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Affordable Housing

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Affordable housing is a priority of the Government in India and to be implemented by 2022....

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Affordable Housing

  1. 1. POLICY OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING AND CONSTRUCTIONTECHNOLOGY Dr K M Soni, Chief Engineer, WZ-I, CPWD, Mumbai
  2. 2. Affordable Housing under PMAY: Housing for All  Government of India has announced Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) – Housing for all (Urban) on 25th June 2015, by reforming “Housing for All” scheme.  PMAY is planned to be implemented in 3 phases.  Phase 1 would span from April 2015 to March 2017 covering completion of affordable housing in 100 cities,  Phase 2 starting from April 2017 and ending in March 2019 covering another 200 cities and  Phase 3 between April 2019 and March 2022 for remaining cities.
  3. 3. Affordable Housing? • Amolik Heights Affordable Housing Project at Sector 88, Faridabad Type Carpet Area Balcony Area Price 1 BHK Type 1 374 Sq. Ft 86 Sq. Ft Rs. 15,39000/- 1 BHK Type 2 372 Sq. Ft 82 Sq. Ft Rs. 15,29000/- 1 BHK Type 3 372 Sq. Ft 82 Sq. Ft Rs. 15,29000/- 2 BHK Type 1 507 Sq. Ft 80 Sq. Ft Rs. 20,68000/- 2 BHK Type 2 523 Sq. Ft 80 Sq. Ft Rs. 21,32000/- 3 BHK Type 1 645 Sq. Ft 100 Sq. Ft Rs. 26,30000/- 3 BHK Type 2 645 Sq. Ft 100 Sq. Ft Rs. 26,30000/- • Flats at Kharghar, Navi Mumbai • Affordable Project At Navi Mumbai. 1/2 BHK Starting at 40 Lakhs.
  4. 4. DEFINITION IS BASED ON EXPENDITURE ON HOUSING  As per US Department of housing and development families paying more than 30 percent of their income for housing are cost burdened and thus affordable housing means housing on which spending is 30% or less. A household should spend no more than 30% of its total income on housing costs, including mortgage or rent payments & utilities. More than 30%: housing cost burdened and More than 50%: severely housing cost burdened.  Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) considers affordable housing if one has to spend maximum 25% on it.  For India, it can be defined as housing affordable to economically weaker sections (EWS) and low income group (LIG).
  5. 5. Affordable Housing Project  Housing projects where 35% of the houses are constructed for EWS category.  A beneficiary family will comprise husband, wife and unmarried children. The family should not own a pucca house either in his/her name or in the name of any member of his/her family in any part of India.  EWS House: An all weather single unit or a unit in a multi-storeyed super structure having carpet area of upto 30 sq. m. with adequate basic civic services and infrastructure services like toilet, water, electricity etc. States can determine the area of EWS as per their local needs with information to Ministry.  Implementing Agencies: The agencies such as Urban Local Bodies, Development Authorities, Housing Boards etc. which are selected by State Government/SLSMC for implementing PMAY– Housing for All (Urban) Mission.
  6. 6. EWS, LIG and SLUM  EWS: Households having an annual income up to Rs. 3 lakh. States/UTs have the flexibility to redefine the annual income criteria in consultation with the Centre.  LIG households are defined as households having an annual income between Rs.3,00,001and Rs.6,00,000. States/UTs shall have the flexibility to redefine the annual income criteria as per local conditions in consultation with the Centre.  SLUM: A compact area of at least 300 population or about 60-70 households of poorly built congested tenements, in unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking in
  7. 7. Factors affecting AFFORDABLE HOUSING  Different definitions of affordable housing. Factors influencing affordability include; • Household size • Geographic location • Income and Expenditure • Liabilities/commitments • Savings • Disposable income Thus affordability is a relative term linked to one’s income, expenditure, savings, liabilities and commitments and primarily disposable income. Perception of affordability will differ from individual to individual.
