WHO IS A LEARNER?
Seeker of Knowledge
BASIS OF VARIOUS
• PSYCHOLOGISTS USE THE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD TO CONDUCT THEIR
RESEARCH. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IS A
STANDARDIZED WAY OF MAKING
OBSERVATIONS, GATHERING DATA,
FORMING THEORIES, TESTING
PREDICTIONS, AND INTERPRETING
RESULTS. RESEARCHERS MAKE
OBSERVATIONS IN ORDER TO DESCRIBE
AND MEASURE BEHAVIOR
Experimental method is employed in
psychological science for testing behaviour.
In designing a test a psychologist deals with
one variable at a time while the other variables
are kept constant.
It enables a psychologist to have-objective
knowledge of the various factors which
influence the behaviour of an individual.
STIMULUS OR THE
CONDITIONS OF THE
ORGANISM THAT IS
VARIED IN THE
VARIABLE OF AN
THE RESPONSES ARE
• RESPONSES INCLUDE
• (1) EXTERNAL BEHAVIOUR, E.G.,
MOVEMENTS OF A RAT ALONG
THE PATHWAY OF A MAZE,
• (2) PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES,
E.G., INCREASED HEARTBEAT,
• (3) SPEECH, E.G.,’ VERBAL
EXPRESSIONS OF THE SUBJECT’S
EXPERIENCE, E.G., DESCRIPTIONS
OF SENSATIONS, THOUGHTS,
• THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD INVOLVES
MANIPULATING ONE VARIABLE TO
DETERMINE IF CHANGES IN ONE
VARIABLE CAUSE CHANGES IN ANOTHER
VARIABLE. THIS METHOD RELIES ON
CONTROLLED METHODS, RANDOM
ASSIGNMENT AND THE MANIPULATION
OF VARIABLES TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS
• THE OBSERVATION METHOD INVOLVES HUMAN OR
MECHANICAL OBSERVATION OF WHAT PEOPLE ACTUALLY DO
OR WHAT EVENTS TAKE PLACE DURING A BUYING OR
CONSUMPTION SITUATION. “ INFORMATION IS COLLECTED
BY OBSERVING PROCESS AT WORK
HERE ARE FOUR TYPES
CH YOU CAN DO,
WITH NO PARTICIPATION
ON YOUR PART
IN THE ENVIRONMENT
Observer as Participant.
Participant as Observer.
The clinical method is also called case study
It is used by clinical psychologists, psychiatrists,
psychiatric social works and teachers in child
guidance clinics or mental hygiene centers or in
ordinary school situations.
Generally, we use this method when we want to
understand the causes and sources of people’s fears,
anxieties, worries, obsessions, their personal, social,
educational and vocational maladjustments
Basic preliminary information about the subject’s name, age, sex, parent’s
age, education, occupation as well as social status.
Proper physical check-up of the individual is done to ascertain whether
his/her behavioural problem is due to any disease. Only in the absence of
any physical ailment can psychological treatment start.
The subject should be very comfortable with the investigator while the
latter takes the information. The investigator (teacher or psychologist)
should be friendly and the language of collecting data must be simple so
that free and frank responses can be available.
The investigator must not tire the subject; instead, regular intervals of rest
should be given. The method cannot be applied hastily - it may go on for
several weeks or months.
The behaviour of the individual should be observed in natural setting and
working conditions. Doing so will provide correct data which ultimately in
most cases, will lead to proper understanding of the root cause of the
Special care must be taken in the post treatment period so that there is
no recurrence of the problem. The parents and family members and other
associates must take care so that the subject can modify his behaviour
and prevent maladjustment.
Differential psychology studies the ways in which
individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that
This approach is applied because psychological research
depends upon statistical controls that are only defined
groups of people.
It is the method of studying the differences within the same
Individual or Between the Individuals in Different Groups