2. Leadership: Learning objectives
• Contrast the different leadership theories
• Apply leadership concepts to your experience with a leader
• Analyze what leadership theories are emphasizing; what they
• Recognize how to use the different theories
3. Outcomes of a great leadership
A great leader creates a track record…
that creates TRUST…
which in turn leads to a work force who will:
Work effectively in groups/teams
4. Elliott Jaques on “Leadership”
No such thing as a “leader.” There are military leaders, political leaders,
managerial leaders, entrepreneurial leaders…but no such things as a
Leadership takes place in relationships between people, within a social
5. Many theories… so what?
• Helps diagnose and understand current or under-performing leaders
• Act as a guide to help prepare newly appointed leaders
• Many are complementary rather than contradictory
• “We learn little by copying a so-called “Great Man”…like Jack Welsh, Steve
Handy: “We learn by reflecting on what we have done.”
6. Why would someone WANT to lead?
Research tells us that one thing top leaders have in common
is a LOW need for approval or connection to others!!
Is this why we have so few leaders in politics??
7. Why do we need a leader?
Provide strategic direction and vision
Motivation and coaching
Enforcement and interpretation of organizational
Obtaining resources for organizational groups
9. Emerging Leaders:
Signs of “promise” as a leader
Seeks opportunities to learn
Committed to making a difference
Brings out the best in others
Has the courage to take risks
Seeks and uses feedback
Learns from mistakes
Open to criticism
10. Popular 2-factor models…too
simplistic to help
Employee centered vs. Production-centered
Person oriented vs. Task-oriented
Concern for people vs. Concern for results
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Authoritarian vs. Autocratic
Directive vs. Participative
11. Transition from Manager to
• From managing facts and data to managing emotions and
• From following standards to setting standards
• From a position of realism to position of dreamer/visionary
• From narrow focus to broader view that may embrace compromise
14. Trait research has led to the following conclusions:
Traits can help predict leadership
Traits are even better at predicting EMERGENCE
Traits are not proof that someone will be an effective leader
Traits theories do NOT explain leadership.
Behavioral theories imply that leadership can be trained, and are therefore
helpful in developing training directions.
15. The Resonant Leader:
Emotional intelligence in leadership
Boyatzis, Goleman, McKee
Social and organizational awareness
Relationship management, including developing and
Resonant leaders use their emotional intelligence to inspire through consistent, positive
relationships and emotions toward the accomplishment of a goal
16. Leadership: Trait Approach most
• High energy level
• Stress tolerance
• Emotional maturity
Nice checklist for the next President selection?
17. Tannenbaum and Schmidt Model (1958):“It Depends”
Challenged simplicity of
Key is to know which
approach to use with
18. Contingency Approach
• There is no universal set of effective leader traits or behaviors
across all situations
• Good leadership requires effective reading of the situation and
adjustment of behaviors to fit present needs
• Hersey & Blanchard’s situational theory
• Proposed “best” leadership depended in part on maturity
• Job maturity
• Psychological maturity
22. New Approaches to Leadership
• Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory
• Leaders adopt different behaviors with
• In-group members vs. out-group
• Recent revisions describe “life-cycle” of a
23. Transformational vs.
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP: contingent rewards,
management-by-exception, sometimes laissez faire
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: Idealized
influence, inspirational motivation,
intellectual stimulation, individualized influence and
24. Authentic Leadership
• Theory based on leaders being “who they are” and connecting with
subordinates by means of this being-true-to-self quality
• Self-awareness and confidence in self
• Awareness of impact on others
• Transparency in relating to others
• A commitment to “do the right thing”
• A commitment to monitoring morale
28. Models: what do they have in common—
what are the consistent themes about
Leadership that are in all the models?
• Importance of influencing and motivating
• Importance of maintaining effective
• Importance of making decisions
29. Leadership theories
Useful for training, diagnosing
Important: situations and people are different—
different styles fit different situations and people
Know the difference between Transactional and
Transformational leadership…the rest are different
versions of each
30. Is a leader always needed? Can there
be a substitute for a “leader”?
One model: “Leaderless teams”
challenges assumption that a leader
But does one always emerge???
Question to ponder:
• NO one is a born “LEADER”; leadership is contextual and learned
• Leaders are responsible for the success of the organization
• Leadership involves vision, mission, creating change, building
implementation network, and developing strategy for the future
• We can often predict who will emerge as a leader, but we cannot always
predict who will be good at it.
• Leadership has been studied through many different filters, resulting in
different theories that all have value but for different people in different
settings…some best for diagnosis, some for training.
• Leaders must influence, maintaining relationships, make decisions, and
set a direction and all of that will depend on what followers need from the
Notas del editor
Do airplane exercise about 7:15.
