1. CONCEPT OF CLASSIFICATOIN OF RASA
Dr Satyam Bhargava
MD Scholar (Final year)
Dept. of Rasa Shahshtra & Bhaisajya Kalpana
PT. Khusilal Sharma Govt. Ayurveda Institute
2. CONCEPT OF CLASSIFICATOIN OF RASA DRAVYAS
•Rasa drugs are classified into various groups viz; maharasa,
uparasa, sadharana rasa etc.
•‘Rasa’ means Mercury, as such the term ‘Rasa’ denotes any drug
mentioned or used in the mercurial system like abhraka, gandhaka.
These are useful in the Samskara of Mercury.
•The classification of Rasa dravyas into Maharasa, uparasa,
sadharana rasa is one important classification given by
Rasavagbhata, the author of Rasa Ratna Samucchaya.
•These terma indicate that the drugs classified into maharasa are
frequently used or more significant ones in the processing of
mercury and those in uparasa group are of lesser importance than
maharasa and sadharana rasa drugs are of lesser importance than
the other two groups.
•Maharasa is group of mainly 8 drugs, different authors have taken
different drugs in their classification.
•Most common classification used widely in rasashastra is of
Abhraka, Vaikranta, Makshika, Vimala, Shilajatu,
Shasyaka, Chapala, Rasaka
4. 1. Abhraka
The same author has enumerated 8 drugs as Maharasa, Abhraka
and Shilajatu are replaced by Anjana and Hingula (RRS 6/50)
8. BRIEF HISTORY OF ABHRAKA
• The first reference for ‘abhraka’ can be traced from ‘Koutilya
Arthashastra’ belonging to 4th centrury B.C. The name of
‘Vajrabhraka’ is found in this book on the context of artificial gold
•Its reference is also found in another book of 4th century BC named
‘Nyayadarsana’ written by Acharya Goutama.
•In Amarkosha, which belongs to 6th century the drug has been
mentioned by the name ‘girijamala’ and is specified for ‘dhatuvada’
•The therapeutic utility (dehavada) of abhraka is mentioned for the
first time in ‘Astanga Hridayam’. It is used as an ingredient in
‘Kasisadi taila’ meant for external use in arsha roga adhikara.
9. PLACES OF AVAILABILITY
In India it is found in following states-
• Bhilwada in Rajasthan
• Salem in Tamil Nadu
• Nellore in Andhra Pradesh
• Nurpur in Punjab
• Almoda in Uttarakhand
• Giridih and Hazaribagh in Jharkhand
GIRIDIH variety is considered as best variety and known even in
It is also available in other countries such as Angola, Australia,
Argentina, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Southern Rhodesia,
South Africa, Tanganyika, U.S.A., Angola, Argentina.
11. MODERN CONCEPT
•Mica is also called double silicate of Aluminium and Potassium or
Sodium. It is available in various types.
•Some of the useful micas along with other useful details are
enlisted in the table.
12. S.NO. MICA CHEMICAL COMPOSITON CHEMICAL
1 BIOTITE (H,K)2 (Mg, Fe)2 (Al,Fe)2
Iron mica or Ferro
2 LEPIDOLITE KLi [Al (OHF)2] Al (SiO4)3 Lithium or ruby
3 MUSCOVITE H2 KAl3 (SiO4)3 White or potash
4 PHLOGOPITE [HK (MgF)]3 Mg3 Al (SiO4)3 Magnesium or
5 PARAGONITE H2Na Al3(SiO4)3 White or sodium
13. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MICA
Colour - black to brown and yellow with weathering.
Luster - vitreous to pearly.
Transparency - opaque ( on thinning, layers become transparent /
Hardness - 2.5 (approximately)
Specific gravity - 2.6 to 3.4
Streak - white, grey
Associated minerals are quartz, felspar, apatite, calcite, horn
blende and garnets.
