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Co-teaching presentation for TESOL 2017 PreK-12 Teacher Day

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Co-teaching presentation for TESOL 2017 PreK-12 Teacher Day

  1. 1. COOPERATIVE CO-TEACHING: EQUITABLE PARTNERSHIPS FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING Dr. Kate Mastruserio Reynolds, Missouri State University, katerey523@gmail.com Saturday, March 25, 2017 8:30 AM – 9:45 AM
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES PWBAT  Articulate characteristics of co-teaching  Describe models of co-teaching  Identify potential collaboration quagmires and solutions for avoiding them  Outline strategies for aligning co-teachers’ expectations and roles https://www.acquia.com/sites/default/files/how_to_align_personalization_objectiv es_with_business_goals.jpg
  3. 3. CO-TEACHING DEFINED
  4. 4. WHAT IS CO-TEACHING? “Two or more professionals delivering substantive instruction to a diverse, or blended, group of students in a single physical space.” (Cook & Friend, 1995). “…paraprofessionals, parent volunteers, or older student volunteers also have roles in assisting the teachers. But these arrangements do not meet the definition of co-teaching as we have articulated it.” (Cook & Friend, 1995). Essentially, co-teaching is a team sharing planning, instruction, https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/originals/be/65/1a/be651ac1e6e5e451525f2f477 9ef9311.gif
  5. 5. FEATURES OF CO-TEACHING 1. Shared goals and objectives 2. Shared belief system on learning and learning processes 3. Mutual respect and collegial/professional relations 4. Willingness to lead and follow in teaching and learning 5. Distribution of tasks, responsibilities and recognition 6. Open interaction between collaborators 7. Negotiation of roles 8. Positive interdependence 9. Monitoring co-teaching success and progress; flexibility and willingness to change 10. Individual accountability http://img.scoop.it/mI6Xq6D32Jhn4VRRFqr3njl72eJkfbmt4t 8yenImKBVvK0kTmF0xjctABnaLJIm9
  6. 6. NUMEROUS BENEFITS OF CO-TEACHING
  7. 7. BENEFITS OF CO-TEACHING: EL STUDENTS• More individualized attention • More carefully aligned curriculum and modifications for different levels of proficiency • Tiered levels of instruction within the classroom • Access to a variety of instructional strategies supported by two highly qualified instructors • A supportive system for educators that addresses students’ needs • Opportunities for peer interactions • More differentiated instruction, because of collaborative planning • Reduced stigma for students with disabilities • Exposure to positive academic and social role models • Continuity of instruction due to fewer interruptions in the school day http://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/wp- content/uploads/2013/03/Co-Teaching.jpg
  8. 8. BENEFITS OF CO-TEACHING: EDUCATORS• Combined ownership of the instructional environment • Experts to collect and analyze data to inform instruction • Increased collaboration in lesson development and delivery of instruction • Mutual goals • Support and camaraderie; Less teacher isolation • Greater teacher efficacy • Shared responsibility for outcomes • Classrooms with a potential for fewer behavior referrals • Professional developmenthttp://www.schools.utah.gov/sars/Instruction/CoTeaching.aspx http://www.literacyhow.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/IMG_1965-e1371614426290.jpg
  9. 9. BENEFITS OF CO-TEACHING: SCHOOLS• Establishment of a school-based culture of collaboration • Establishment of a supportive system for all educators • Decreased student-to-teacher ratio http://www.schools.utah.gov/sars/Instruction/CoTeaching.aspx http://www.ycis-bj.com/images/articles/1512/2.png
  10. 10. WHAT ARE YOUR CO- TEACHING EXPERIENCES? http://inclusiveclassrooms.org/sites/default/files/images /Screen%20Shot%202016-02- 17%20at%204.00.17%20PM.png
  11. 11. MY CO-TEACHING EXPERIENCES The Good (Effective), Bad (Ineffective) and Mediocre (not capitalized upon; not actualized)  Good-Dale and crew at Longfellow Elem in EC re: Worlds of Exploration  Bad-1 co-teacher at Harvard IEP  Mediocre- 1 co-teacher at Harvard IEP http://faculty.virginia.edu/coteachUVA/images/two_t eachers-nobord-210.png
