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UDOL: Quality Frameworks for Online Education

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Quality Frameworks for Online Education by Darco Jansen, EADTU

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UDOL: Quality Frameworks for Online Education

  1. 1. Quality Frameworks for Online Education UDOL, Derby 10 January 2017
  2. 2. EDUCATION RESEARCH INNOVATION A variety in university profiles and visions Universities collaborate with peers on the basis of trust
  3. 3. Universities going online • Nexus of (online) education with research and innovation: the knowledge triangle • Three area's of provisions emerging in the Western world: degree education, continuing education / continuous professional development and Open education (OER, MOOCs) • Universities integrate online in all provisions and become borderless by globalisation and the internet
  4. 4. Three areas of provision Degree education Continuous education / CPD Open education InternationalNational
  5. 5. The complex pedagogical landscape Blended degree education: • Bachelor, Master, PhD • Business model: regulated, not-for-profit; education as a public good, not as a commodity Blended and online continuous education • CPD, SLP’s and non- accredited education • Business model: non- regulated, not-for-profit, for profit Open Education • MOOCs, OERs, Open media, Open knowledge • Business model: non- regulated, not-for profit InternationalNational
  6. 6. Three areas of provision: again different profiles Degree education zone, backbone in the education system to develop complex academic and professional competences: bachelor, master, PhD – increasingly blended solutions to raise quality and to face growing student numbers. Online distance higher education provides flexibility for lifelong learners. Continuing education and training on demand, valorisation of knowledge to support innovation in the public and private sector, based on research and development. Flexibility requires online or blended solutions, such as (virtual) seminars, CPD, knowledge alliance and corporate university initiatives, short learning programmes, master classes, expert schools, etc. It includes knowledge networks for professionals or business sectors. Open education and knowledge sharing area, pushing knowledge online into the public domain: OERs, MOOCs, open media, open access/open innovation materials – preferably to be designed and arranged according to the needs of user groups/networks
  7. 7. Internationalisation formats degree programs Exchange mobility (Erasmus) Blended/online mobility (Virtual Erasmus) Intensive programmes, summer schools; blended/online discussion groups, think tanks, seminars and webinars Networked curricula and double degrees Joint curricula and joint degrees Joint PhD degrees International apprenticeships Collaborative projects
  8. 8. Internationalisation formats continuing education and CPD Short learning programmes Executive seminars University- business networks (e.g. KICs of EIT) Corporate university programms International apprenticeships Collaborative projects with companies involved Continuous professional development Webinars Intergovernmental CPD initiatiatives (teacher training, health care...)
  9. 9. Assets of ICT based learning • International and large-scale outreach, by borderless education involving university partners abroad • Personalized teaching and learning , putting the students with their ambitions and talents at the centre, with individual learning arrangements. Learning tools and learning analytics with personalized feedback make this possible. • Small scale and intensive education, looking for a balance between education for qualifications, socialization and personal development. All this together is Bildung. Smaller scale is made possible by learning communities. • Rich learning environments relating to research, innovation and professional employment, involving the student • Openness to learners through flexible, inclusive structures and methods that take higher education to students when and where they need it. Education is not exclusive. More than 50 pct. of an age cohort follows a form of higher education • Networked education and mobility, where students can learn across national, sectoral and institutional boundaries. • Cost-effectiveness by low variable cost
  10. 10. Mainstreaming “Online” Mainstreaming online education in different blends will support university strategies for degree education, continuing education/CPD and open education. Institutional responses will be diverse. Blended and online education will enhance international partnerships and collaborative courses /curricula and mobility
  11. 11. • Copying lectures doesn’t add enough value as the innovative potential of online learning is not used • the variable cost of high quality digital learning does not achieve economies of scale if you maintain the same pedagogy (Laurillard, 2014) • to enhance quality, effectiveness and scalability in digital education, learning design is needed Education is a design science Going (partly) online … It is not the same pedagogy
  12. 12. Five main challenges in designing a course Learning activities • which learning activities should be designed for students in the course to reach the learning objectives? Sequence • How to sequence the learning activities Student support • How to support students? Learner control • How to increase learner control Assessment • How to assess students during the process and at the end of it?
