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Iycf journal club

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IYCF UNICEF GUIDELINES 2016

Publicado en: Salud y medicina
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Iycf journal club

  1. 1. JOURNAL CLUB BY : DR MAHESH YADAV
  2. 2. INFANT YOUNG AND CHILD FEEDING GUIDELINES ,2016 • This guidelines published by SATISH TIWARI, KETAN BHARADAVA, BALARAJ YADAV,SUSHMA MALIK, PRASHANT GANGAL , CR BANAPURMATH,ZEEBA ZAKA-Ur-Ur, URMILA DESHMUKH , VISHESHKUMAR AND RK AGRAWAL , FOR THE CHAPTER OF IYCF , IAP IN VOLUME 53 ,AUGUST 15 2016 . • JUSTIFICATION :- TO SHAPING UP THE POST 2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA AND TO ASSES OUR PROGRESS ,THE MILLENNIJM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND THESE GUIDELINESARE AN ATTEMPT IN THAT REGARD . • OBJECTIVE :- TO FORMULATE ,ENDORSE,ADOPT AND DISSEMINATE GUIDELINES RELATED TO INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING FROM AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE .
  3. 3. • RECOMMENDATIONS:- EARLY INITIATION OF BREASTFEEDING WITHIN FIRST HOUR OF BIRTH , EBF FOR THE 1ST SIX MONTHS FOLLOWED BY CONTINUED BREASTFEEDING FOR UP TO 2 YEARS AND BEYOND WITH APPROPRIATE COMPLEMENTARY FOODS AFTER COMPLETION OF 6 MONTHS IS THE MOST APPROPRIATE FEEDING STRATEGY . MICRO – NUTRIENTS SUPPLIMENTATION IN INFANTS AND INADEQUATE NUTRITION AND ANAEMIA CONTROL FOR ADOLESCENTS GIRLS ,PREGNANT ,LACTATING MOTHERS IS ADVOCATED .CONCEPTS AND NEED FOR HUMAN MILK BANKS IN INDIA HAS ALSO BEEN INCORPORATED .
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) is a set of well-known and common recommendations for appropriate feeding of new-born and children under 5 years of age.
  5. 5. IYCF TECHNICAL GUIDELINES 1. Breastfeeding 2. Complementary feeding 3. HIV and Infant feeding 4. Special situations
  6. 6. BREAST FEEDING •WHO/UNICEF emphsized the first 1000 days of life i.e. the 270 days in-utero and the 1st 2 years after birth as the critical window period for nutrional intervention •Breastfeeding should be promoted to mothers and other caregivers as the gold standard feeding option for babies. •Antenatal Counseling .
  7. 7. • Breastfeeding must be initiated as early as possible after birth for all normal newborns (including those born by caesarean section). • In case of operative birth, the mother may need motivation and support to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skin to skin contact between the mother and newborn should be encouraged by ‘bedding in the mother and baby pair’. The method of “Breast Crawl” can be adopted for early initiation in case of normal deliveries. Mothershould communicate, lookinto the eyes, touch and caress the baby while feeding. The new born should be kept warm by promoting Kangaroo MotherCare and promoting local practices to keep the roomwarm.
  8. 8. • Mothers who work outside should be encouraged to continue exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months by expressing milk for feeding the baby while they are out at work, and initiating the infant on timely complementary foods. They may be encouraged to carry the baby to a work place crèche wherever such facility exists. The concept of “Hirkani’s room” may be considered at work places (Hirkani’s room is a specially allocated roomat the workplace where working mothers can express milk and store in a refrigeratorduring theirworkschedule). Every such mother leaving the maternity facility should be taught manual expression of her breast milk.
  9. 9. • At every health visit, the harms of artificial feeding and bottle feeding should be explained to the mothers. Inadvertent advertising of infant milk substitute in health facility should be avoided. Artificial feeding is to be practiced only when medically indicated. • NURSING IN PUBLIC: All efforts should be taken to provide appropriate facilities so that mothers can breastfeed babies with ease even in public places. • Adoption of latest WHO Growth Charts is recommended for growth monitoring
  10. 10. • Colostrum, milk secreted in the first 2-3 days, must not be discarded and no prelacteal fluid should be given to the newborn. • Baby should be fed “on cues”. • Periodic feeding is practised in certain special situation like ,very small infant and who dose not demand .
  11. 11. SUMMARY • Exclusive breastfeeding should be practiced from birth till six months requirements. • After completion of six months of age, introduction of optimal complementary feeding. • Breastfeeding should be continued for a minimum for 2 years and beyond depending on the choice of mother and the baby. Even during the second year of life, the frequency of breastfeeding should be 4-6 times in 24 hours, including night feeds.
  12. 12. COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING • Appropriately thick complementary foods of homogenous consistency (not spilled from spoon)made from locally available foods should be introduced at six completed months to all babies while continuing breastfeeding along with it. • To address the issue of a small stomach size, aim to provide more calories from smaller volumes,this can be attain by making FERMENTED PORRIDGE and one or two snacks between the three main meals .
