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Dutch Cooking with xAPI Recipes, The Good, the Bad, and the Consistent

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This paper presents the experiences of several Dutch projects in their application of the xAPI standard and different design patterns including the deployment of Learning Record Stores. In this paper we share insights and argue for the formation of an international Special Interest Group on interoperability issues to contribute to the Open Analytics Framework as envisioned by SoLAR and enacted by the Apereo Learning Analytics Initiative. Therefore, we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of implementing the current xAPI standard by presenting projects that applied xAPI in very different ways followed by the lessons learned.

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Dutch Cooking with xAPI Recipes, The Good, the Bad, and the Consistent

  1. 1. Dutch Cooking with xAPI Recipes The Good, the Bad and the Consistent Alan Berg1, Maren Scheffel2, Hendrik Drachsler2, Stefaan Ternier2, Marcus Specht2 1 University of Amsterdam, 2 Open University Netherlands 28.07.2016, ICALT 2016, Austin, Texas, USA
  2. 2. `` ` 3 • Hendrik Drachsler Associate Professor Learning Technologies • Research topics: Personalization, Recommender Systems, Learning Analytics, Mobile devices • Application domains: Schools, HEI, Medical education WhoAmI 2006 - 2009 @HDrachsler
  3. 3. `` ` 28/07/16Hendrik Drachsler 3
  4. 4. `` ` 4 Research activities
  5. 5. `` ` 5 Greller, W., & Drachsler, H. (2012). Turning Learning into Numbers. Toward a Generic Framework for Learning Analytics. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.
  6. 6. `` ` @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 6 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI Lecture structure 4. Outlook
  7. 7. `` ` Sophistican model Siemens, G., Dawson, S., & Lynch, G. (2014). Improving the Quality and Productivity of the Higher Education Sector – Policy and Strategy for Systems-Level Deployment of Learning Analytics. Canberra, Australia: Office of Learning and Teaching, Australian Government. Retrieved from
  8. 8. `` ` Heterogeneous TEL systems … … not made for Learning Analytics Pagina 8 • Various heterogonous data sources • No metadata standards • No proper description of data fields • No unique user ID in the different systems • Not intended for evaluation and educational interventions • No comparison of effective methods
  9. 9. `` ` 9 Educational Data Drachsler, H., et al. (2010). Issues and Considerations regarding Sharable Data Sets for Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning. 1st Workshop Recommnder Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL@EC-TEL 2010) September, 28, 2010, Barcelona, Spain. Verbert, K., Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., and Duval, E. (2012). Dataset-driven Research to Support Learning and Knowledge Analytics. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. Important to report effects from algorithm X to a reference dataset, to gain common knowledge, and have reproducible results. ACM Recommender Systems, and KDD cup work like this since years.
  10. 10. `` ` Aggregated Paradata Drachsler, H., Bogers, T., et al. (2010). Issues and considerations regarding sharable data sets for recommender systems in technology enhanced learning. Elsevier Procedia Computer Science: Volume 1, Issue 2. (pp. 2849-2858). doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2010.08.010.
  11. 11. `` ` 1. More useful analysis through the combination of data from different sources 2. A critical mass of data for learning science research 3. Sufficient scale of data to determine relevance and quality of educational resources 4. Reproducibility and transparency in learning analytics research 5. Cross-institutional strategy comparison 6. Research on the effect of education policy 7. Social learning in informal settings 8. Learner data as a teaching and learning resource Aims for Data Standards
  12. 12. `` ` MOLAC Innovation Cycle Drachsler, H. & Kalz, M. (2015). The MOLAC Innovation cyle. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. (in press).
  13. 13. `` ` @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 13 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI Lecture structure 4. Outlook
  14. 14. `` ` Pagina 14 • Content metadata (e.g., IEEE LOM). • Personal Data (e.g., IMS ePortfolio, IMS LIP, or HR-XML) • Social metadata (ratings, tags or comments that were intentionally contributed by the users) • Paradata (automatically tracked by the system) • Linked Data (interlinked datasets on the web using the RDF standard) Types of Data Dietze, S., Drachsler, H., Giordano, D., (2014). A Survey on Linked Data and the Social Web as facilitators for TEL recommender systems, in: Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: Springer, 2014.
  15. 15. `` ` Context Attention Metadata Scheffel, M., Niemann, K., Leony, D., Pardo, A., Schmitz, H. C., Wolpers, M., & Kloos, C. D. (2012). Key action extraction for learning analytics. In 21st Century Learning for 21st Century Skills (pp. 320-333). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Nikolas, A., Sotiriou, S., Zervas, P., & Sampson, D. G. (2014). The open discovery space portal: A socially-powered and open federated infrastructure. In Digital Systems for Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning (pp. 11-23). Springer International Publishing.
  16. 16. `` ` Context Attention Metadata Wolpers M., Najjar, J., Verbert, K., Duval, E. (2007). Tracking Actual Usage: the Attention Metadata Approach, Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 10 (3), 106-121.
  17. 17. `` ` How Tin Can API works Tin Can enabled activities send simple statements to a Learning Record Store. LRS Elearning Game Simulator Blog YouTube Grafik by Christan Glahn (@phish108)
  18. 18. `` ` Most strong candidates, right now Released since 2012 First release October 2015 • Tracks experiences, scores, progress, teams, virtual media, real-world experiences (not just completions) • Allows data storage AND retrieval (ex. 3rd party reporting and analytics tools) • Enables tracking mobile, games, and virtual worlds experiences • Developed by open source community
  19. 19. `` ` Activity driven data model John added a photo to Open U Community Environment Jim commented on John’s photo on Community Environment John watched How to save energy video on ARLearn at 22.05.2014 3pm John subscribed to Sustainable Energy on Open U at 24.05.2014 1pm John posted My first blog post in Open U Community Environment
  20. 20. `` ` Metadata standards for Learner Tracking
  21. 21. `` ` Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 21
  22. 22. `` ` Example: xAPI statement in json format '{ "actor": { "objectType": "Agent", "name": ”Hendrik Drachsler", "mbox": "" }, "verb": { "id": "", "display": { "en-US": "Indicates the learner accessed a page" } }, "object": { "objectType": "Activity", "id": "http://OUNL/PSY/module1.html", "definition": { "name": { "en-US": "Module 1: …." }, "description": { "en-US": "This lesson is an introduction to the Introduction into Psychology " }, "type": "" } } }'
  23. 23. `` `
  24. 24. `` ` Although, there are standards there are interoperability issues
  25. 25. `` `
  26. 26. `` ` @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 26 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI Lecture structure 4. Outlook
  27. 27. `` ` Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 27
  28. 28. `` ` ECO IT System
  29. 29. `` ` Repository of xAPI statements Scheffel, M., Ternier, S., & Drachsler, H. (2016a). The Dutch xAPI Specification for Learning Activities (DSLA) – Registry. Retrieved from
  30. 30. `` ` Repository of xAPI statements Onderwerp via >Beeld >Koptekst en voettekst Pagina 31
  31. 31. `` ` Repository of xAPI statements Pagina 32
  32. 32. `` ` @HDrachsler, #LASI_NL, Zeist, Netherlands Slide 33 / 29 June 2014 1. Why LA data standard? 2. What data standards are out there? 3. Indepth exampe xAPI Lecture structure 4. Outlook
  33. 33. `` ` SURF SIG Learning Analytics • We want to stimulate a standard for xAPI • Rollout of DSLA in NL over SURF • If you plan to do xAPI come and join us • Use DSLA and enrich it
  34. 34. `` ` 35