  8. 8. PMAY – HOUSING FOR ALL  Thus, Mission with all its components has become effective from the date 17.06.2015 and will be implemented upto 31.03.2022.  All statutory towns as per Census 2011 and towns notified subsequently would be eligible for coverage under the Mission.  The houses constructed/acquired with central assistance under the mission should be in the name of the female head of the household or in the joint name of the male head of the household and his wife, and only in cases when there is no adult female member in the family, the house can be in the name of male member of the household.
  9. 9. Implementation Methodology
  10. 10. Then we have Homelessness • Homeless—those in shelters or in a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for people • Hidden homeless—living with relatives or friends in overcrowded conditions or living in substandard housing.
  11. 11. Homeless Who are the homeless? • Living on footpaths, and slums • Living in temporary shelters (construction and farm workers) • Living in unsafe houses • Living with friends and relatives • Living on sharing basis • Children/Old age people living in government or private shelters Need for house/shelter is fundamental to the human being however owning a shelter is not. Thus affordable housing is important.
  12. 12. AFFORDABLE HOUSING INCLUDES • Ownership based housing • Social housing • Rented housing owned and managed by the state or non profit organisations or combination of two. Affordable housing also refers to a number of forms like emergency shelters, transitional housing, social or subsidized housing, formal and informal rental, indigenous housing and affordable
  13. 13. Consumer class (Annual household income at 2001-02 prices) Distribution of households (Millions) Distribution of households (%) Annual growth (%) 2001- 02 2009- 10 2001- 02 2009-10 Deprived (Below Rs 90,000) 135.4 114.4 71.9 51.5 -21 Aspirers (Rs 90,000 – 2 lakh) 41.3 75.3 21.9 33.9 7.8 Middle class ( 2 lakh – 10 lakh) 10.7 28.4 5.7 12.8 12.9 Rich (more than 10 lakh) 0.8 3.8 0.4 1.7 21.4 Total 188.2 221.9 100 100 21 Classification of the Indian consumerclass by income
  14. 14. Consumption India 2005 India (2025) Chin a 2005 Brazi l 2005 US 2005 German y (2005) South Korea (2005) Food, Beverages and Tobacco 42 25 35 19 15 21 23 Transportation 17 20 6 13 11 17 12 Housing and utilities 12 10 9 22 19 27 18 Personal Products and services 8 11 4 8 14 10 13 Healthcare 7 13 7 6 19 4 8 Apparel 6 5 11 6 4 5 4 Education and recreation 5 9 15 13 12 8 16 Household products 3 3 6 9 5 7 4 Communication 2 6 7 4 1 1 2 Comparativestudyof consumptionpatternof differentitems
  15. 15. Households by number of dwelling units (2011) in Mumbai No exclusive room One room Two rooms Three rooms Four rooms Five rooms Six or more rooms 8% 1% 3%10% 21% 57% 1%
  16. 16. Affordability  Slum dwellers  Monthly income: Rs 3000-6000  Disposable income: Rs 500-1000 (@15%)  Workers in unorganised sectors  Monthly income: Rs 6000-10000  Disposable income: Rs 1000-1500 (@15%)  Low income group people  Monthly income: Rs10000-20000  Disposable income: Rs 2000-4000 (@20%)  Therefore slum dweller or a person working in unorganised sector can afford @ 1000 per month.
  17. 17. HDFC Loan EMI calculator  Amount: Rs 1,00,000  ROI: 10.4%, Loan Tenure: 20 years: EMI: Rs 992 per month  Therefore to make house affordable for a slum dweller or person from unorganised sector, cost of house should be about 1 to 1.5 lakh.  Or with the present definition, cost of affordable house should be about ?.  In case, cost is more than such cost, government subsidy would be required.
  18. 18. Trends in Housing Finance • Main beneficiaries - salaried class, professionals and tax payers • Challenge for Low Income Housing – “Accessibility” and “Affordability” of Housing. 1. About 28% of India’s Population lives in Urban Areas and 23.1% of the Urban Population lives in slums 2. About 28% of the total Urban Population lives below poverty
  19. 19. Housing Policies over the years  First National Housing Policy in India formulated in 1988.  New National Housing Policy in August, 1994.  Further, new National Housing & Habitat Policy announced in July, 1998.  However, all these policies were generic and applicable to both rural and urban areas.  Taking into account emerging challenges of required shelter and growth of slums, the first ever urban areas specific National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, 2007.
