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Trends and Attitudes towards International Migration

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Dr Neil Ruiz from Pew Research Center delivered this presentation in ERIA's office in Jakarta on 18 April 2019.

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Trends and Attitudes towards International Migration

  1. 1. Trends and Attitudes towards International Migration Associate Director of Global Migration & Demography Neil G. Ruiz
  2. 2. 2 Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. We conduct public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research. We do not take policy positions. All of our research is available at www.pewresearch.org. We are a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, our primary funder. Major research areas • U.S. politics and policy • Journalism and media • Internet, science and technology • Religion and public life • Hispanic trends • Global attitudes and trends • Global migration and demography • Social and demographic trends • Research methodology Follow us on Twitter @pewresearch @facttank
  3. 3. World Immigration Trends, 2017 • 258 million people lived outside their countries of birth in 2017; more than 16 million are refugees • Largest origin countries are India, Mexico, Russia, China and the Philippines • Top destination countries are the U.S., Saudi Arabia, Germany, UK and the UAE • Since 2010, fastest growth in emigrant populations from Middle Eastern, North African and Sub-Saharan African countries
  4. 4. May 3, 2019 4 esearch.org Middle East, North Africa and Sub-Saharan African countries lead growth in emigrant populations since 2010
  5. 5. May 3, 2019 5 www.pewresearch.org Attitudes towards the Future and Migrants
  6. 6. About the 2018 Global Attitudes Survey 6 27,612 interviews conducted from May 14 to August 12, 2018 in 31 languages Face-to-face countries Telephone countries In each country, samples are representative of the adult (18+) population • Canada • Sweden • France • United Kingdom • Germany • Japan • Netherlands • South Korea • Spain • Australia • Argentina • Russia • Brazil • Indonesia • Mexico • Philippines • Greece • Israel • Hungary • Tunisia • Italy • Kenya • Poland • Nigeria • South Africa Additional data from a telephone survey of 1,500 U.S. adults conducted from May 14-June 15, 2018
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. Pessimism about children’s future is widespread in most countries May 3, 2019 8 When children today in our country grow up they will be __ financially than their parents Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. Q3. 17% 21 29 53 57 57 64 67 76 75 69 51 41 36 33 29 25 15 Indonesia Philippines Russia South Korea Mexico U.S. Australia Canada Japan Worse off Better off
  9. 9. Indonesia and the Philippines significantly more optimistic about their children’s future May 3, 2019 9 When children today in our country grow up they will be __ financially than their parents Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. Q3. 17% 21 75 69 Indonesia Philippines Worse off Better off 29% 53 57 57 64 67 76 51 41 36 33 29 25 15 Russia South Korea Mexico U.S. Australia Canada Japan Worse off Better off
  10. 10. May 3, 2019 10 Half or more in many destination countries view immigrants as a strength Immigrants today make our country stronger because of their work and talents OR Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our jobs and social benefits Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.54a.
  11. 11. May 3, 2019 11 Around the world, few want more immigration In your opinion, should we allow more immigrants to move to our country, fewer immigrants, or about the same as we do now? (%) Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.52.
  12. 12. Among APEC countries, few want more immigration May 3, 2019 12 In your opinion, should we allow more immigrants to move to our country, fewer immigrants, or about the same as we do now? Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. 67% 54 44 38 32 29 28 27 13 23 31 42 42 46 44 52 53 58 7 8 11 18 19 24 18 19 23 Russia Indonesia Mexico Australia Philippines U.S. South Korea Canada Japan Fewer/None About the same More
  13. 13. May 3, 2019 13 Views on the impact of immigrants in Europe have shifted since 2014 % who say immigrants today make our country stronger because of their work and talents Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.54a.
  14. 14. May 3, 2019 14 Immigrants viewed more favorably among those on the ideological left % who say immigrants today make our country stronger because of their work and talents Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.54a.
  15. 15. May 3, 2019 15 Views on immigrants’ willingness to integrate are mixed Immigrants in our country today want to adopt our customs and way of life OR Immigrants today want to be distinct from our society Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.54c.