  13. 13. Innovative pedagogies Learning design informed by analytics Flipped classroom Dynamic assessment Personal inquiry learning Learning through storytelling Treshold concepts Digital scholarship Learning from gaming MOOCs Massive open social learning
  14. 14. Blended learning • The most appropriate modes of teaching and learning for a course should be used in an optimal way and in an optimal blend. • This is a qualitative judgement, based on multiple factors (course content, student characteristics, course objectives, learning activities to be designed, environment or software available, etc.). The blend is not a quantitative issue. • The design concerns the choice of media, the sequence of activities and the optimal blend of online and f-2-f education.
  15. 15. Quality assurance As is the case for research publications, the possibility exists to organise quality assurance ex ante by peer reviews or by test implementations for a small group of students (Elen, 2011; Laurillard, 2014). The review should focus on the content as well as on the educational design. Only after a positive evaluation, the course will subsequently be developed and anchored in the blended learning environment. Eventually, the course can be approved for a limited period in which a re-design is prepared.
  16. 16. Are quality assurance frameworks sufficiently flexible to adapt to differentiated approaches and innovations in pedagogy? ESG 2.3 External quality assurance does not end with the report by the experts. The report provides clear guidance for institutional action. Agencies have a consistent follow-up process for considering the action taken by the institution. The nature of the follow-up will depend on the design of the external quality assurance. ESG 2.6 In order for the report to be used as the basis for action to be taken, it needs to be clear and concise in its structure and language and to cover - context description (to help locate the higher education institution in its specific context); - description of the individual procedure, including experts involved; - evidence, analysis and findings; - conclusions; - features of good practice, demonstrated by the institution; - recommendations for follow-up action. Seeking and documenting examples of innovation in the curriculum are necessary.
  17. 17. 4.31 It is clear that higher education institutions, their staff and students, and the quality assurance agencies all have concerns about relevant and effective quality assurance for online and blended education. They are still in the beginning of a transition period, which has to be accelerated to fully exploit the opportunities of new modes of teaching and learning and to keep track with the international developments in higher education.
  18. 18. • National governments must review their legislative and regulatory frameworks and practices for quality assurance and accreditation in higher education (including recognition of prior learning) to ensure that they encourage, and do not impede, the provision of more flexible educational formats, including degrees and other ECTS-bearing courses that are fully online. • National QA agencies should develop their own in-house expertise and establish processes that are sufficiently flexible to include recognising and supporting modes of teaching and learning. They should evaluate institutions on their active support of innovation (or importantly, the lack of it), and its impact on the quality of teaching and learning. • ENQA and other relevant European networks should support the sharing of good practice by national QA agencies in the development of criteria on the recognition of new modes of teaching and learning. CPL-Recommendations related to QA
  19. 19. E-xcellence: QA in e-learning instrument • Curriculum design, Course design, Course delivery, Services (student and staff support), Management (institutional strategies) • E-xcellence focuses on elements in course provision that contribute to Lifelong Learning schemes, like:  ease of access to courses and services  new forms of interaction (students and staff)  flexibility and personalisation • E-xcellence is a benchmarking instrument.