  20. 20. SHORTAGE OF HOUSING  Total housing shortage in the country was projected as 18.78 million in the beginning of the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17).  90 per cent of shortage exists for the EWS/LIG section of society.  Also according to a report of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, though the shortage of housing units in urban areas was 18.7 million mostly for EWS/LIG category.  11 million houses were lying vacant indicating very low demand for higher type of quarters. Further inventory is going to be increased in the scheme of smart cities. (2007)
  21. 21. 11.8 4.35 2.35 18.09 6.8 3.11 29.79 6.21 3.3 41.17 8.08 2.7 47.49 9.16 2.18 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50NoofHouses(inMillion) 1971 (18.5) 1981 (28) 1991 (39.3) 2001 (52.06) 2007 (58.83) Year Pucca Semi-Pucca Kutcha * * Source: Technical Group on Estimation of Urban Housing Shortage, NBO, MoHUPA The figure in Parenthesis is the total housing stock (in Million) Quality of Housing Stock
  22. 22. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1981 1991 2001 2017 Growthof Slum Growth of Slum 28 46 61.8 104 (Projected) (In 2001, 24.13% population was in slums on all India basis. In 2011, population of the country was 1210.98 m ) Decadal Growth Rate of Slums is 34% (Ministry of HUPA). The slum households are projected to go upto 18 million.
  23. 23. COST OF CONSTRUCTION • ‘Land’ and ‘colonisation’ being State subjects, Housing is a State subject and the responsibility for tackling the housing shortage primarily vests with the State Governments. • As against total requirement of Rs.600,000 crore allocation made to this Ministry under 11th Plan for Housing:  - for JNNURM Rs. 18000 crore  - for ISHUP (Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing the Urban Poor) Rs. 1100 crore  - for AHIP (Affordable Housing in Partnership) Rs. 5000 crore  Total Rs. 24100 crore (4%) Total requirement including basic infrastructure Rs.600,000 crore
  24. 24. Cost of construction - II  If demand of EWS flat is considered as 17 million and plinth area as 25 sqm and cost of construction as Rs 20000 per sqm with normal specifications, cost of construction is estimated to be Rs 8,50,000 crore to remove all urban slums. Such funding may be difficult by the government alone as total plan expenditure of 2015-16 of central government is Rs 4,65,277 crore. Hence either additional resources will have to be searched or the scheme will have to be implemented in phases. In case, the scheme is implemented only by central government, funding of 8,50,000 crore will be met in 17 years if 50,000 crore is allocated annually and there is no inflation though there appears to be no chance of the same. Even if funding is shared equally by central government and state governments, it may take about 8-9 years if there is no inflation. Thus, public has to share the expenditure or some other schemes like “Rental housing” are to be launched simultaneously.
  25. 25. Interest Subsidy Scheme for Urban Poor  A new Pilot Scheme for providing interest subsidy on housing loans availed by EWS/LIG availed for acquisition/construction of house  Encourages poor sections to avail of loan facilities through Banks/HFCs  Subsidy will be 5% on the interest charge for EWS/LIG upto Rs.1 lakh for the full period of the loan  Loan repayment period permissible 15 to 20 years.  Levy of pre-payment charges would not be permitted.  Targets to cover 0.31 million households under EWS/LIG segments Borrowers should have plot.  Total subsidy during 11th Plan Rs.1100 crore.
  26. 26. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Mission (JNNURM) • JNNURM was launched in December 2005 with aim to cover construction of 1.5 m houses for urban poor during the Mission period (2005- 2012). • It has two Sub-Missions : • Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP) seeks to provided seven entitlements/services - security of tenure, affordable housing, water, sanitation, health, education and social security in low income segments in the 65 Mission Cities. • The Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) sought to provide the above mentioned 7 entitlements, services in towns/cities other than the Mission Cities.
  27. 27. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Mission (JNNURM)…contd. • Under JNNURM, more than 1.5 million houses have been sanctioned for the poor • About 1300 projects have been sanctioned covering urban India • These projects involve an outlay of more than Rs.33,860 crore and Central Govt. subsidy of Rs.18,500 crore.