  12. 12. YOUR CO-TEACHING EXPERIENCES TASK: 1. Discuss with a partner or small group one of your co-teaching experiences. 2. Rate it (e.g., effective, ineffective, mediocre). 3. Why would you rate it this way? If you haven’t co-taught, have you observed co-teachers? Rate them and justify your rating. http://faculty.virginia.edu/coteachUVA/images/two_t eachers-nobord-210.png
  13. 13. MODELS OF CO-TEACHING
  14. 14. MODELS OF CO-TEACHING 1. Supportive Teaching  One teacher serves as the lead  One provides support to students in a 1- on-1 tutorial format (drifts) 2. Team Teaching  Team teachers share all the planning, instruction, assessment, and responsibility for the class 3. Parallel Teaching  Both teachers lead breakout group instruction in different parts of the classroom 4. Alternate Teaching  Teachers take turns presenting material 5. Station Teaching  Teachers staff different stations for instruction 6. Complementary Teaching  One teacher provides insights, examples, or elaboration to enhance the teaching of the https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/originals/f2/0b/4f/f20b4f4c43775f7e00dda740f7e9b441.gif
  15. 15. MODELS OF CO-TEACHING 1.Supporti ve Teaching 3.Parallel Teaching Honigsfeld & Dove, March 2010 2.Team Teaching 4.Alternati ve Teaching 5.Station Teaching
  16. 16. MODELS OF CO-TEACHING 1. Which of these models would you use more frequently? Why? 2. Which of these models would you use less frequently? Why? 3. What might be the positives and negatives of employing the same approach regularly? http://www.tommihail.net/images/coteach5.jpg
  17. 17. WHY CAN CO-TEACHING GO AWRY? HOW CAN WE OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES?
  18. 18. PERSONAL  Individual needs usurping the shared goals whether intentionally or not.  Power/control  Race issues  Gender issues  Ego  Time https://passionateteaching.files.wordpress.com/2015/10/te am-teaching.jpg?w=335&h=376
  19. 19. OVERCOMING PERSONAL ISSUES: POWER, CONTROL AND EGO How do we define roles in order to avoid conflict? 1. Write a mission and vision statement individually, discuss, then rewrite together.  What do you want your classes/program to look like? Accomplish? 2. Write individually and discuss roles in planning, instructional delivery, class management and assessment.  What are your preferred instructional delivery methods/approaches/techniques?  Which parts of lesson planning, delivery, assessment to you enjoy? Which do you dislike?  What are your most favorite and least favorite topics/subjects/content?  CRITICAL ANALYSIS: What are your strong suits? Weaknesses? Limitations? http://www.dohafamily.com/expat-partner-roles.jpg
  20. 20. OVERCOMING PERSONAL ISSUES: POWER, CONTROL AND EGO How do we define roles in order to avoid conflict? 2. CONTINUED…Discuss roles in planning, instructional delivery, class management and assessment.  What is your classroom management plan?  What are your behavior expectations? Rules? Consequences? Noise-level in classroom? Tardiness?  Business of classroom: room set up, procedures (i.e., dismissal, gathering/distributing papers, leaving the room, etc.) emails/phone calls, substitute teacher?, etc.  Great resource: https://www.education.ne.gov/bmit/pdf/estab lishingclassroomrulesandconsequences.pdf  How will shared resources be managed (i.e., computer, phone, etc.)?  How will you communicate with parents? What
  21. 21. OVERCOMING PERSONAL ISSUES: TIME How do we plan collaboratively without wasting time?  Ground rules and agreements  Avoiding a complaint session  Be individually accountable  Have an agenda of goals to accomplish  Develop action plans for individual tasks  Map your curriculum; Create and follow a long and short term curriculum plan  Share a lesson plan format, gradebook and grading scale/rubrics; Utilize the same document formats  Cite your resources clearly  Utilize Google Drive or other document development/sharing/feedback and library https://media.licdn.com/mpr/mpr/AAEAAQAAAAAAAAjhAAAAJD NmZmU2ZjYzLTZkNTEtNGNjYS1hMDZiLTM1NWY2N2UwZGZmZQ. png
  22. 22. Shumway, et. al., 2011.