Click when ready to continue.
Working for a great leader is something we all cherish. We trust the person and would work for that person again if given the chance. Have you had someone like that …a leader for whom you would gladly work again? What did that person do for you that made you appreciate the leadership? …
Leadership is not a free-standing entity…found in or at least possible in many roles
Leadership…for what? Of whom? Leadership fit is critical, context is critical. No such thing as “abstract” leadership. Explains why a person can be a leader in one setting and not in another. (Patton, Grant…could not lead in peacetime or away from the battlefield). Neither Lincoln nor Churchill were considered leaders until placed in a wartime role. And Churchill largely failed as a post-war leader. Leadership is the match between a person and what the situation needs from the person. Those with the most flexibility become the best leaders for that reason.
The models can be used as a framework on which to build an effective
leadership style which suits the individual leader and those whom they are leading.
Strangely, research tells us that one thing top leaders have in common is a LOW need for approval or connection to others!! They want to have power and control or gain personal benefits or fulfill a duty, buy they are willing to risk people disapproving what they are doing in order to be successful. When approval is a motivator, a leader will eventually fail, because the right decisions are not always the popular ones. Bill Clinton struggled with his need for approval throughout his Presidency. Trump doesn’t have that problem. He is clearly motivated by the power and control he can have as a leader. Warren Buffett is motivated to lead by a strong sense of duty. I think half of Congress is probably there to see what advantages they can get for themselves. Leaders in business make sacrifices to become a leader, so you have to ask, why? It is probably one of these three reasons.
Any leaders you know that you can identify their motivation as labeled in this table????? Think about that as you look at this slide then click when you are ready to continue.
Jim Collins in Good to Great, a terrific book by the way, talks about the path to great leadership. …This model helps us in thinking about who to look for as future leaders and how to help them grow and nourish. His Level 1 is not really traditionally seen as leadership. It is pre-leader level. Yet, when I am asked to assess someone who is being considered for a leadership role in an organization, one of my first questions is :”Is he or she already showing leadership where they work today?” Collins recognized this and labeled it Level One leadership. By LEVEL 4…the key question becomes relevant: HOW…how do you do these things? AND are these the key elements of leadership or are there others? Welcome to the issue of LEADERSHIP. Click when you are ready to continue.
Emerging leaders are different from Effective leaders.
Why do you think that is true?????? Dark triad!
Over time, many took the idea of having two factors that seemed to identify leadership. Good leaders would have one factor while not-so-good leaders would have the other. These are examples of such theories. No one is necessarily a better model than another. Different models help with different situations. Think about what they seem to be identifying, and then click when you are ready to continue.
OFten said it is moving from managing tasks to leading people…but as we said, managers must also be able to lead people. The real difference is scope…how far ahead, how rich with concepts and theories and how flexible to adapt to what unfolds in longer time frames. The ideas on this slide help highlight the differences that a new “leader” must face in transitioning from a lower level of management to a role with more leadership responsibility.
These are the models in your text. I am going to add a couple others. But don’t try to memorize them. Understand what they are saying, how they differ, but do not memorize names, titles, etc. Listen to the overall message of each, and you will see how they are similar in spite of their historical placement and philosophical orientation. EACH HAS TRIED TO RECOGNIZE SHORTCOMINGS IN THOSE THAT PRECEDED IT, AND MAKE AN IMPROVEMENT TO ENABLE BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF LEADERSHIP and BETTER PREDICTION/DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERS.
Traits help us predict WHO WILL BECOME A LEADER, but not necessarily who will be a good one!!
Leader Emergence: others notice person as a potential leader. Apparently traits influence perceptions and therefore nomination of those that are likely to emerge as leaders. Traits are recognized by others as leadership qualities.
But it takes more than so-called Leadership behaviors…
An effective leader must exhibit competency in each domain. Again, notice: SELF AwaRENESS. There is no place for a leader who lacks this critical skill…and if you need an example, unfortunately we have one in the White House.
Humility is one of the more recent areas of study by Hogan. Research is showing that humility is a strong predictor of leadership effectiveness. In fact, HUMILITY has been added to the Big Five to create HEXACO…OCEAN plus Humility
Eventually, it was recognized by researchers that no ONE SET of LEADER BEHAVIORS led to consistent effectiveness in all situations. This means, different strokes for different situations.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt attempted to display this concept with this graph of a continuum of leadership.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt had a 2-factor model….subordinate centered vs boss centered…but they added a new twist. They said the key is to know where on the continuum the AUDIENCE…the workforce…needs you as a leader to be. This began the contingency model of leadership. Look at the descriptions of the different “steps” toward boss centered. This led to the concept of CONTINGENCY THEORY of leadership.