  28. 28. Affordable Housing in Partnership : Modification in JNNURM • Modification in the guidelines of JNNURM (BSUP) to facilitate and incentivize land assembly for affordable housing. • Provision of central assistance of 25% for the cost of the provision of civic services for projects for affordable housing at an approximate cost of Rs.5000 crore. • The objective of the scheme would be to support the construction of 1 million affordable dwelling units in the first phase, with a minimum of 0.25 million EWS dwelling units. • Disbursement of funds linked to the actual provision of amenities. A normative cap per EWS/LIG dwelling unit to be fixed in consultation with the States for the purpose.
  29. 29. Affordable Housing in Partnership : Modification in JNNURM…contd.  Criterion for eligible projects:  Dwelling units was a mix of EWS/LIG/MIG categories with the maximum size of a dwelling unit being at 1200 sq.ft super area, with at least 25% of them for EWS of 300 sq. ft.  The States encouraged to promote projects in the Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode in a manner in which there are competing private sector suppliers in the market for affordable housing.  State Governments could also consider seeding new areas for development through their Housing Boards, Development Authorities as well as through the various employee welfare organizations.  The scheme operated in the same manner as the JNNURM.
  30. 30. Policy under PMAY – Housing for All  Central grant of Rs. one lakh per house, on an average, will be available under the slum rehabilitation programme.  A State Government would have flexibility in deploying this slum rehabilitation grant to any slum rehabilitation project taken for development using land as a resource for providing houses to slum dwellers.  Under the Credit Linked Interest Subsidy component, interest subsidy of 6.5 percent on housing loans availed upto a tenure of 15 years will be provided to EWS/LIG categories, wherein the subsidy pay-out on NPV basis would be about Rs.2.3 lakh per house for both the categories. Central assistance at the rate of Rs.1.5 lakh per house for EWS category will be provided under the Affordable Housing in Partnership and Beneficiary- led individual house construction or enhancement. State Government or their parastatals like Housing Boards can take up project of affordable housing to avail the Central Government grant.  Houses constructed under the mission would be allotted in the name of the female head of the households or in the joint name of the male head of the household and his wife.
  31. 31. Sl no. state No. Of cities for funding Proposal s considere d EWS houses Central assistan ce Central assistance released 1 A&N Island (UT) 2 Andhra Pradesh 59 110 193147 2897.21 334.95 3 Arunachal Pradesh 4 Assam 5 Bihar 85 85 30,216 453.24 7.12 6 Chandigarh (UT) 7 Chhattisgarh 9 11 12,670 190.05 76.02 8 D&N Haveli (UT) 9 Daman & Diu (UT) 10 Delhi (UT) 11 Goa 12 Gujarat 12 77 66,983 853.62 90.75 13 Haryana PMAY: Physical& Financial Progress (Rs in Crore) as on 01.04.2016
  32. 32. Sl no. state No. Of cities for funding Proposal s onsidered EWS houses Central assistanc e involved Central assistanc e released 17 Karnataka 15 21 16,522 247.83 - 18 Kerala 19 Lakshdweep (UT) 20 MP 37 45 43,393 644.12 115.45 21 Maharashtra 22 Manipur 23 Meghalaya 24 Mizoram 8 8 10,286 154.29 8.18 25 Nagaland 26 Orissa 2 6 11,548 143.22 33.29 27 Puducherry (UT) 28 Punjab 29 Rajasthan 19 23 12,307 184.61 37.53 30 Sikkim
  33. 33. Sl no. state No. Of cities for funding Proposal s onsidered EWS houses Central assistanc e involved Central assistanc e released 33 Tripura 34 UP 35 Uttrakhand 19 21 2,757 41.36 - 36 West Bengal 108 108 74.880 1,123.20 88.85 Grand Total :- 658 903 6,10,519 8969.88 1144.39 Total EWS houses = 6,10,519 Estimated Cost: 36,600 crore considering Rs 2000 psf cost of 300 sqft plinth area. Development cost? Central assistance: @ 9000 crore Balance? Land: Free ?