  13. 13. • Parents must identify the staple homemade food comprising of cereal-pulse mixture (as these are fresh, clean and cheap) and make them calorie and nutrient rich with locally available products. • Iron-fortified foods, iodized salt, vitamin A enriched food etc. are to be encouraged. • As the babies start showing interest in complementary feeds, the variety should be increased by adding new foods in the staple food one by one. Easily available, cost-effective seasonal uncooked fruits, green and other dark coloured vegetables, milk and milk products pulses/legumes, animal foods, oil/butter, sugar/jaggery may be added in the staples gradually.
  14. 14. • Junk food and commercial food, ready-made, processed food from the market, e.g. tinned foods/juices, cold- drinks, chocolates, crisps, health drinks, bakery products etc. should be avoided. • Giving drinks with low nutritive value, such as tea, coffee and sugary drinks should also be avoided. • Hygienic practices are essential for food safety during all the involved steps viz. preparation, storage and feeding. • Practice of responsive feeding is to be promoted. Young children should be encouraged to take feed by praising themand theirfoods. Self-feeding should be encouraged despite spillage. Each child should be fed under supervision in a separate plate to develop an
  15. 15. • Consistency of foods should be appropriate to the developmental readiness of the child in munching, chewing and swallowing. Foods which can pose choking hazard are to be avoided. Introduction of lumpy or granularfoods and most tastes should be done by about 9 to 10 months. Missing this age may lead to feeding fussiness later. So use of mixers/grinders to make food semisolid/pasty should be strongly discouraged.
  16. 16. HIV ANDINFANT FEEDING 1. The best time for counselling is ANTENATAL PERIOD ,counsel about the feeding ptions . EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING is better than EXCLUSIVE REPLACEMENT FEEDING . 2. Prevention of parent to child transmission interventions should begin in early pregnancy . 3. EBF is the recommended infant feeding choice ,irrespective of the fact that mother is on ART early or infant is provided with anti – retroviral prophylaxsis for 6 weeks . 4. No mixed feeding is to be done in initial 6 months .
  17. 17. INFANT EXPOSED TO HIV
  18. 18. DOSES OF NEVIRAPINE
  19. 19. 1. Mother who are HIVinfected and insist on not breastfeeding and opt for exclusive replacement feeding should be explained ther are so at their own risk and this is contrary to the WHO / NACO’s guidelines. 2. ADVANTAGES of exclusive replacement feeding . • No risk of HIV transmission • ERF milk can be given by DISADVANTAGES OF ERF • Animal milk is not a complete food for baby . • Formula milk may be complete but it is expensive . • Baby has more risk of infections
  20. 20. FEEDING IN OTHERSPECIFIC SITUATIONS•Feeding during sickness Feeding during sickness is important for recovery and for prevention of under-nutrition. Even sick babies mostly continue to breastfeed and the infant can be encouraged to eat small quantities of nutrient rich foods, but more frequently and by offering foods that a child likes to eat. •Infant feeding in maternal illnesses •Painful and/or infective breast conditions like breast abscess and mastitis and psychiatric illnesses which pose a danger to the child’s life e.g. postpartum psychosis, schizophrenia may need a temporary cessation of breastfeeding. Treatment of primary condition should be done and breastfeeding should be started as soon as possible after completion of treatment •Chronic infections like tuberculosis, leprosy, or medical
  21. 21. 3. Breastfeeding is contraindicated when the mother is receiving certain drugs like antineoplastic agents, immuno-suppressants, antithyroid drugs like thiouracil, amphetamines, gold salts, etc. Breastfeeding may be avoided or continued with caution when the mother is receiving following drugs atropine, reserpine, psychotropic drugs. Other drugs like antibiotics, anaesthetics, antiepileptics, antihistamines, digoxin, diuretics, prednisone, propranolol etc. are considered safe for breastfeeding.
  22. 22. Infant feeding in various conditions related to the infant • Breastfeeding on demand should be promoted in normal active babies. However, in difficult situations like very low birth weight, sick, or depressed babies, alternative methods of feeding can be used based on neurodevelopmental status. These include feeding expressed breast milk through intra-gastric tube or with the use of cup and spoon. For very sick babies, expert guidance should be sought. • Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): treated conservatively through thickening the complementary foods, frequent small feeds and upright positioning for 30 minutes after feeds. • Primary lactose intolerance is congenital may require
  23. 23. • Various in born error of metabolism warrant restriction of specific offending agent and certain dietary modifications e.g. in galactosemia, dietary lactose and galactose should be avoided . This is probably the only contraindication to breast feeding. • During emergencies, priority health and nutrition support should be arranged for pregnant and lactating mothers. Donated or subsidized supplies of breast milk substitutes (e.g. infant formula) should be avoided. Donations of bottles and teats should be refused, and theiruse actively avoided.
  24. 24. THANK YOU

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