Density - 2.8 to 3.4 (Average 3.09)
Loss of Ignition - 3.5 to 5%
Moisture at 100°C - 0.1 to 0.2%
Softening Point - 2800°F
Refractive Index - 1.58
14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Potassium 9.02% K 10.86% K2O
Magnesium 14.02% Mg 23.24% MgO
Aluminium 6.22% Al 11.76% Al2O3
Iron 6.44% Fe 8.29% FeO
Silicon 19.44% Si 41.58% SiO2
Hydrogen 0.41% H2 3.64% H2O
Oxygen 43.36% O
Flurine 1.10% F 0.46% F2
Calcium 0.1 to 0.5% as CaO
Sodium 0.5 to 1.5% as Na2O
Titanium 0.5 to 0.7% as TiO2
Manduka + +
Each synonyms of Abhraka clearly depicts some information other
about its structure or colour or origin or action such as-
19. ACCORDING TO ORIGIN
From devi parvathi : girija, gauriteja, girija bija,
laxmi veerya, devi shukra,
from mountains : girij
from sky : kha,akash,nabha,gagan,ambar,
vyada, khaga, antariksha
from thunderstorm :abhra, abhraka
from indra’s vajra : vajra
from sparkle : anal
20. ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE :Ambara, bahupatra, anantaka
ACCORDING TO COLOUR :Shubhra, vyom (colour of sky)
ACCORDING TO SHAPE : Ghan,varid,ambud,jaladhar,jalad,
payod (like cloud, entrapping water in between its layers),
ACCORDING TO REACTION WITH FIRE: Manduka, bheka, dardura
ACCORDING TO PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION :
PARADA SANSKARA – Rasamula, pitaka, bhringa
VYADHINASHAN – Ajara, anantaka
21. VARIETIES OF ABHRAKA
BASED ON ORIGIN
• MADHYAM SHAILA
BASED ON COLOUR
• KRISHNA (BEST
BEHAVIOUR ON FIRE
According to some texts, Pinaka, Naga, Manduka and Vajra varieties
are found in each of Shweta, Rakta, Pita and Krishna Abhraka and hence in
total 16 varieties are described.
22. PROPERTIES OF PINAKA ADI BHEDA OF ABHRAKA
S.NO TYPE OF
CHARACTERSTIC ON FIRE EFFECT ON BODY
1 PINAKA SEPERATES INTO DIFFERENT LAYERS
WHEN EXPOSED TO FIRE
DEATH. IT CAUSES
2 NAGA CAUSES HISSING SOUND LIKE SNAKE
WHEN EXPOSED TO FIRE
3 MANDUKA PRODUCES SOUND LIKE THAT OF A
FROG AND JUMPS OUT OF FIRE WHEN
EXPOSED TO FIRE
THAT IS CURABLE
ONLY BY SURGICAL
4 VAJRA NO PHYSICAL CHANGES OR SOUND
CHANGES ARE PRODUCED
IT IS THE BEST
VARIETY AND CURES
ALL DISEASES AND
23. GRAHAYA-AGRAHAYA ABHRAKA
Abhraka which is black like ‘NILANJANA’ in appearance, which
is snigdha, heavy, and bright with separable layers and which
is soft in touch is considered as best variety of abhraka.
24. Biotite resembles the qualities of Krishna Vajrabhraka, the identifying remarks
such as hardness, specific gravity, colour, crystalline structure, conduction of
heat, shinning pattern etc.
25. ASHUDDHA AND AGRAHAYA ABHRAKA
According to Rasatarangani administration of ‘asuddha abhraka’ or
improperly purified abhraka leads to many health hazards. It causes cardiac
pain and pain in flanks, sopha (oedema), kshaya (T.B), pandu roga (anaemia),
and kushta (skin disease). Therefore to prepare dhanyabhraka, to incinerate
or to extract sattwa from abhraka, only ‘suddha abhraka’ has to be used.
26. ABHRAKA CONVETIONAL EXTRACTION PROCESS
A pit of ‘one gaja’ in length is dug in the place where best variety of
abhraka is available. From there the abhraka which is black like
‘nilanjana’ in appearance and posses all grahya properties is
collected for therapeutic purpose.
27. SHODHANA (PURIFICATION) OF ABHRAKA
Various numbers of procedures are mentioned for the Shodhana of
Abhraka. The basic procedures used by the eminent scholars of
Rasa Shastra for the Shodhana of Abhraka are:–
For this procedure the required amount of Grahya Abhraka is taken
and heated until it becomes red hot. After achieving the red hot
condition the Abhraka is immediately dipped in the required
quantity of prescribed liquid. The liquid used for Nirvapana and the
number of repetitions of the procedure is varying from text to text.
