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Post Harvest Diseases of Citrus

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This presentation is done by 2010/2011 batch of Export Agriculture students of Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka as a requirement for the subject which is “Post harvest technology”. Note that the information included here is relevant to Sri Lankan condition.

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Post Harvest Diseases of Citrus

  1. 1. Post Harvest Handing Of Citrus Group no : 02 Export Agriculture
  2. 2. Introduction • By the year 2050, the world population is expected to reach 9 billion people • Demand for food will increase by 60 percent ( United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) • Increasing food production is not enough • Roughly one-third of the food produced in the world goes to waste – a staggering 1.3 billion tons every year • In the fight against global hunger, we must also address postharvest los.
  3. 3. • Postharvest loss - Collective food loss all along the food production chain, from harvest and handling, to storage and processing, to packing and transportation • The causes of postharvest loss are varied and complex, depending upon weather, region, and crops • But common culprits in the developing world include lack of proper storage, lack of transportation, and lack of information on where and how food is lost • To escape from this problem, it is require to do “Proper Post Harvest Handling”
  4. 4. Post Harvest Handling • In agriculture, postharvest handling is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing • The instant a crop is removed from the ground, or separated from its parent plant, it begins to deteriorate • Post-harvest treatment largely determines final quality, whether a crop is sold for fresh consumption, or used as an ingredient in a processed food product • Effective handling decreases postharvest losses
  5. 5. Citrus  Non climacteric fruit  Major Growing Areas : Dry and Intermediate zones  Economics & Marketing availability  Lemon : April - August  Lime : April - July  Grapefruit : May -August
  6. 6. Scientific Classification • Kingdom : plantae • Phylum : magnoliophyta • Class : magnoliopsida • Order : sapindales • Family : rutaceae • Genus : citrus L.
  7. 7. Important Species  Citrus aurantiifolia – Key Lime  Citrus maxima – Pomelo  Citrus medica – Citron  Citrus reticulata – Mandarin orange
  8. 8. Important hybrids  Citrus × aurantium – Bitter orange  Citrus × latifolia – Persian lime  Citrus × limon – Lemon  Citrus × limonia – Rangpur  Citrus × paradisi – Grapefruit  Citrus × sinensis – Sweet orange  Citrus × tangerina – Tangerine  Most of these varieties are resistant to post harvest losses
  9. 9. Anatomy of Citrus fruit
  10. 10. Postharvest Deterioration  Harvested fruit continue respiration  Loose water but not replaced  The respiratory rate of the rind is nearly ten times as high as that of vesicles  Rind plays a important physiological role in the qualitative changes in storage  Respiratory rates are stimulated by dropping and bruising
  11. 11. POST HARVEST HANDLING OF CITRUS • Normally 30-40% of Citrus fruit loss due to lack of proper post harvest handling practices • Visible characteristics change in post harvest losses – Anatomical Characteristics – Physiological Characteristics – Morphological Characteristics
  12. 12. TYPES OF POST HARVEST LOSSES 1. Physiological disorders 2. Diseases
  13. 13. 01. Physiological Disorders • Influence quality in the markets • Causes: Pre- and post-harvest factors • Pre harvest: B, and Cu deficiency, ammoniation, Zebra skin, fruit-splitting, creasing, sun burn, wind scar and freezing
  14. 14. • Postharvest factors: – Temperature, humidity, gaseous composition, mechanical stress and aging • Disorders: Puffiness, pitting, chilling injury, granulation, oleocellosis, stem end down, stylar-end breakdown, and freezing injury
  15. 15. Blossom-End Clearing  BEC has also been referred as “wet bottoms,” “stylar-end clearing,” “water bottom,” “waterlog,” and “wet wick”  Symptoms: – translucent, water soaked appearance of the fruit peel (commonly at the blossom end) – caused by internal bruising and juice leakage from juice vesicles
  16. 16.  BEC affected fruit develop off flavors  Visible within 24 hours after bruising  Can affect up to 90% of the fruit in some loads External symptoms of blossom-end clearing on grapefruit (left) compared to an un-injured fruit (right)
  17. 17. Internal symptoms of BEC on grapefruit
  18. 18. Factors Involved in BEC Development  Fruit characteristics; – Seedless grapefruit (e.g. 'Ruby Red' or 'Marsh') are most affected – Small fruit likely to develop BEC than large fruit – Thicker-skinned fruit develop less BEC than thin-skinned fruit under the same conditions – The severity of BEC varies widely from year to year and from grove to grove – BEC develops most often in late-season fruit