  34. 34. Issues in the development  Land availability and political issues  Availability of Finance with states  Availability of loans to EWS and LIG persons  Cost of bulk services, development and amenities  Ownership title  Approvals from local bodies and other regulatory bodies  Job availability near to residential place  Availability of construction materials  Cost inflation  Quality  Other issues of subsidies forcing slum dwellers not to shift
  35. 35. AVAILABILITY OF LAND  MAJOR ISSUE, ALSO A POLITICAL ISSUE  IN SITU DEVELOPMENT AS FAR AS POSSIBLE FOR SLUM DWELLERS  LAND AS RESOURCE  EXTRA FSI FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HIGHER TYPE OF FLATS FOR DEVELOPING SLUMS
  36. 36. AVAILABILITY OF FINANCE  Central government through subsidy and sponsored schemes  State governments/ULBs  Through PPP models (It would be related to housing shortage in upper group i.e. MIG and rich.  Appears to be tough task As already discussed, PMAY will be implemented by four models i.e. “in situ” slum redevelopment, credit linked subsidy, AHP with private sector or public sector including Parastatal agencies and through subsidy for beneficiary led individual house construction.
  37. 37. Suggested financial model  From the resources already identified by the Government as mentioned above.  From CSR as under the Companies Act, 2013, any company having a net worth of rupees 500 crore or more or a turnover of rupees 1,000 crore or more or a net profit of rupees 5 crore has to spend at least 2% of last 3 years average net profits on CSR activities. As per the pre-budget survey for 2014-15, the net profit of 163 profit- making CPSEs during 2013-14 was Rs 1,49,164 crore. Net profit of private companies is even more. Though exact data are not available, total net profit may be around 5,00,000 crore. If 2% is calculated on this amount, it works out to be 10,000 crore. In seven years, this amount may be more than 70,000 crore.  From cess collected under the Building and Other Construction Workers Act (BOCWA) 1996. As on 30.09.2013, cess collected under the BOCWA was 11,599.34 crore. This amount should be used for construction of “rented housing” for construction workers. Construction workers are largely living in slums and are of migratory force in nature. Governments either should use this amount for construction of affordable housing for slum dwellers or construct “Affordable Rental housing” for construction workers.  Partly from redevelopment projects undertaken by the builders. Cost of construction can only be recovered either from middle income group to whom banks can finance the cost or high income group.  Through “Rental Housing” with or without ownership rights through PPP model or
  38. 38. Availability of loans to ews/lig  People living in slums may be provided free of cost house or at nominal rental cost. In case, allottee continues for a fixed period say 15 years, ownership title can be transferred.  Others may be provided loan by the banks.  Simultaneously rental housing should be allowed for migratory workers and employees. Affordability of loan is calculated by the banks with a definite formula. In our country, minimum wage of an unskilled worker is about Rs 6000. If eligibility of house loan is calculated say from HDFC website, one having monthly income of Rs 10000 will have to pay EMI of Rs 4000 if paid for 30 years for eligible loan amount of Rs 4,40,882/-. Therefore, an allottee of affordable housing under EWS category may not afford to pay EMI of Rs 4000. Also, income of slum dwellers or workers is not perennial and thus
  39. 39. Approvals of local bodies  Delays are 2-5 years. It will increase cost of construction and leads to delay. Central government and state governments should chalk out a programme of submission of drawings/documents from registered architects/engineers/government organisations in place of formal approvals.
  40. 40. IMPLEMENTATION MODEL IN PMAY – HOUSING FOR ALL  Through “In situ” slum redevelopment in which land would be used as a resource with private participation, and allowing extra FSI/TDR/FAR if required, to make projects financially viable.  In second model credit linked subsidy would be provided for affordable housing. Interest subvention subsidy will be granted for EWS and LIG for new houses or incremental housing. Credit linked subsidy component is being implemented as a Central Sector Scheme while other three components as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS).  Third model for affordable housing is in partnership with private sector or public sector including parastatal agencies in which central assistance per EWS house in affordable housing projects will be provided where 35% of constructed houses are for EWS category.  Fourth model includes subsidy for beneficiary led individual house construction of individuals of EWS category requiring individual house for which states are required to prepare a separate project for such beneficiaries but no isolated/splintered beneficiary to be covered.