Nirvapa and Bhavana-
In this method of Shodhana first of all Nirvapana is done as per the
textual reference followed by Levigation of material in the
prescribed liquid for a fixed duration
28. SHODHANA (PURIFICATION) OF ABHRAKA CONT...
Nirvapa and Peshana
In this method after the process of Nirvapana, Abhraka is rubbed in
the mortar for certain period of time.
Bhavana is the process by which powders of drugs are ground to a
soft mass with liquid substances and allowed to dry.
Numerous texts have mentioned the procedure of Swedana for
Shodhana of Abhraka. In this procedure ashuddha Abhraka is tied in
the form of Pottali immersed in the prescribed liquid and heated for
certain duration. This process facilitates the loosening of adhered
29. SHODHANA (PURIFICATION) OF ABHRAKA BY
The thin sheets of abhraka are held carefully with sandansa
yantra, heated to red hot over fire and dipped in any of the
following liquids- kanji (sour gruel), cow’s urine, triphala kwatha and
specially in cow’s milk. This process is repeated for 7 times to obtain
purified abhraka. (This is the most common procedure for abhraka
30. FLOWCHART SHOWING SHODHANA OF
HEATING OF ABHRAKA SHEETS OVER FIRE
TILL RED HOT STATE
QUENCHING THE SHEETS IN
PROCESS REPEATED 7 TIMES
PURIFIED ABHRAKA OBTAINED
31. SHODHANA OF ABHRAKA CONT...
ASHUDDHA ABHRAKA RED HOT ABHRAKA
NIRVAPA OF ABHRAKA SHUDDHA OF ABHRAKA
32. DHANYABHRAKA NIRMANA
•Shuddha Abhraka and ¼ Shalidhanya (rice grain with
husk intact) are combined to prepare Pottali by Kambala
cloth (jute bag in case of non availability).
•Pottali is kept immersed in Kanji for 3 days.
•Afterwards Pottali is macerated well with force. Abhraka
in the form of small particles will come out from Kambala
which is devoid of Valuka and is collected and dried.
34. MARANA OF ABHRAKA
• Dhanyabhraka is taken in a clean khalva yantra and subjected
to trituration with kasmarda swarasa
•After uniform mixing, it is subjected to chakrika nirmana of
desired size and shape and kept under indirect sunlight for
•After drying chakrikas are kept in sarava and subjected to
•The procedure is repeated 10 times to obtain brick red
coloured bhasma of abhraka.
35. MARANA OF ABHRAKA CONT...
DHANYABHRAKA AFTER 1ST PUTA AFTER 5TH PUTA
AFTER 10TH PUTA
AFTER 17TH PUTA
36. HEATING PATTERN AND CHANGES
OBSERVED DURING ABHRAKA MARANA
•Abhraka bhasma was prepared in institution as an important
ingredient of Harishankar rasa. The heating pattern and changes
observed while preparing abhraka bhasma are tabulated in next
•Rasatarangani 10/43-45 reference was followed for this
37. No. ofPuta Name &
Weight of material
100 116 96 7 hours 750 ˚c
96 118 98 7 hours 750 ˚c Brownish Lesser
98 114 97 7 hours 750 ˚c Brownish Lesser
97 112 94 7 hours 750 ˚c Brownish
94 110 94 7 hours 750 ˚c
94 112 90 7 hours 750 ˚c
90 108 90 7 hours 750 ˚c
90 106 87 7 hours 750 ˚c
e in sun
87 104 88 7 hours 750 ˚c
in sun light
88 100 86 7 hours 750 ˚c
86 100 84 7 hours 750 ˚c
e in flash
84 98 86 7 hours 750 ˚c
Brick red Noticeable
86 96 83 7 hours 750 ˚c
Brick red Noticeable
83 96 82 7 hours 750 ˚c
82 94 80 7 hours 750 ˚c
Brick red None
80 94 80 7 hours 750 ˚c
Brick red None
80 94 74 7 hours 750 ˚c
Brick red None
40. IMPORTANCE OF PUTA IN ABHRAKA BHASMA NIRMANA
According to Rasatarangani for curing diseases abhraka is
subjected to 20-100 times of puta. Similarly for Rasayana
purpose it is given 100-1000 putas. (RT 10/29)
41. PROPERTIES OF PROPERLY INCINERATED
Properly prepared abhraka bhasma should be-
•Nischandra (Lusture free )
•Aruna varna (Reddish in colour)
•Sukshma (micro fine powder)
•Sparsha komlam (soft to touch)