  20. 20. Quality Assurance spectrum Check compliance with quality standards Support institutions in quality enhancement E-xcellence Flexibility to:  set relevant goals  demonstrate quality of performance  plan for improvement
  21. 21. will help the university: • to develop e-learning programmes • to guide the internal discussion • to improve the quality of e-learning performance • to learn from other similar institutions • to use existing good-practices • to be up-to date on developments in e-learning E-xcellence tool E-xcellence Project
  22. 22. E-xcellence manual and framework 1. Strategic Management 2. Curriculum Design 3. Course Design 4. Course Delivery 5. Student Support 6. Staff Support See:
  23. 23. E-xcellence resources • E-xcellence manual (in PDF format) – 35 benchmark statements – Performance indicators – Supporting text • Quickscan tool • Assessors’ notes • Framework for action roadmap See:
  24. 24. Quickscan • Quick self-assessment of the HE institution’s e-learning • Uses the 35 E-xcellence benchmarks • Helps institution to identifies strengths and weaknesses • Online version provides guidance and feedback • Best used collaboratively by an interdisciplinary team
  25. 25. The Quickscan tool
  26. 26. E-xcellence review • Onsite visit (1-2 days) or online meetings • Engage with the HE institution in constructive discussions about the quality of their e-learning, and how it might be improved • Provide an independent external review, with advice for improvement • Collect feedback on the E-xcellence resources, in order to improve them
  27. 27. Review format • Preparation – Decide programme(s) to be reviewed – Form interdisciplinary team of the HE institution’s managers, course designers, educators, students, technical staff – Team meets to complete QuickScan self-evaluation • Visit or online meetings – HE team meets with E-xcellence reviewers (2 - 4 e-learning experts) – Discuss institution’s e-learning offerings and the QuickScan self- evaluation – Reviewers give initial feedback and suggestions • Reports – Summary report from E-xcellence reviewers – Reviewers consider and agree Roadmap for improvement from the institution
  28. 28. E-xcellent manual update • Reflects recent trends in e-learning – rapid rise of MOOCs – surge of interest in learning analytics – increasing use of learning design in course development • Includes new topics – increased focus on personalization – flipped approaches to teaching – virtual and remote laboratories – digital badges and e-portfolios.
  29. 29. 2016
  30. 30. • OpenupEd is an open, non-profit partnership for MOOCs • OpenupEd aims to open up education to the benefit of learners and the wider society while reflecting values such as equity, quality and diversity. • The vision is to reach learners interested in online higher education in a way that meets their needs and accommodates their situation.
  31. 31. 8 OpenupEd features • Openness to learners • Digital openness • Learner-centred approach • Independent learning • Media-supported interaction • Recognition options • Spectrum of diversity • Quality focus
  32. 32. Definition MOOCs • MOOCs are online courses designed for large numbers of participants, that can be accessed by anyone anywhere as long as they have an internet connection, are open to everyone without entry qualifications and offer a full/complete course experience online for free. • pen_Online_Courses.pdf (adopted by many EU MOOC projects)
  33. 33. Why quality matters? • quality of the pedagogies employed • low completion rates • a failure to deliver on the promise of inclusive and equitable quality education for all • pathway to higher education (recognition options)
  34. 34. Quality check by… • Checking the design of the course • Criteria of the course (MOOC) • If it indeed contribute to the objectives • For learners • For participants • For institution…
  35. 35. Perspectives on MOOC quality • Assess quality primarily from the learner’s point of view. • Quality is connected to the pedagogical framework of the MOOC • Quality is related to inputs (e.g., instructional design, the content and resources, activities and assessment, and the technology employed, or the quality of the teacher. Flaw in quality multiple choice questions (MCQs) in the quizzes • Quality with outcome measures, such as the number of learners completing a MOOC or achieving certification.
  36. 36. Complexity with MOOC quality • QA on MOOCs cannot be easily standardised as they have several different aims. • Even within one MOOC there is no uniformly aims between actors involved (institution, the teaching staff involved and the participants). • MOOCs are designed for various target groups, and even within 'one target group' the motivation and intention of MOOC participants vary a lot. • Unbundling of educational services: quality emerges from the joint enterprise and is not solely the responsibility of one partner
  37. 37. MOOC quality models • quality principles developed for HE could be used to improve the quality of MOOCs. • from systems which check compliance to norms and often focus on product, to systems that aim at quality enhancement by focusing on process. • low maturity systems are characterised by externally set norms, whereas in high maturity systems institutions have embedded processes aimed at quality enhancement towards their own objectives.
  38. 38. More holistic MOOC quality models • Ossiannilsson et al (2015) present a global survey of quality models for e-learning. They find that most models take a holistic view of quality, recognising the need to address many aspects of the enterprise. Although the models vary considerably in the detail and number of indicators, most covered a consistent set of important dimensions. • Example E-xcellence label -> OpenupEd Quality label for MOOCs • benchmarking, self-assessment, roadmap
  39. 39. Quality models for MOOCs
  40. 40. Thank you!!!