  41. 41. CREDIT LINKEDSUBSIDY SCHEME (CLSS)  Credit linked subsidy will be provided on home loans taken by eligible urban poor (EWS/LIG) for acquisition, construction of house.  Beneficiaries of Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) seeking housing loans from Banks,  Housing Finance Companies and other such institutions would be eligible for an interest subsidy at the rate of 6.5 % for a tenure of 15 years or during tenure of loan whichever is lower. The Net Present Value (NPV) of the interest subsidy will be calculated at a discount rate of 9 %.  The credit linked subsidy will be available only for loan amounts upto Rs 6 lakhs and additional loans beyond Rs. 6 lakhs, if any, will be at nonsubsidized rate. Interest subsidy will be credited upfront to the loan account of beneficiaries through lending institutions resulting in reduced effective housing loan and Equated Monthly Instalment (EMI).
  42. 42. CREDIT LINKEDSUBSIDY SCHEME (CLSS)  Credit linked subsidy would be available for housing loans availed for new construction and addition of rooms, kitchen, toilet etc. to existing dwellings as incremental housing. The carpet area of houses being constructed under this component of the mission should be upto 30 square metres and 60 square metres for EWS and LIG, respectively in order to avail of this credit linked subsidy. The beneficiary, at his/her discretion, can build a house of larger area but interest subvention would be limited to first Rs. 6 lakh only.  HUDCO and National Housing Bank (NHB) have been identified as Central Nodal Agencies (CNAs) to channelize this subsidy to the lending institutions and for monitoring the progress of this component. Ministry may notify other institutions as CNA in future.  Under the Mission, beneficiaries can take advantage under one component only.  For a loan of Rs 600,000, Rate of Interest as 9%, total Loan Period – 15 years, Number of EMIs180, Subsidy Amount would be Rs 220,187.
  43. 43. Technical guidelines, Capacity building and construction materials  A technical cell will be setup in the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) under the Ministry to support the Sub- mission.  The Sub-Mission will work on following aspects:  • Design & Planning • Innovative technologies & materials • Green buildings using natural resources and • Earthquake and other disaster resistant technologies and designs. Simple concept of designs ensuring adequate sunlight and air should be adopted.
  44. 44. PRESENT STATUS  MoU SIGNED WITH 28 STATES/UT.  2508 Cities Selected (438 Class I cities) of 26 States/UTs)  658 cities considered for subsidy by GoI as on 1.4.2016.  903 proposals considered from 15 states for Rs 610519 EWS houses, involving central subsidy of Rs 8969.88 crore out of which 1144.39 crore released.
  45. 45. CHHATISGARHHAS TAKENA LEAD  Central government has already approved the project submitted by Government of Chhattisgarh in October 2015 comprising the proposal of construction of 26034 houses in 11 cities and towns in the state, of which 12,670 units are for economically weaker sections (EWS) and remaining for low income group (LIG) category. Also government of India during November 2015 approved scheme of 2,28,204 houses for urban poor in five states including Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamilnadu, Gujarat and Rajasthan though maximum number of houses will be in Andhra Pradesh numbering to 1,93,147. Central government will provide an assistance of Rs 3231 crore. These houses will be
  46. 46. Construction issues  Low plinth/carpet area  Combined facilities like toilets, bath rooms  Low specifications  Low cost materials  Low quality construction  Inadequate external development  Construction at distant places The data indicates that as many as 98% of the houses built in Delhi under JNNURM and Rajiv Awas Yojana are lying vacant while overall 2,37,546 houses are lying vacant out of 9,80,216 constructed in various states. Vacant houses constructed under the two schemes account for 79% in Madhya Pradesh, followed by Punjab 78%, Himachal Pradesh 63%, Chhattisgarh (48%), Maharashtra (43%), Sikkim (43%), Andhra
  47. 47.  Place of construction, technology, specifications and quality of construction, if not taken care, affordable housing under PMAY may have similar fate. Precast construction technology though may save some time of construction but is not very suitable for high rise buildings, have low aesthetic and are to be examined for disaster resistant criterion.