43. ABHRAKA BHASMA LOHITIKARANA CONT...
After incinerating abhraka with abhraka marana dravya, if the
colour of the bhasma does not become red, then the bhasma is
triturated with any of the following liquids, ‘gangeruka kwatha,
musta-kwatha, vata-khsira, vata-mula swarasa, haridra-swarasa
or kwatha, manjishta kwatha, lajjalu kwatha and later subjected
to 2-3 putas. By doing so the desirable colour of the bhasma is
44. AMRITIKARANA OF ABHRAKA
•AMRITIKARANA- The special pharmaceutical procedure
carried out to eliminate the remaining doshas of any dhatu
bhasma is called amritikarana. (RT 2/58)
Amritikarana enhances the properties of the bhasma and
causes depletion in its colour. (Ay. Prakash 2/135)
METHOD OF ABHRAKA AMRITIKARANA
45. AMRITIKARANA OF ABHRAKA CONT...
1. ABHRAKA BHASMA- 10 PARTS
2. TRIPHALA KASHAYA- 16 PARTS
3. GOGHRITA- 8 PARTS
All the drugs are taken in an iron vessel in above ratio.
The vessel is placed over mild fire and cooked with
frequent stirring until all the liquid part in the mixture
Later the dry powder of abhraka bhasma is collected and
stored in an airtight container.
46. PROPERTIES OF ABHRAKA BHASMA
TASTE- madhura (sweet)
QUALITY- snigdha (unctuous)
POTENCY- sheeta (cold)
KARMA- netrya, medhya, balya, stanya janana,deepana,
cures all major diseases of body, aphrodisiac.
48. DOSAGE AND ADJUVANT
Dosage- 1 VALL (1 VALL=3 RATTI=375 gm)
1-2 RATTI (125-250 mg)
administered twice or thrice daily along with honey,
ghee, butter or any other suitable adjuvant.
49. MANAGEMENT OF ASHUDDHA AND APAKWA
ABHRAKA BHASMA DOSHAS
उमाफलं जले पिष्त्वा सेवते यो पिनत्रयम ।
अशुद्धाभ्रकिोषेण पवमुक्त: सुखमेधते ॥
-Umaphala is taken along with water for three days to nullify any
side effects caused by ashuddha or apakwa abhraka bhasma.
50. APAKWA ABHRAKA BHASMA HAZARDS
“SEVITAM CHANDRA SAMYUKTAM MEHA MANDACHALAM
•According to Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara apakwa
abhraka bhasam is as lethal as visha (poison), vajra
(diamond), sastra (sharp weapon), or agni (fire).