  19. 19. • Rough Handling – BEC never occurs while fruit are still attached to the tree – Never develop on fruit handled very gently – Rough handling is the primary cause of fruit BEC – Most BEC develops as a result of rough handling in the packing house
  20. 20. • Temperature & RH – BEC increases with higher temperatures – Harvesting earlier in the morning ,when fruit temperatures are cooler will reduce the incidence of BEC – Holding fruit at low humidities prior to packing increases fruit susceptibility to BEC compared to holding it at high humidities
  21. 21. Recommendations to Reduce BEC • Carefully handle fruit during all harvesting and packing operations • Harvest fruit earlier in the morning when fruit temperatures are lower – Be cautious, however, that fruit are not so turgid that oil spotting (oleocellosis) results • Allow susceptible fruit harvested under warm conditions to cool overnight (e.g. to 70oF or below) before packing • Always hold fruit under high relative humidities
  22. 22. Other Physiological Disorders I. Granulation • Fruit which is dry or ricey • Causes: – over maturity, sun burn, freezing, lack of water, excessive tree vigor, mite damage, cool, dry and windy conditions • Keeping trees well irrigated will avoid fruit from drying out
  23. 23. 2. Oleocellosis (Oil spotting) • Navel oranges, lemons, and limes mostly affected. • Oil released from broken peel oil cells in the flavedo. • Oils are toxic to the surface of the peel and cause necrosis of the surface cells • Can reduced by avoiding harvest until the fruit get turgid
  24. 24. Chilling Injury (CI) • Collapse is not targeted oil glands • A collapse of discrete areas of the peel from sunken darkened lesions which will slowly expand. • Low RH enhance CI • Waxing-Reduce but not eliminate CI
  25. 25. Stem-End Rind Breakdown • Thin skinned fruit are more affected than thick skinned fruit. • Collapse of rind tissues resulting in sunken brown area which is irregular in shape. • Narrow ring of unaffected tissue immediately around the stem area which has no stomata. • Control -Hold fruits at high RH
  26. 26. Post Harvest Diseases of Citrus Fruits  Anthracnose- Colletotrichium gloeosporioides  Septoria spot- Septoria depressa  Blue & Green Mould-  Penicillium digitatum (green mould)  P. italicum (blue mould)  Sour Rot- Galactomyctes citri-aurantii
  27. 27. Anthracnose  Symptoms ⁻ Superficial leathery appearance ⁻ Silver/grey to dark lesions ⁻ Tear-staining pattern ⁻ Pink spores under humid conditions  Occurrence ⁻ Infection occurs by rain-splash during autumn ⁻ Ethylene degreening increases sensitivity to anthracnose
  28. 28. • Management Dead wood should be pruned as the fungus harbours in dead branches Copper-based fungicides application before monsoonal rains Postharvest treatment with Benzimidazole fungicides may reduce fruit losses
  29. 29. Septoria spot • Symptoms  Dark brown collapsed lesions, with a purple tinges  Black specks develop in decayed area • Occurrence  Mainly inland citrus regions  Fruit more susceptible after frosts • Management  Field application of copper-based fungicides
  30. 30. Blue & Green Mould Symptoms  Softening of damaged tissue  White fungal growth, which progressively turns blue or green as spores develop  Occurrence  Infections develop from damaged areas  The growth of mould increases with storage temperatures  Late season fruit more susceptible
  31. 31.  Management  Good hygiene and sorting  Sanitation destroys spores in recirculating water and packing line equipment  Apply postharvest fungicides within 24 hours  Lower storage
  32. 32. Sour Rot • Symptoms  Very soft, watery decay  Distinct margin between decayed & healthy tissue • Occurrence  Infection occurs in damaged fruit  Sour rot spores in soil can accumulate in recirculating water in dips and drenches • Management  Careful handling reduces rind damage  Apply Guazatine fungicide within 24hrs of harvest
  33. 33. Some Other Diseases  Stem end rot  Black rot  Brown rot  Botrytis rot
  34. 34. Postharvest Storage • Citrus fruits have relatively long post harvest life • Loose skinned fruits easily deteriorate at high humidity • Pre storage curing of the fruits also reduces decay and chilling injury during storage • Each variety has different optimum conditions for storage
  35. 35. Controlled-atmosphere storage  Research has been done  Commercially not used because: – Economic reasons – Physiological characteristics of fruit – Elevated CO2 has no beneficial effect – Low O2 stimulates ethanol and acetaldehyde
  36. 36. Group Members  UWU/EAG/11/0026 S.Rishibamathana  UWU/EAG/11/0027 T.A.D.D.L.Thanaweera  UWU/EAG/11/0028 D.N.Nanayakkara  UWU/EAG/11/0029 Y.S.M.M.P.Yallarawa  UWU/EAG/11/0030 M.Aphinaya  UWU/EAG/11/0031 R.A.S.N.Ranasinghe
  37. 37. Thank You!

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