  23. 23. INTERPERSONAL  Professional respect and trust  Ideally, co-teaching collaborations should be organic. The teachers would choose with whom to work.  Ways to establish respect and trust without welding a weighty ego ;-)  Open and frank communication  If you feel/think something, say something*! Open communication is the key to a successful partnership.  *constructively! http://www.amypleet.com/images/consult%20cartoon.png
  24. 24. OVERCOMING INTERPERSONAL ISSUES How can we get on the same page? 1. Share your teaching philosophy.  How is language learned?  Which methods/approaches do you advocate?  Which techniques and activities are your go-to?  What is the format of your lessons? 2. Discuss your teaching style.  Are you formal/informal?  Are you more traditional, constructivist, or interactive? http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.html http://wiki.gpaea.k12.ia.us/groups/newsinformation/wiki/fd5ef/images/__thumbs__/548a8.JP G
  25. 25. OVERCOMING INTERPERSONAL ISSUES: COMMUNICATION STYLES How can we get on the same page? 1. Take a Communication Style Inventory and discuss your results.  http://occonline.occ.cccd.edu/online/klee/Communicat ionsStyleInventory.pdf  http://blog.visme.co/the-4-communication-styles- quiz/  Conderman, G., Breshanan, V., & Pedersen, T. (2009). Purposeful co-teaching: Real cases and effective strategies. Pp. 13-15. 2. Be careful about assumptions. 3. Hold discussions using open-ended questions:  What are your thoughts on….  How do you feel about… 4. Employ “I” messages  I think that…  I feel…. 5. Use paraphrasing to check comprehension: https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/564x/06/c7/89/06c7895187135edabccbd48b668fcdec .jpg
  26. 26. OVERCOMING INTERPERSONAL ISSUES: MANAGING CONFLICT How do we manage challenges during instruction without conflict?  On-the-spot  Always present a united front. Defer until appropriate time and place.  It is okay to offer differing perspectives on the content; if there is a conflict in delivery, discuss it in a private aside or meeting.  Other  Teaching Reactions/Values Clarification Discussion: What happens if….  Discuss possible scenarios that are common problems in the classroom and how each person likes to respond to these types of challenges.  Discuss random uncommon challenges and hypothesize how he/she might react.  Discuss your pet peeves and things that http://achieve.lausd.net/cms/lib08/CA01000043/Centricity /domain/361/positive%20behavior/tier%20i/defining%20and %20teaching%20expected%20behaviors/conflict-resolution- 729929.jpg
  27. 27. PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE How do we develop professionally trusting relationships that focus on the students? 1. Exhibit your commitment to the endeavor 2. Be authentic, trustworthiness and honest in verbal and non-verbal communication 3. Be constructive and polite; Exhibit patience, concern and tolerance 4. Exercise good judgment; Demonstrate integrity 5. Be consistent and fulfill your promises 6. Cultivate a mutually beneficial attitude 7. Value the relationship and wish for the best for your partner 8. Show respect for your partner’s perspectives, knowledge, experience, state of mind, values, beliefs, needs https://geochat.edublogs.org/files/2016/08/Co-teaching-workshop-1- 1k6au7f.jpg Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/trust-the-new-workplace-currency/201309/ten-ways-cultivate-work- relationships-and-grow-trust
  28. 28. OVERCOMING DIFFERENCES IN PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE • Sharing knowledge • It’s all in the way you do it… • Learning together • Readings • Pinterest • Conferences • Podcasts • Recognizing different perspectives, background experiences and instructional preparation. • Honoring your peer’s knowledge http://wgee.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Six- Knowledge-Bases-of-Professional-Teaching-copy.jpg
  29. 29. PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE  Lack of know how  Lack of coordination  Lack of balance between planning and improvisation  Unclear roles http://images.slideplayer.com/11/2974825/slides/slide_10.jpg