The contingency approach to leadership adds a new dynamic to leadership. Rather than looking at the leader and what that leader does, the focus expands to include the SITUATION…what about the interaction and the different needs of different contexts impacts or influences what kind of leadership would be best for this situation. Some people need one kind of leadership and some need a different kind.
Different names for the same idea.
The Path Goal theory fits with many motivational theories. The idea is that the leader or manager sets clear goals and then helps the person be successful, helping the workers realize they CAN be successful and rewards are possible. IT IS UNIQUE IN ITS LOOKING AT MEMBER’S PERSONALITY TO HELP SET A LEADERSHIP STYLE, ESPECIALLY LOCUS OF CONTROL OF SUBORDINATES. Not well supported in research but begins to push the idea that the role of the leader IS important…leader reduces ambiguity by clarifying followers’ paths to their work goals and reducing roadblocks. The leader gets input but still makes the decisions. There is only moderate participation. But the focus is to help the employees improve their performance by having a well-defined path to follow with a leader who is supportive as well as directive.
BUT..it is directive, and high talented followers will not appreciate it. Like a goal commitment theory, this model probably works best if tasks are fairly structured and not too complex. Less effective when followers must be analytical, innovative and autonomous.
MODEL IS USEful in that it provides some direction to leaders on how to adapt to their situation. WhAT TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING A StyLE.
But it over-simplifies. Still…helpful, especially in the process of training new leaders.
The path-goal theory probably matches the two consultative decision styles in this chart. This model looks at how decisions are made and suggests that the context shapes the best fit for decision style. It describes different styles from being very directive and autocratic to being facilitative and letting people participate in the decision in a large way. I was part of group that was always confused by our weekly staff meetings. Our director would wander all over this model, and we never knew what to expect. I finally asked her to tell us, before each discussion, which of these things applied, so our expectations are aligned. Made a huge difference. SO…research may not support this, but I have found it a very useful model to use when coaching executives and managers. EXPECTATIONS of others is very important in building trust in a group.
Most contingency theories address adapting to the needs of the situation and the subordinates in general. The LMX model looks at individual relationships between the leader and each individual reporting upward.
The leadership-exchange theory suggests that leaders form different relationships with the different people around him or her. There are kind of individual “contracts” that relate to what is promised and what is expected. It can lead to “in” and “out” people or the perception of such. Charges of favoritism can occur. Yet, it is a natural dynamic as some subordinates will be a better match to the leader and will be more productive and responsive, thereby gaining the attention and support of the leader. This is not necessarily a bad type of leadership, but it has its risks if the “out” group resents the attention and opportunities someone else seems to be getting, a kind of equity-theory judgment.
Today, most theories can be categorized in one of these two labels: Transformational or transactional….getting things done by directing or influencing and stimulating.
Both can exist in one leader…a flexible leader able to focus on costs and rules while also creating a vision to stimulate people while showing consideration for them as human beings.
These are leaders who are deeply aware of who they are and how they think and are seen by others as having self-awareness as well as values and moral perspective. They are able to help others connect to the same values and goals.
I had a client like this. Strong sense of purpose and values…every meeting he held began with a few comments about ethics and what he believed the organization should represent. Very successful. A gift to have worked with such a person. Just a side note to help you appreciate the challenges of organizational psychology: His board chose a successor who was a certified ass-hole, only cared about himself, lost most of the management in the organization very quickly and replaced them with yes-men. But increased the stock price by beating up people and selling assets. Sad. Fortunately, he didn’t last too long but it changed the culture dramatically.
Our leadership styles develop in an interaction with our personalities and our experiences. Fiedler would say that we can’t change our styles, but I think anyone can adjust and be flexible IF they know their natural tendencies and the pluses and minuses of that so-called natural style. Notice how individual differences…in this case…the Enneagram Types…have a different natural tendency in how they would like to lead. We all are apt to fall into our own comfortable style and forget the importance of finding the style that our followers need from us. Click when you are ready to continue.
Look at this slide, find your own Type as well as notice what others say are their approach to leading. Click when you are ready to continue.
EXERCISE: HAND OUT LEADErSHIP PAGE… What leadership style would fit best with you??? How would you best overcome your “derailers”?
at it’s simplest…leaders must influence, must maintain relationships, and must make decisions. How, how much, with whom, in what ways…all different models, but in the end, they have to do these three things, one way or another.
The functions of a leader do NOT have be to vested win one person. Characteristics of the work can substitute for the need to have a leader…and a team can have several leaders for different parts of the task…Agile teams?
Click when you are ready to end the lesson. I hope you found it interesting.