•Its consumption causes loss of appetite and induces
‘prameha roga’. It causes ‘chidrodara’ and kills the
51. USAGE OF ABHRAKA BHASMA IN VARIOUS
S.NO DISEASE ANUPANA OR SEHPANA
1 Fever along with equal of Rasa sindhura with honey.
2 chronic fever pippali churna and honey
3 Improving eye sight triphala churna and honey
4 Grahani (IBS) Triakatu churna and ghruta.
5 Raktapitta Haritaki, jaggery, sugar and ela in equal quantity
6 Piles, anaemia, jaundice triphala, trikatu, chaturjata and honey.
7 Diabetes haridra churna, pippali churna in equal quantity
with honey for one month. OR with guduchi
8 Shukra dhatu related
equal quantity with swarna bhasma for one
month. OR with equal quantity of Rajata
bhasma and swarna bhasma
52. USAGE OF ABHRAKA BHASMA IN VARIOUS DISORDERS cont...
S.NO DISEASE ANUPANA OR SEHPANA
9 Urinary retention Bhumi aamla, gokshura, ela, sugar along with
10 Renal calculi and decreased
Along with kshara
11 Piles with Bhallataka or bhallataka containing drugs
12 Azoospermia lavanga churna and honey
13 Sukrasthambana Jatiphala churna
14 Vataja rogas sunthi, pushkaramoola, bharanghi, and
vamslochana along with honey
15 Kaphaja roga and kaphaja
kajjali + abhraka triturated seven times with
16 Pittaja rogas- chaturjata and sugar. OR only with sugar and
17 kaphaja rogas pippali churna and kayaphala churna for one
53. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS CONTAINING
S.NO NAME OF FORMULATION ANUPANA OR SEHPANA
1 AAROGYAVARDHINI VATI SKIN DISORDERS
2 GAGANA PARPATI PANDU, KSHAYA, KASA, SHWASA, GRAHANI
3 PANCHAMRITA PARAPATI GRAHANI, ARUCHI, ARSHA, CHHARDI,
4 PRABHAKARA VATI HRUDHYA ROGA
5 YOGENDRA RASA VATA VYADHI
6 CHANDAMRITA RASA KASA
7 SHAUBHAGYA SUNTHI PAAKA PRASUTA ROGA AHDIKARA
8 VASANTKUSUMAKARA RASA MADHUMEHA
10 SWASA KASA CHINTAMANI
HIKKA SWASA ROGA
54. SATVAPATANA OF ABHRAKA
1 part of purified abhraka is added with 1/4th part of Tankana
(borax) made into paste by grinding with Musali (Curculigo
orchoides). The mixture is kept in the crucible and blown into
fire by which abhraka satva is extracted.
ABHRAKA SATVA IS NOTHING BUT IRON EXTRACT OF MICA. IT
NEEDS HIGH TEMPERATURE i.e. ATLEAST 1500°C TO GET ITS
55. SATVA PINDIKARANA
The abhraka satva is added with drugs of ‘mitra panchaka’,
taken in a crucible of suitable size and subjected for heat using
charcoal in oven. By doing so, the bhasma accumulates at one
place like that of kamsya. This process is called as ‘Abhraka satva
56. SATVA MARANA
Abhrka satva is heated red hot and dipped for seven times in
triphala kwatha or vata mula kwatha or any amla dravya or kanji.
Each time the liquid should be fresh. By doing so the abhraka
satva is purified.
57. SATVA PROPERTIES
Sheeta virya and madhura rasa
Appetizer, good for hair growth
Tridosha hara, rasayana
It enhances vitality of an old aged person
Improves radiance in the face of the person
It increases the longevity of a person to 100 years.
It is one of the best medicine to cure impotency, to arrest ageing, and
for tridosha samana.
58. APATHYA DURING ABHRAKA SATVA SEVANA
During administration of abhraka satva one should avoid
following food items-
Karira (Capparis decidua)
Karavellaka (Bitter gourd)
Karkati (Pistacia intergerrima)
Oily food items
59. RECENT RESEARCHES ON ABHRAKA BHASMA
• EVALUATION OF FERTILITY POTENTIAL OF ABHRAKA BHASMA
IN OBESITY INDUCED RATES-
The study was instrumental in delineating the role of abhraka
bhasma in enhancing fertility in obesity induced infertility in
male albino rats.
(Anusha P and *Srinivas Reddy C, IJPBS | Volume 7 | Issue 3 | JUL-SEPT|
2017 | 149-157)
“PHARMACEUTICO – ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
OF HARISHANKAR RASA”
The effect of Harishankar Rasa was evaluated for anti- diabetic
effect on alloxan monohydrate induced diabetes in rats.
DR. AMITA GOLKAR, Pt. KHUSHILAL SHARMA GOVT. (AUTONOMOUS)
AYURVEDA COLLEGE & INSTITUTE, BHOPAL
EVALUATION OF PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND DIURETIC
ACTIVITY OF BIOTITE CALX (ABHRAKA BHASMA) PROCESSED WITH
TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L.: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.
R C, Satish & Ilango, Kaliappan & Kumar, R & Vasanth, K. & Kumar, R & Mitti, J.
(International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy. 6. 303-309.
The experimental study revealed abhraka bhasma
processed with decoction of Gokhsura (Tribulus terrestis
L.) showed increased urine output as compared to
control group and better electrolyte balance as
compared to reference drug Furosemdie.
62. **Making of Nischandra Abhrak
• The ref is from Anubhoot yoga charcha book.
• In which in 3 puta we get nischandra abhrak
• But to make it palatable we have to give more
puta to check uttam bhasma lakshana.