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Global Citizenship Education:
building peaceful and
sustainable societies
Cecilia Barbieri
UNESCO
REGIONAL OFFICE OF EDUCA...
This presentation:
1. Context: education situation in LAC by 2015
2. GCED as opportunity to rethink education - Agenda
E20...
General situation of education in LAC region...
Deep inequalities
The region has made progress in key aspects of education...
Early Childhood Education
Between 2000 and 2013, enrolment rates increased from 51% to 67%.
Enrolment rates are 11 % point...
Universal Primary Education
In general, countries have made significant progress - though in some countries,
coverage has ...
Universal primary education: inequalities in access
In some countries the gap in access
between children from poor househo...
Secondary education
Coverage increased from 61% a 76% between 2000 and 2013
• This represents an increase in access of 25 ...
Adult education
• As of 2013, there were some 33.8 million illiterates in the region.
By 2015 this figure is estimated to ...
Gender parity
As of 2010, data available for 22 countries showed they had
achieved numerical parity at the primary level (...
Quality of education – what is it?
 In short, it defines what education should be and
should do
 Quality of education is...
The dimensions of Quality of Education
 Relevant
Adapted to the (development) needs of society
 Pertinent
Adapted to the...
Beyond 2015
 Re-think quality of education:
- How the different dimensions are inter-related
- Which methods and contents...
Rethinking Education
“The changes in the world today are characterized by new levels of
complexity and contradiction” (….)...
A world increasingly more complex requires a
more interconnected and democratic education
To further progress in human dev...
New 2030 Development Agenda
NewSustainable
DevelopmentGoals
Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality
education and promote lifelong learning
opportunities for all
Indicator/Tar...
UNESCO Video
What is a Global Citizen?
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/resources/in-focus-articles/global-citizensh...
“Global citizenship refers to a sense of belonging
to a broader community and common
humanity. It emphasises political, ec...
What is Global Citizenship Education?
(...) ... It is a strategic educational
field, based on lifelong learning,..it
equip...
Why GCED?
 A vision carried by a new generation
 Paying attention to the shift in
education discourse and practices
 Al...
 Youth are increasingly engaged in their education, which
comes from different sources (school, family, community,
Intern...
 Education must meet the needs of the 21st century: a world
which is globalized, mobile, diverse, complex, changing,
unde...
 GEFI: GCED as one of the priorities of the UN Secretary-General’s Global
Education First Initiative (GEFI) launched in S...
Legal framework
• UN Charter
• UNESCO Constitution
• Article 26(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
• Core int...
WHY GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
To understand the
relationship between the
issues that are happening at
local, national a...
UNESCO’s vision of GCED
• A component of quality education
• Link between education and the realization of the
other devel...
UNESCO’s vision of GCED (cont’d)
GCED – ESD – HRE – PE Commonalities
Linked, complementary and mutually reinforcing
• Huma...
UNESCO’s vision of GCED (cont’d)
Specificities
 Different agendas, discourses, frameworks  Different thematic emphases
...
What are the
characteristics of a Global
Citizen?
It is unique as each of us
He/she respects
him/herself and others
Has sk...
Global Citizenship Education:
Topics and learning objectives
30
• Addressed to curriculum developers, educators,
policy ma...
Core conceptual dimensions
Key learning outcomes of GCED
Source: Global Citizenship Education: Topics and Learning Objectives; UNESCO 2015; p.15
Implementation: teaching and learning methods
• Active: places emphasis on learning by doing
• Interactive: based on the d...
Implementation
• Should be adapted to the context: depending on
country dynamics, the capacities of
students/teachers/admi...
Implementation: selected examples
• Approach through curricula. Integrated : GCED integrated into
existing subjects (ethic...
Implementation approaches
• Integrated approach =
• Cross-cutting approach =
• Whole-school approach =
• Stand-alone
subje...
Global Citizenship
Education in Latin
America and the
Caribbean
Regional Forum, Santiago de Chile, September 2015.
State o...
Global Citizenship Education and LAC
 GCED is trans-disciplinary rather than a separate or
overlapping discipline
 In LA...
In LAC, a pragmatic approach
 Values and democracy
 Thinking skills for learners to imagine possible, positive
futures i...
What instruments?
 Innovative programmes and curricula focusing on young people
for a culture of peace (“learning to live...
How can educational institutions participate?
 Create and strengthen institutionalized spaces to increase and improve stu...
At the global level – our partners
• UN Secretary-General Global Education First Initiative launched in
2012 Youth Advisor...
Our partners
Available Resources
Publications:
- Global Citizenship Education: An Emerging perspective (2013)
- Global Citizenship Educ...
Obrigada
c.barbieri@unesco.org
“Educação para a Cidadania Global” - Cecilia Barbieri
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“Educação para a Cidadania Global” - Cecilia Barbieri

Cecilia Barbieri, especialista sênior do Escritório Regional de Educação para a América Latina e o Caribe (OREALC/UNESCO Santiago), apresenta os conceitos de Educação para a Cidadania Global no contexto latino-americano.