  16. 16. May 3, 2019 16 In many countries, half or more say immigrants are no more to blame for crime Immigrants in our country today are more to blame for crime than other groups OR are no more to blame for crime than other groups Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.54b.
  17. 17. May 3, 2019 17 Majorities in many European migrant destinations think immigrants increase risk of terrorism Immigrants today increase the risk of terrorism OR Immigrants today do not increase the risk of terrorism in our country Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.54d.
  18. 18. May 3, 2019 18 Half or more in several countries support deporting immigrants living in their country illegally Thinking about immigration, would you __ deporting immigrants currently in the country illegally? Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.53b.
  19. 19. May 3, 2019 19 More people on the ideological right support the deportation of immigrants living in their country illegally % who support deporting immigrants currently in the country illegally Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.53b.
  20. 20. May 3, 2019 20 In several economically advanced nations, majority of public supports high-skilled immigration Thinking about immigration, would you __ encouraging highly skilled people to immigrate and work in our country? Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.53c.
  21. 21. May 3, 2019 21 Many who want fewer immigrants support high-skilled immigration Among those who say their country should allow fewer or no immigrants, % who __ encouraging highly skilled people to immigrate and work in our country? Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.53c.
  22. 22. May 3, 2019 22 Majorities in many countries think outmigration is a big problem % who say people leaving their country for jobs in other countries is a very or moderately big problem Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.52.
  23. 23. May 3, 2019 23 www.pewresearch.org Trends in the Largest Destination Country
  24. 24. May 3, 2019 24 Largest Immigrant Destination at Historic High
  25. 25. U.S. immigrant population reached 45 million in 2015; projected to be 78 million in 2065 Source: Gibson and Jung (2006) for 1850 to 1890. Edmonston and Passel (1994) estimates for 1900-1955; Pew Research Center estimates for 1960- 2015 based on adjusted census data; Pew Research Center projections for 2015-2065.
  26. 26. U.S. foreign-born share projected to hit record milestone in 2065 Source: Gibson and Jung (2006) for 1850 to 1890. Edmonston and Passel (1994) estimates for 1900-1955; Pew Research Center estimates for 1960-2015 based on adjusted census data; Pew Research Center projections for 2015-2065.
  27. 27. 82 26 12 7 62 1 3 51 2 2 25 Northern Europe Wave (1840-1889) 14.3 million Southern/Eastern Europe Wave (1890-1919) 18.2 million Modern Wave (1965-2015) 58.5 million Europe South/East Asia Latin America North/West Europe South/East Europe North/West Europe South/East Europe Most post-1965 immigrants from Latin America and Asia Note: Data prior to 1965 does not include unauthorized immigrants. Source: For 1965-2015, Pew Research Center estimates based on adjusted census data; for 1840-1919, Office of Immigration Statistics, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, 2008, Table 2
  28. 28. May 3, 2019 28 esearch.org In the past, European immigrants most numerous in U.S. Top country of origin, by state Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of 1960 decennial census (IPUMS)
  29. 29. May 3, 2019 29 esearch.org Today, Mexicans are the largest immigrant group in U.S. Top country of origin, by state Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of the 2013 American Community Survey (IPUMS)
  30. 30. May 3, 2019 30 esearch.org Number of unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. declined over the past decade
  31. 31. May 3, 2019 31
  32. 32. May 3, 2019 32 esearch.org More U.S. border apprehensions of non-Mexicans than Mexicans in 2017
  33. 33. May 3, 2019 33 esearch.org U.S. apprehensions of family units rose substantially over past year
  34. 34. May 3, 2019 34 www.pewresearch.org U.S. High-Skilled Immigration
  35. 35. May 3, 2019 35
  36. 36. May 3, 2019 36
  37. 37. May 3, 2019 37
  38. 38. May 3, 2019 38
  39. 39. May 3, 2019 39
  40. 40. May 3, 2019 40 + 100% + 100% + 150% + 108% + 108% + 106% + 33% + 43%
  41. 41. May 3, 2019 41
  42. 42. May 3, 2019 42 Majority of foreign student graduates under OPT are from Asia Nearly three-quarters of the 1.5 million graduates on OPTcame from Asia Number and % of OPT approvals in the United States from 2004-2016, by country of citizenship Note: Only top 10 countries shown. Figures are students with an associate degree or higher and are rounded to nearest hundred. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement data received August 2017 through a Freedom of Information Act request. “Number of Foreign College Students Staying and Working in U.S. After Graduation Surges” PEW RESEARCH CENTER
