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Research writing

  2. Whether you love it or hate it, you need to do it. Finding out the facts about your assignments, your job, or your life will allow you to make better decisions and gain more knowledge. In fact, the more research you do, the more you can do with your life. Learning basic research skills is something that is lost in many educational systems. While students are often told how to find information, the Internet has become the place most people go first in order to find the facts they need. Though the Internet is a valuable tool, it is not the only research skill a person needs in order to find the facts. Using basic research methods can help you not only find the information you need, but also find information that you can trust. (,2020)
  3. The definition of research varies from one discipline to another thus, a general definition, one that applies to all, will be used. Research is defined as “a careful and systematic investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws” (Merriam-Webster, 1983). Aside from doing researches that meet the definition criteria, it is a must that University researches fall within the Research Agenda of the institution.
  4. Other than meeting the basic requirements of scientific research as defined, University researches should also meet the following criteria: 1. Researches are expected to maintain the highest standard of honesty and integrity; 2. Utilize acceptable scientific methodology to create new knowledge and solve problems; 3. Contribute in building up a programmed body of knowledge that advances the highlighting of the University Research Agenda; and 4. Enhance research productivity of the University in distinctive areas of competence.
  5. COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN RESEARCH • Difficulty in finding or conceptualizing a good research problem. • Scarcity or unavailability of updated and relevant references. • Financial (limited budget or funds). • Time constraints. • How to put into writings one’s own ideas. • Lack of teamwork among group members or inadequate assistance. • Uncooperative respondents or officials of an institution. • Personal problems get in a way of a good research.
  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCH 1. EMPIRICAL. Research is based on direct observations by the researcher. The collection of data relies on practical experiences without the benefit of scientific knowledge or theory 2. LOGICAL. Research is based on valid procedures and principles that makes it a valuable tool for decision-making. All findings and conclusions are logically based on empirical data and no effort is made to alter the results of the research. 3. 3. CYCLICAL. According to Leedy (1980), research starts with a problem and ends with a problem. For instance, the researcher starts with a problem or an obstacle and even the specific problems has been answered, the interpretation may spark off another problem, and another cycle is repeated. 4. 4. ANALYTICAL. Research uses analytical procedures in gathering the data, there is critical analysis in all data used so that there is no error in the interpretation.
  7. 5. REPLICABILITY. The research design and procedure are replicated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. The more replicated the research is, the more valid and conclusive the results would be. 6. CRITICAL. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. Every research activity must be done accurately so that findings will lead to a formulation of scientific generalization. All conclusions are based on actual evidence. 7. UNIVERSAL. Process and procedures are transmittable, which enables other researchers to replicate them and to assess their validity. The transmittable property of research is critical both to its role in extending knowledge and its role in decision making. 8. SYSTEMATIC. Research follows the scientific method which includes sequential steps.
  8. • HONESTY - do not fabricate, falsify and misinterpret data • OBJECTIVITY - strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review • INTEGRITY - keep your promises and agreements • CAREFULNESS – avoid careless errors and negligence • OPENNESS – share data, results, ideas, tools and resources; be open to criticism and new ideas • RESPECT FOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY - honor patents, copyright and other forms of intellectual property; give credit where credit is due; never PLAGIARIZE • CONFIDENTIALITY – protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, military secrets, patient records
  9. • RESPONSIBLE PUBLICATION – publish in order to advance research not to advance just your own career • RESPONSIBLE MENTORING - help to educate, mentor and advise students • RESPECT COLLEAGUES – respect your colleagues and treat them fairly • SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY – strive to promote social good and prevent social harms through research, public education and advocacy • NON-DISCRIMINATION - avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity or other factors not related to their scientific competence • COMPETENCE – maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education • LEGALITY – know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies • ANIMAL CARE – show proper respect for animals when using them in research • HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION – minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy and autonomy; take social precautions with vulnerable populations and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly
  10. STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH 1. Identification of a Research Problem 2. Formulation of a Research Problem and Objectives 3. Development of a Theoretical or Conceptual Framework 4. Designing of the Research Methodology 5. Collection, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data 6. Presentation of Conclusions and Recommendations 7. Taking Course of Action
  11. TYPES OF RESEARCH 1. Qualitative Research: conducted for the purpose of understanding social phenomena Ex: Historical research Biographical research, Case study 2. Quantitative Research: conducted to determine relationships, effects, and causes. Ex: Experimental research, Causal- Comparative research, Survey research
  12. Sample research topics with objectives
  13. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM A problem is any significant, perplexing (confusing) and challenging situation, real or artificial, the solution of which requires reflective thinking; a perplexing situation after it has been translated into a question or series of questions that help determine the direction of subsequent inquiry. The research problem should be stated vividly and explicitly expressed in interrogative form for “questions have the virtue of posing a problem directly.
  14. ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM • WHY. This includes the aims, objectives, targets or purposes of the problem for investigation. • WHAT. The subject matter or topic to be investigated. • WHERE. The place or locale where the research is to be conducted. • WHEN. The period or time of the study during which the data are to be gathered. • WHO or FROM WHOM. The population or universe from whom the data are to be collected. This answers the questions “who are the respondents”.
  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM • An investigator know that a problem is really researchable when: 1. there is no known solution to the problem 2. the solution can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques; 3. there are probable solutions but they are not yet tested; or 4. the occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive at precise conclusion.
  16. A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM SHOULD BE S.M.A.R.T • Specific. The problem should be specifically stated. • Measurable. It is easy to measure by using research instruments such as questionnaire, test and others in collecting data. • Achievable. The data are achievable using correct statistical techniques to arrive at precise results; • Realistic. Real results are not manipulated; and • Time-bound. Time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity the better.