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“Educação para a Cidadania Global” - Cecilia Barbieri

  1. 1. Global Citizenship Education: building peaceful and sustainable societies Cecilia Barbieri UNESCO REGIONAL OFFICE OF EDUCATION FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN 2016
  2. 2. This presentation: 1. Context: education situation in LAC by 2015 2. GCED as opportunity to rethink education - Agenda E2030 3. GCED: what, why and how
  3. 3. General situation of education in LAC region... Deep inequalities The region has made progress in key aspects of education but inequalities remain acute. The main factors of inequality are: • socio-economic background • ethnicity • place of residence Inequality and exclusion are the key challenges in the region. Education progress has not been the same in all countries: there are marked differences between and especially within countries. Across the region, the most important unmet education target is that dealing with quality of education.
  4. 4. Early Childhood Education Between 2000 and 2013, enrolment rates increased from 51% to 67%. Enrolment rates are 11 % points higher than those in other regions. As of 2013, 25% of the enrolment was private. Significant progress in Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Peru. However, there are marked differences between countries and there is inequality in access, to the detriment of the most vulnerable groups. The main concern is the low quality of programmes and services as well as teacher training. At this level of education, there is a ratio of 18 students per teacher. There is scant information or regulation on the programmes and their impact.
  5. 5. Universal Primary Education In general, countries have made significant progress - though in some countries, coverage has stalled since 2000. • As of 2013, coverage in LAC was 94% while it was 95% in 2000 • Some of the affected countries during this period: Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Panama, Dominica, Jamaica Household surveys report that the completion rates for the primary cycle for persons aged 30 to 34 increased to 88%, while it is 94% for those aged 15 to 19. The number of school-age children who do not go to school decreased from 4 million in 1999 to 3.7 million presently • In LA the number of out-of-school children fell by 9% while in the Caribbean it increased by 11%
  6. 6. Universal primary education: inequalities in access In some countries the gap in access between children from poor households and those from richer households increased. In other there was progress: Bolivia, Brazil. For a student from the poorest quintile the probability of not concluding the primary cycle is 7 times higher than that of a student from the richest quintile Some 20% of children in LAC join the ranks of child labour • Programmes that emphasise subsidies to motivate school attendance (CCTs) in Nicaragua, México, Brazil, have helped reduce the gaps between children from poor and rich households. • School feeding programmes, e.g. in El Salvador, have been successful in increasing enrolment rates from children from poorer households.
  7. 7. Secondary education Coverage increased from 61% a 76% between 2000 and 2013 • This represents an increase in access of 25 % or more in Ecuador, Guyana, Panama and Santa Lucia • Noticeable successes in the first cycle of secondary in Antigua, Barbados, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala where gross enrolment rates increased by more than 30% in some cases The situation is uneven between countries. The region shows a reduction in the number of young people who complete this cycle due to repetition and dropouts, especially in lower secondary: Repetition: 6% in 2012, 6% in 2000 Dropouts: 16% in 2012, 17% in 2000 High inequality: only 22% of young people aged 20 -24 from the poorest quintile complete the secondary cycle compared with 78% for those from the top quintile. Higher Education increased rapidly between 2000 and 2010: 3,428 students per 100,000 inhabitants in 2013 as compared to 2,230 students in 2000. Technical and vocational competences and skills: TVET programmes have a low priority and are not highly valued. In 2012 only 10% of secondary students were enrolled in these programmes.
  8. 8. Adult education • As of 2013, there were some 33.8 million illiterates in the region. By 2015 this figure is estimated to be 31.2 million. • Illiteracy rate is 8% as of 2013 • Between 2000 and 2012, there has been a moderate increase in adult literacy, from 90% to 92% (in 1985 the rate was 84%) • Differences between countries: in some countries a significant % of the population is considered illiterate (20% in Guatemala) while in others illiteracy does not exist (Uruguay) • According to UNESCO studies, the loss of productivity due to illiteracy is sufficiently important to consider its eradication both a social objective and a economic one (migration, violence, informal economy, inequality)
  9. 9. Gender parity As of 2010, data available for 22 countries showed they had achieved numerical parity at the primary level (net enrolment ratio). In secondary, the disparities affect negatively the male population; this phenomenon is worsening. As of 2013, in secondary, the average index of gender parity for net enrolment was 1.06 (6% in favour of girls/women). Challenges continue to affect girls’ education: high rates of adolescent pregnancy, especially in rural areas, stereotyping in the teaching/learning process, challenges in learning outcomes, etc. Subtle biases in training and provision of opportunities that translate later in inequalities.
