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Drugs of Abuse: Benzodiazepines

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Reviews the uses for benzodiazepines and barbiturates, the signs of intoxication and withdrawal, impact on sports performance. Continuing Education for mental health and substance abuse counselors and therapists.

Reviews the uses for benzodiazepines and barbiturates, the signs of intoxication and withdrawal, impact on sports performance. Continuing Education for mental health and substance abuse counselors and therapists.

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Drugs of Abuse: Benzodiazepines

  1. 1. Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates Online Reading
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To provide information about Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>To assist students in understanding consequences of Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates use </li></ul><ul><li>To assist students in understanding drug interactions </li></ul><ul><li>To educate students about the symptoms of toxicity, overdose and withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>To motivate students to make informed choices about Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates use </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>All benzodiazepines produce the following 5 actions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti- anxiety, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anticonvulsant, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscle relaxant, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sedative/hypnotic, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amnestic (producing forgetfulness and disturbing memory). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Benzodiazepines cont… <ul><li>Review the following websites: </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazapines </li></ul><ul><li>More Info </li></ul>
  5. 5. Descriptions <ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepine Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonbenzo Axiolytics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zolpidem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buspar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta Blockers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSRIs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Demographics <ul><li>More than 30 million Americans are taking a benzodiazepine </li></ul><ul><li>More women than men take these drugs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Short Term Effects <ul><li>General effects: Reduced anxiety; feeling of well-being; lowered inhibitions; slowed pulse and breathing; lowered blood pressure; poor concentration/fatigue; confusion; impaired coordination, memory, judgment; addiction; respiratory depression, nausea and arrest, death Also, for barbiturates—sedation, drowsiness/depression, unusual excitement, fever, irritability, poor judgment, slurred speech, dizziness, </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pharmacology <ul><li>How do benzodiazepines work? </li></ul><ul><li>When taken orally, benzodiazepines are absorbed in the stomach and small intestine and metabolized by the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines are highly fat soluble and accumulate in fatty tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion is through sweating, saliva, urine, faeces and breast milk. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pharmacology cont… <ul><li>Benzodiazepines operate widely in the brain, affecting emotional reactions, memory, thinking, control of consciousness, muscle tone and coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>The benzodiazepines enhance the action of the neurotransmitter, GABA(Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). The function of GABA is to slow or calm things down. Benzodiazepines increase the efficiency of GABA, thus causing greater inhibition or calming. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Things Affecting Effects <ul><li>Amount of food in your stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Your hydration level </li></ul><ul><li>Your expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Any other medications you are taking </li></ul><ul><li>Your body fat composition </li></ul><ul><li>Your weight in general </li></ul>
  11. 11. Symptoms of Toxicity <ul><li>Barbiturate overdose or combining barbiturates with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants can cause unconsciousness and even death. Signs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe drowsiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slurred speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staggering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow heartbeat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe confusion </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Detoxification Symptoms <ul><li>Symptoms include anxiety, shakiness, head ache, dizziness, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, and in more severe cases, fever, seizures, and psychosis. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Interaction with other drugs <ul><li>Because barbiturates work on the central nervous system, they may add to the effects of alcohol and other drugs that slow the central nervous system, such as antihistamines , cold medicine, allergy medicine, sleep aids, medicine for seizures, tranquilizers, some pain relievers, and muscle relaxants . </li></ul><ul><li>They may also add to the effects of anesthetics, including those used for dental procedures. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Alcohol and Benzos <ul><li>Many college females are combining short-acting benzos with alcohol to increase their “buzz” without having to drink as many calories. </li></ul><ul><li>This practice can lead to very unpredictable results including coma </li></ul>
  15. 15. Issues in Pregnancy <ul><li>Benzodiazepines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Exposure to Benzodiazepines Article I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Exposure to Benzodiazepines Article II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The baby may become dependent and experience withdrawal after birth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use in the last trimester may cause fetal body temperature problems, breathing problems, difficulty in feeding, drowsiness, or muscle weakness in the newborn infant. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pregnancy Issues cont… <ul><li>Benzodiazepines cont… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given just before or during labor may cause weakness, breathing problems, muscle weakness, difficulty in feeding, and body temperature problems in the newborn infant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines may pass into the breast milk and cause drowsiness, difficulty in feeding, and weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking barbiturates during pregnancy increases the chance of birth defects and may cause other problems such as prolonged labor and withdrawal effects in the baby </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Effects on Sports Performance <ul><li>Many athletes who abuse sports-enhancing drugs self-medicate with depressive medication including benzodiazepines, combined with prescription opioids, including Vicodin, and alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes these medications are prescribed after an injury to help the person relax </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines have a marked effect on coordination </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rumors and Myths <ul><li>&quot;Drinking alcohol with benzodiazepines is safe&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines are CNS depressants, just like alcohol. When the two substances are mixed together, it can result in blacking out or death. It is recommened to never add these two drugs together. The main cause of death from this combination is most likely from the person choking on their own vomit when passed out from the drug. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Myths cont… <ul><li>&quot;I can easily remember everything when taking any type of benzodiazepine such as xanax, klonopin, or valium&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is very easy to forget any entire night from doing any type of benzodiazepine. In my opinion, xanax is the leading pharmaceutical in black outs. A black out is where one would appear to be conscious, but the person has absolutely no recollection of any event from the next day. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Myths cont… <ul><li>“ Driving off of benzodiazepines are like driving off any other drug&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving off any type of benzodiazepine can be extremely dangerous. This pills are much like alcohol, and severely affects your coordination. There is a very high risk of crashing your vehicle if driving under the influence of xanax, klonopin, of valium. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>Strategies for Responsible Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are prescribed benzos or barbiturates, take them as prescribed and ask your doctor before mixing them with other drugs, especially other depressant type drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are pregnant, be sure your doctor knows that in advance of prescribing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not take these medications before working out as they will impair your coordination and judgment </li></ul></ul>

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