  30. 30. OVERCOMING ISSUES OF PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE: DELIVERING INSTRUCTION How do we deliver lessons so they are coherent and learner-centered? •Planning •Communication •Checklists to ensure… • objectives are clear; lessons are focused • presentations and explanations are planned • materials are prepared and ready • groupings are planned • roles and responsibilities are discussed • assessments are planned and organized •Reflection and Feedback • Were explanations, directions and presentations clear, focused and succinct? • Did learners exhibit confusion, discomforting or conflict? • Were learning objectives achieved? If not, why not? http://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/aie/article/viewFile/17201/2097 4/47131
  31. 31. WHAT ARE SOME GROUPING STRATEGIES TO USE IN CO-TEACHING? 1. Heterogeneous  Unlike needs/interest/skills/mixed gender, this may be useful when assessing instructional or intervention focus for future grouping. 2. Homogeneous  Like needs/interest/skills/same gender, this may be useful when providing targeted instruction or interventions. 3. Skill-based  Same skill level; this may be useful when providing targeted interventions. 4. Student interest  Same research topic/project; this may be useful when a project or topic is assigned for class-wide presentations. 5. Action research  Teachers may wish to do action research on instructional or intervention strategies for an identified group of students. https://www.edutopia.org/pdfs/blogs/edutopia-byland- 5waysremovewalls-wheels.png
  32. 32. A SCHOOL-WIDE INITIATIVE
  33. 33. TIPS FOR SCHOOL-WIDE IMPLEMENTATION • Start the process before the school year begins by sharing with stakeholders, including parents, proposed program planning, vision, and professional development outcomes. • Identify and provide common planning time. x Plan team composition, compatibility, and schedules to ensure effective instruction. • Identify and provide opportunities for ongoing and targeted professional development. • Set class size guidelines to enable numbers to be maintained at a reasonable level. • Maintain effective teams from year to year. • Share school faculty members about the benefits of co-teaching. Adapted from http://www.schools.utah.gov/sars/Instruction/CoTeaching.aspx http://www.uft.org/files/photo/get-your-students-the-services-they-need-img_0409.jpg
  34. 34. TIPS FOR SCHOOL-WIDE IMPLEMENTATION • Develop a school-wide belief in inclusive practices that increase accessibility to the core for all. The notion of “your kids, my kids” should be replaced with the notion of “our kids”. • Develop parental support/buy in/knowledge regarding co-teaching. • It is important to have ESL teachers teach in the same content area rather than spreading them across multiple content areas. • Assign ESL teachers to content areas in which they have credentials, expertise or interest. • Determine how teacher evaluation will occur and what the criteria are. Adapted from http://www.schools.utah.gov/sars/Instruction/CoTeaching.aspx https://www.dpsk12.org/wp-content/uploads/MG_9762.jpg
  35. 35. SCHOOL-WIDE IMPLEMENTATION • TASK: 1. Reflect upon:  Who would be supportive and participatory in an initiative?  How will you garner support from school leadership?  What evidence do you need to advocate for a co-teaching arrangement?  What financial, scheduling or other obstacles might need to be overcome? 2. Action items:  What are your first steps?  What resources do you need?Adapted from http://www.schools.utah.gov/sars/Instruction/CoTeaching.aspx https://i0.wp.com/www.openlawlab.com/wp- content/uploads/2015/06/IMG_20150604_123532.878.png
  36. 36. CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT AS A MEANS TO EFFECTIVE CO- TEACHING
  37. 37. HOW CAN WE KNOW IF OUR CO-TEACHING ARRANGEMENT IS WORKING? It is vital to conduct on-going self-evaluation of the co- teaching situation for improvement and growth. Honigsfeld & Dove, 2015
  38. 38. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  39. 39. PRESENTATION WRAP-UP What ideas are you thinking about? What ideas were important or resonated with you? What connections did you make today? What steps will you take after our time together?