  43. 43. May 3, 2019 43 STEM foreign graduates are the largest users of the OPT program 49% 400% Non-STEM STEM Number of STEM graduates under OPTgrew substantially after the 2008 program expansion % increase between 2008 and 2016 Note: Majors are grouped based on the most recent delineation of majors that fall under the science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) field outlined by the Department of Homeland Security. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement data received August, 2017, through a Freedom of Information Act request. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Number of foreign students graduating American colleges and obtaining authorization to work in the U.S. grows, especially among those in STEM fields Number of OPT approvals from 2004-2016, in thousands Note: Figures are students with an associate degree or higher. STEM categories are based on fields outlined by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement data received August 2017 through a Freedom of Information Act request. “Number of Foreign College Students Staying and Working in U.S. After Graduation Surges” PEW RESEARCH CENTER
  44. 44. May 3, 2019 44 12% 33% 60% 78% Associate Bachelor's Master's Doctorate Share of foreign grads on OPTwho studied STEM, by degree level % of STEM graduates by degree levels, 2004-2016 Note: Degree levels categorized under “Other degrees” are not included. STEM categories are based on fields outlined by the Department of Homeland Security. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement data received August 2017 through a Freedom of Information Act request. “Number of Foreign College Students Staying and Working in U.S. After Graduation Surges” PEW RESEARCH CENTER
  45. 45. May 3, 2019 45
  46. 46. May 3, 2019 46
  47. 47. May 3, 2019 47
  48. 48. May 3, 2019 48 www.pewresearch.org H-1B visa applications have exceeded supply for the past five years Source: Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services data.
  49. 49. May 3, 2019 49 Optional Practical Training approvals surpassed initial H-1B visa approvals in 2010, 2014, 2015 and 2016 Number of OPT and H-1B visa approvals, in thousands Note: H-1B visa data are in U.S. federal fiscal years, which run from Oct. 1-Sept. 30. OPT data are in calendar years. H-1B data include both capped and uncapped approvals. H-1B visa applications require an equivalent to a U.S. bachelor’s degree or higher. See Appendix B for OPTeducational requirements. Source: Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement data received August 2017 through a Freedom of Information Act request and publicly available H-1B visa data from U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. “Number of Foreign College Students Staying and Working in U.S. After Graduation Surges” PEW RESEARCH CENTER
  50. 50. May 3, 2019 50 www.pewresearch.org One million immigrants receive lawful permanent resident status each year U.S. Green Card system is majority family-based
  51. 51. May 3, 2019 51 www.pewresearch.org Attitudes towards Refugees andTrends
  52. 52. May 3, 2019 52 Majorities in many countries support taking in refugees Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. Q53a. Talking about immigration, would you ___ taking in refugees from countries where people are fleeing violence and war?
  53. 53. May 3, 2019 53
  54. 54. May 3, 2019 54 Number of refugees resettled in U.S. falls below total from rest of the world for first time in 2017
  55. 55. May 3, 2019 55 www.pewresearch.org Intentions to Migrate
  56. 56. May 3, 2019 56 In some African nations, more plan to migrate than in other countries % who say they plan to move to another country sometime in the next five years Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.55.
  57. 57. May 3, 2019 57 Many Tunisians, Nigerians and Kenyans have made preparations to migrate Among those who plan to migrate: In preparation to move to another country, % who have ... Source: Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey, Q.56a-c.
  58. 58. Contact Information Neil G. Ruiz Associate Director of Global Migration & Demography nruiz@pewresearch.org @neil_ruiz
  59. 59. May 3, 2019 59 Immigrant populations in surveyed countries cover about half of the world’s immigrant population Source: For the U.S., 2017 American Community Survey representing immigrants living in the 50 states and D.C.; for all other countries, UN data.

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