alongside
• Role of private sector- The government wanted to enroll private sector to fill critical
gaps in delivery of health service to achieve health for all and also strategic
purchasing from the private sector and leveraging their strengths.
• Improving efficiency & outcome of health care system - creation of national digital
health authority (NDHA). (eHealth, mHealth, etc.)
• Mission-mode: Targeted and goals in areas of clean water and sanitation, U5
mortality, MMR, IMR, HIV leprosy, kala-azar and lymphatic filariasis
• Focused approach: Health care services to underprivileged and socially vulnerable population
• To improve affordability, free drugs, free diagnostics and emergency care services in public
• Universal access to health care, drugs and diagnostics.
• AYUSH- integrating it to research, teaching and therapeutic will make it more trustworthy
• Expanding the network of blood banks across the country to ensure improved access to safe
• More investment in health research and drug discovery
• Application of digital health- telecommunication
• Addressed the issue of anti-microbial resistance
• Emphasis on generic medicine- Jan Asuhadhi
• Make in India- for indigenous medical drugs and devices (To improve the
domestic production of drugs)
• More emphasis on Yoga
• Recommends to set up National Institute of chronic diseases
• The policy fall short of providing health
as a fundamental right
• Regulations on cost of treatment are not
• Not mentioned about recruitment of
• No emphasis on healthcare in rural area
• Emergency obstetrical care training for
• Internet availability and enhanced
• Learn from experiences
• Raising population- health expenditure increase to 2.5% is not sufficient, may be due
to lack of funds
• Raising number of Quack doctors
– 70% of healthcare providers in rural India have no formal medical training.1
• Data under security and hacking threats
• Rapid changes in technology and IT systems
• Shortage of human resources and untrained staff
1.Pulla P. Are India’s quacks the answer to its shortage of doctors? BMJ [Internet]. 2016 Jan 21 [cited 2021 Feb];352:i291. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i291
• It aims to raise public healthcare expenditure to 2.5% of GDP, with more than two-
thirds of those resources going towards primary healthcare.
• It foresee providing a larger package of assured comprehensive primary health care
through the ‘Health and Wellness Centers’
• It is a comprehensive package that will include care for major NCDs, geriatric
healthcare, mental health, palliative care services
• It aims to improve and strengthen the regulatory environment by putting in place
systems for setting standards and ensuring quality of healthcare
• It also looks at reforms in the existing regulatory systems both for easing drugs and
devices manufacturing to promote Make in India and reforming medical education
• It proposes free diagnostics, free drugs and free emergency and essential healthcare
services in all public hospitals in order to provide healthcare access and financial