  40. 40. RESOURCES http://www.coteach.com http://www.k8accesscenter.org http://www.doverschools.org http://www.rock-hill.k12.sc.us http://education.wm.edu http://www.iu17org.org http://www.powerof2.org http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu https://image.slidesharecdn.com/co-teaching-workshop-120119193734-phpapp02- 120202184014-phpapp01/95/co-teaching-13-728.jpg?cb=1328208507
  41. 41. REFERENCESBeninghof, A. M. (2012). Co-teaching that works: Structures and strategies for maximizing student learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass. Buckley, F. J. (2000). Team teaching: What, why, and how? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Conderman, G., Bresnahan, V., & Pedersen, T. (2009). Purposeful co-teaching: Real causes and effective strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Cook, L. & Friend, M. (1995). Co-Teaching: Guidelines for creating effective practices. Focus on Exceptional Children, 28(3): 1-16. Davison, C. (2006). Collaboration between ESL and content teachers: How do you know when we are doing it right? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9, 454-475. Fattig, M. L., & Taylor, M. T. (2008). Co-teaching in the differentiated classroom: Successful collaboration, lesson design and classroom management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Friend, M. (2014). Co-teaching: Strategies to improve student outcomes. Naples, FL: National Professional Resources. Friend, M., & Cooke, L. (2017). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school professionals, 8th ed. NY: Pearson. Kaplan, M. (May 10, 2012). Collaborative team teaching: Challenges and rewards. Edutopia. Retrieved from: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/collaborative-team-teaching-challenges-rewards-marisa-kaplan Honigsfeld, A., & Dove, M. (March, 2010). From isolation to partnership: ESL co-teaching leads to teacher leadership. Teachers Teaching Teachers, 5(6): 1-4. National Staff Development Council. Honigsfeld, A., & Dove, M. (Fall, 2014). Co-Teaching: A look-back, a look-ahead, and the look-fors. Retrieved from http://minnetesoljournal.org/fall-2014/co-teaching-a-look-back-a-look-ahead-and-the-look-fors Honigsfeld, A., & Dove, M. (2015). Collaboration and co-teaching: Strategies for English learners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Hourcade, J. J., & Bauwens, J. (2003). Cooperative teaching: Rebuilding and sharing the schoolhouse, 2nd ed. Austin, TX: Pro-ed. McClure, G., & Cahnmann-Taylor, M. (2010). Pushing back against push-in: ESOL teacher resistance and the complexities of co-teaching. TESOL Journal, 1(1), 101-129. Roth, W. M., & Tobin, K. (2002). At the elbow of another: Learning to teach by co-teaching. NY: Peter Lang Publishing. Santana, J., Scully, J. E., & Dixon, S. L. (2012). Co-teaching for English language learners: Recommendations for administrators. In A. Honigsfeld & M. G. Dove (Eds.), Co-teaching and other collaborative practices in the EFL/ESL classroom: Rationale, research, reflections, and recommendations (pp. 59-66). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Shumway, L. K., Gallo, G., Dickson, S., Gibbs, J. (September, 2011). Co-teaching handbook: Utah guidelines. Retrieved from: http://www.schools.utah.gov/sars/Instruction/CoTeaching.aspx Van den Akker, S. (2013). ESL and mainstream co-teaching: Negotiating the planning, instructing, and assessing process. (Unpublished master's thesis). Hamline University, St. Paul, MN. Retrieved from www.hamline.edu/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?ItemID=4294991746 Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. S., & Nevin, A. I. (2008). A guide to co-teaching: Practical tips for facilitating student learning, 2nd ed. Thousand

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