  48. 48. Capacity Building  Another issue to be examined is availability of labour and basic construction materials like sand, aggregates and cement. Construction of 20 million houses in 7 years may require about 3 million houses each year. 3 million houses of even 25 sqm area means 75 million sqm space excluding circulation area. It will require about 150000 crore investment each year which will require workers worth minimum Rs 30000 crore even if 20% cost is considered as labour component. It means per day labour payment of Rs 100 crore if 300 days working days are considered in a year. Even if Rs 250 per day wage is considered, 40 lakh workers will be required on continuous basis in addition to already engaged workers in different construction activities. In case, these workers are brought from rural areas, construction of new slums cannot be ruled out as there is no place for living such additional construction workers. Apart from this 100 smart cities are being developed, thus there will be a need of large number of workers
  49. 49. Materials and technology  Sand  Aggregates  Prefab construction (Only few companies and may have monopoly and charge high profits)
  50. 50. MonolithicConcrete ConstructionSystemusing Plastic- Aluminium Formwork  In this system, in place of traditional RCC framed construction of columns and beams; all walls, floors, slabs, columns, beams, stairs, together with door and window openings are cast-in-place monolithically using appropriate grade of concrete in one operation. The specially custom designed modular formwork made up of Aluminium/ Plastic/Aluminium- Plastic Composite is easy to handle with minimum labour & without use of any equipment. Being modular formwork system, it facilitates in rapid construction of multiple/mass unit scale.  Formwork system is propriety system and designed as per loading requirements of the structure. It has adequate stiffness to weight ratio, yielding minimum deflection under concrete loading.
  51. 51.  The formwork made of Aluminium Extruded Section conforming to IS 733:1983 and PVC of Grade PVC 67G ER01 in in accordance with IS 10151:1982. It consists of different sections including starter of MS Angle, top frame of aluminium channels, wall panels, slab panels & truss.  Under Performance Appraisal Certification Scheme, the present formwork system manufactured by M/s Sintex Industries, Ahmedabad, has been evaluated and certified by BMTPC (PAC No. 1006-A/2011).  Thickness of the wall is generally 100 mm with the centrally placed reinforcement. Therefore, adequate cover is likely to be maintained, as a result high durability is achieved.  All electric and plumbing fixtures, lines have to be pre-planned and placed appropriately before pouring concrete in RC walls & slabs. Post construction alternation is not desirable.  Economy of scale depends upon the volume of work and number of repetition of the formwork. To achieve economy, minimum 100 repetitions are desirable.
  52. 52.  Major Completed Project  1) Houses in Bangalore for Karnataka Slum Development Board. 2) Houses in Mysore for Karnataka Slum Development Board. 3) Houses in Bangalore for Bangalore Development Authority & several other projects in major cities of India, among many others...  Limitation  1) A lead time of about 3 months is required for initiation of work, as the formwork are custom designed, manufactured and prototype approved before manufacturing required number of sets of formwork. 2) Capital cost to initiate construction is high and may require regular flow of funds. 3) Post construction alterations are difficult. 4) All the service lines are to be pre-planned in advance. 4) Not much saving in construction in one storey structure
  53. 53. ExpandedPolystyrene Core Panel System  Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Core Panel System is based on factory made panels, consisting of self extinguishing expanded polystyrene sheet (generally corrugated) with minimum density of 15Kg/m3 , thickness not less than 60 mm, sandwitched between two engineered sheet of welded wire fabric mesh, made of high strength galvanized wire of 2.5 mm to 3 mm dia. A 3 mm to 4 mm dia galvanized steel truss wire is pierced completely through the polystyrene core at the offset angle for superior strength and welded to each of the outer layer sheet of steel welded wire fabric mesh. The panels are finished at the site using minimum 30 mm thick shotcrete of cement & coarse sand in the ratio of 1:4 applied under pressure.  The viability depends upon the quantum of work. Generally requirements of 1.5 lakh sqm of panel per year for minimum period of three years makes the plant viable.  BMTPC under Performance Appraisal Certification Scheme has evaluated the System by EMMEDUE SPA, Italy and issued Performance Appraisal Certificate No 1010-S/2014
