Whether you love it or hate it, you need to do it. Finding out the facts about your assignments,
your job, or your life will allow you to make better decisions and gain more knowledge. In fact, the
more research you do, the more you can do with your life.
Learning basic research skills is something that is lost in
many educational systems. While students are often told
how to find information, the Internet has become the place
most people go first in order to find the facts they need.
Though the Internet is a valuable tool, it is not the only
research skill a person needs in order to find the facts.
Using basic research methods can help you not only find
the information you need, but also find information that
you can trust. (Universalclass.com,2020)
The definition of research varies from one
discipline to another thus, a general
definition, one that applies to all, will be
Research is defined as “a careful and
systematic investigation or experimentation
aimed at the discovery and interpretation of
facts, revision of accepted theories or laws,
or practical application of such new or
revised theories or laws” (Merriam-Webster,
Aside from doing researches that meet the
definition criteria, it is a must that University
researches fall within the Research Agenda of
Other than meeting the basic requirements of scientific research as
defined, University researches should also meet the following criteria:
1. Researches are expected to maintain the highest
standard of honesty and integrity;
2. Utilize acceptable scientific methodology to
create new knowledge and solve problems;
3. Contribute in building up a programmed body of
knowledge that advances the highlighting of the
University Research Agenda; and
4. Enhance research productivity of the University in
distinctive areas of competence.
ENCOUNTERED IN RESEARCH
• Difficulty in finding or conceptualizing a
good research problem.
• Scarcity or unavailability of updated and
• Financial (limited budget or funds).
• Time constraints.
• How to put into writings one’s own ideas.
• Lack of teamwork among group members
or inadequate assistance.
• Uncooperative respondents or officials of
• Personal problems get in a way of a good
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
1. EMPIRICAL. Research is based on direct observations by the
researcher. The collection of data relies on practical
experiences without the benefit of scientific knowledge or
2. LOGICAL. Research is based on valid procedures and
principles that makes it a valuable tool for decision-making.
All findings and conclusions are logically based on empirical
data and no effort is made to alter the results of the research.
3. 3. CYCLICAL. According to Leedy (1980), research starts with a
problem and ends with a problem. For instance, the
researcher starts with a problem or an obstacle and even the
specific problems has been answered, the interpretation may
spark off another problem, and another cycle is repeated.
4. 4. ANALYTICAL. Research uses analytical procedures in
gathering the data, there is critical analysis in all data used so
that there is no error in the interpretation.
5. REPLICABILITY. The research design and procedure are
replicated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and
conclusive results. The more replicated the research is, the
more valid and conclusive the results would be.
6. CRITICAL. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
Every research activity must be done accurately so that
findings will lead to a formulation of scientific
generalization. All conclusions are based on actual evidence.
7. UNIVERSAL. Process and procedures are transmittable,
which enables other researchers to replicate them and to
assess their validity. The transmittable property of research
is critical both to its role in extending knowledge and its role
in decision making.
8. SYSTEMATIC. Research follows the scientific method
which includes sequential steps.
• HONESTY - do not fabricate, falsify and misinterpret
• OBJECTIVITY - strive to avoid bias in experimental
design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review
• INTEGRITY - keep your promises and agreements
• CAREFULNESS – avoid careless errors and
• OPENNESS – share data, results, ideas, tools and
resources; be open to criticism and new ideas
• RESPECT FOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - honor
patents, copyright and other forms of intellectual
property; give credit where credit is due; never
• CONFIDENTIALITY – protect confidential
communications, such as papers or grants submitted
for publication, military secrets, patient records
• RESPONSIBLE PUBLICATION – publish in order to advance research not to advance just your own
• RESPONSIBLE MENTORING - help to educate, mentor and advise students
• RESPECT COLLEAGUES – respect your colleagues and treat them fairly
• SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY – strive to promote social good and prevent social harms through
research, public education
• NON-DISCRIMINATION - avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex,
race, ethnicity or other
factors not related to their scientific competence
• COMPETENCE – maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through
• LEGALITY – know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies
• ANIMAL CARE – show proper respect for animals when using them in research
• HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION – minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect
human dignity, privacy and autonomy; take social precautions with vulnerable populations and
strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly
STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH
1. Identification of a Research Problem
2. Formulation of a Research Problem and Objectives
3. Development of a Theoretical or Conceptual
4. Designing of the Research Methodology
5. Collection, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data
6. Presentation of Conclusions and Recommendations
7. Taking Course of Action
TYPES OF RESEARCH
1. Qualitative Research: conducted for the
purpose of understanding social phenomena
Ex: Historical research Biographical research,
2. Quantitative Research: conducted to
determine relationships, effects, and causes.
Ex: Experimental research, Causal- Comparative
research, Survey research
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
A problem is any significant, perplexing
(confusing) and challenging situation, real or
artificial, the solution of which requires
reflective thinking; a perplexing situation
after it has been translated into a question
or series of questions that help determine
the direction of subsequent inquiry.
The research problem should be stated
vividly and explicitly expressed in
interrogative form for “questions have the
virtue of posing a problem directly.
ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM
• WHY. This includes the aims, objectives, targets or
purposes of the problem for investigation.
• WHAT. The subject matter or topic to be investigated.
• WHERE. The place or locale where the research is to be
• WHEN. The period or time of the study during which the
data are to be gathered.
• WHO or FROM WHOM. The population or universe from
whom the data are to be collected. This answers the
questions “who are the respondents”.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A
• An investigator know that a problem is really
1. there is no known solution to the problem
2. the solution can be answered by using statistical
methods and techniques;
3. there are probable solutions but they are not yet
4. the occurrence of phenomena requires scientific
investigation to arrive at precise conclusion.
A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM SHOULD BE
• Specific. The problem should be specifically stated.
• Measurable. It is easy to measure by using research
instruments such as questionnaire, test and others in
• Achievable. The data are achievable using correct
statistical techniques to arrive at precise results;
• Realistic. Real results are not manipulated; and
• Time-bound. Time frame is required in every activity
because the shorter completion of the activity the better.
MAJOR PARTS OF A
• PRELIMINARIES/FRONT MATTER
• THE TEXT / BODY
• REFERENCES AND BACK MATTER