  54. 54. Industrialized3-S Systemusing Precast RCCColumns, Beams & Cellular Light Weight Concrete Precast RCCSlabs  The industrialized total prefab construction technology, being used since 1972, is based on factory mass manufactured structural prefab components conforming to provisions of relevant Indian Standards. The major precast elements are: • RCC hollow columns with notches • RCC solid beams (T/L/Square Shape) • Staircase • RCC precast slab • AAC precast slab • AAC precast block In the system, precast dense concrete hollow column shell of appropriate sizes are used in combination with precast dense concrete rectangular / ‘T’ shape / ‘L’ Shape beams with light weight reinforced autoclaved cellular concrete/Precast RCC slabs for floors and roofs. The hollow columns are grouted with appropriate grade of in situ concrete. All the components and jointing of various structures are accomplished through on-site concerting along with secured embedded reinforcement of appropriate size, length and configuration to ensure monolithic continuous resilient, ductile and durable behaviour. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) slabs can be used as floor / roof slabs. Joints are filled with reinforced screed concrete (minimum 40 mm thick) of M20 grade minimum. RCC screed is laid over entire area of slab before flooring / water proofing. Projects done by BG Shirke,
  55. 55. Speed Floor System  Speedfloor is a composite floor system using both steel and concrete  The Speed floor composite flooring system is suitable for use in all types of construction including: • Steel frames structures • RCC frame buildings • Poured insitu or precast concrete frames • Light gauge steel frames • Conventional Structural brick wall constructions etc The range of end uses include : • General individual Houses • Multi-storey residential blocks • Single and multi-storey retail developments • Mezzanine floors • Car parks and storage buildings • Multi-storey office complexes etc.
  56. 56. Glass Fibre ReinforcedGypsum(GFRG) Panel Building System  Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) Panel also known as Rapidwall is made-up of calcined gypsum plaster, reinforced with glass fibers. The panel was originally developed by GFRG Building System Australia and used since 1990 in Australia for mass scale building construction. In recent times, these panels are being produced in India and the technology is being used in India.  GFRG panels may generally be used in following ways: i) As load Bearing Walling – With cavities filled with reinforced concrete is suitable for multi – storeyed housing. In single or two storeyed construction, the cavities can remain unfilled or suitably filled with non – structural core filling such as insulation, sand, quarry dust, polyurethane or light weight concrete. ii) As partition walls in multi storeyed frame buildings. Panels can also be filled suitably. Such walls can also be used as cladding for industrial buildings or sport facilities etc. iii) As compound walls / security walls. iv) As horizontal floor slabs / roof slabs with reinforced concrete micro beams and screed (T-beam action). This system can also be used in inclined configuration, such as staircase waist slab and pitched roofing.
  57. 57. Factory Made Fast Track Modular Building System  Factory Made Fast Track Modular Building System comprises of prefabricated steel structure with different walling components. About 70 percent of the work is done in the factory with minimal usage of concrete, which enables system to deliver the building within a few days of work at site. The steel moduled are pre-fitted with flooring, ceiling tiles, electrical and plumbing fittings. The assembled steel modules are transported to the site for installation which is done using crane and other required machineries. Once all the components are assembled and erected at site, factory made 3–D Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) wall panels are fixed and shotcreting is done from both sides.
  58. 58. Light Gauge Steel FramedStructures (LGSF)  Light Gauge Steel Framed Structures (LGSF) is based on factory made galvanized light gauge steel components, designed as per codal requirements. The system is produced by cold forming method and assembled as panels at site forming structural steel framework of a building of varying sizes of wall and floor.
  59. 59. conclusions To make affordable housing successful, the issues need to be addressed;  Financial  Personnel, Materials and technology  Capacity building  Regulatory issues  Land issue  Quality issue  Integration with social housing  Monopoly and monotony should be considered while selecting prefab construction.

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