  10. 10. Quality of education – what is it?  In short, it defines what education should be and should do  Quality of education is recognised as most important issue in LAC region  No universal definition; instead learning outcomes are commonly used as an indicator to measure quality  However, there is consensus by all Ministers and countries on the 5 dimensions of education quality
  11. 11. The dimensions of Quality of Education  Relevant Adapted to the (development) needs of society  Pertinent Adapted to the (learning) needs of students  Effective Achieve its objectives (development and learning outcomes) (SERCE, TERCE, PISA)  Efficient Efficient use of resources (financial, HR, hardware, etc)  Equitable Fair distribution of educational benefits to all sectors of society
  12. 12. Beyond 2015  Re-think quality of education: - How the different dimensions are inter-related - Which methods and contents for GCED - Which evaluation systems, learning outcomes and instruments - What learning for the 21st century and how.  Secondary, TVET and tertiary education: what strategy and practices to gradually transform the region and countries into knowledge societies?
  13. 13. Rethinking Education “The changes in the world today are characterized by new levels of complexity and contradiction” (….) Economic growth and the creation of wealth have reduced global poverty rates, but vulnerability, inequality, exclusion and violence have increased within and across societies throughout the world”. We need to think of a “humanistic vision of education and development based on principles of respect for life and human dignity, equal rights and social justice, respect for cultural diversity, and international solidarity and shared responsibility”, that is, for future generations. From “Rethinking education, Towards a global common good?” UNESCO 2015
  14. 14. A world increasingly more complex requires a more interconnected and democratic education To further progress in human development, and achieve more just and democratic societies, we need action and cooperation of all. Education helps us to understand what is happening in our world, knowing us, appreciating and learning from others, commiting ourselfs and engaging others to cooperate and to take responsible decisions that lead the transformations of our realities
  15. 15. New 2030 Development Agenda NewSustainable DevelopmentGoals
  16. 16. Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all Indicator/Target 4.7: By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non- violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
  17. 17. UNESCO Video What is a Global Citizen? http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/resources/in-focus-articles/global-citizenship-education/
  18. 18. “Global citizenship refers to a sense of belonging to a broader community and common humanity. It emphasises political, economic, social and cultural interdependency and interconnectedness between the local, the national and the global.” GCED TLOs (p. 14) Global citizenship
  19. 19. What is Global Citizenship Education? (...) ... It is a strategic educational field, based on lifelong learning,..it equips learners of all ages with those values, knowledge and skills that are based on and instil respect for human rights, social justice, diversity, gender equality and environmental sustainability and that empower learners to be responsible global citizens. GCED gives learners the competencies and opportunity to realise their rights and obligations to promote a better world and future for all. » UNESCO definition It is one of the targets of the new Sustainable Development Goals Launched as one of the strategic components of the Global Education First Initiative, created by the Secretary General of the United Nations, Ban-Ki Moon, in 2012.
  20. 20. Why GCED?  A vision carried by a new generation  Paying attention to the shift in education discourse and practices  Aligned with international commitments
  21. 21.  Youth are increasingly engaged in their education, which comes from different sources (school, family, community, Internet, social and cultural life, etc.)  Youth want to become active and responsible citizens and contribute to society  Youth are concerned about the future and in search for hope GCED: provides youth with the skills to take their fate in their hands and contribute to the construction of peace and stability A vision carried by a new generation
  22. 22.  Education must meet the needs of the 21st century: a world which is globalized, mobile, diverse, complex, changing, under tension  Quality education = relevant education (living better)  More focus on socio-emotional and non-cognitive aspects of learning  Shift in pedagogical practices that entail changes in the role of the teacher GCED: Opportunity to update pedagogical practices Shift in education discourse and practices
  23. 23.  GEFI: GCED as one of the priorities of the UN Secretary-General’s Global Education First Initiative (GEFI) launched in September 2012: http://www.globaleducationfirst.org/  SDGs: Target 4.7 of the education goal 4 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1579SDGs%20Pro posal.pdf  Incheon Declaration adopted at the 2015 World Education Forum (GCED as an element of quality education) : https://en.unesco.org/world-education-forum- 2015/incheon-declaration  Lima Statement (para 13): EFA in LAC - Assessment of progress and post-2015 challenges: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/santiago/efalac-lima- meeting/lima-declaration GCED: enshrined in the global agenda and in regional commitments International commitments
  24. 24. Legal framework • UN Charter • UNESCO Constitution • Article 26(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights • Core international human rights treaties (ICCPR, ICESCR, CRC, CEDAW, CERD etc…) • 1974 Recommendation concerning education for international understanding, co-operation and peace and education relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms • United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training (A/RES/66/137) and Plan of Action of the World Programme for Human Rights Education
  25. 25. WHY GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION To understand the relationship between the issues that are happening at local, national and global level. To motivate ourselves to act and be empowered to lead the transformation of our realities and ensure the welfare and social justice in our communities To think and analyze creatively and critically To be more committed, supporting and responsible citizens To make better decitions To know, appreciate and respect other cultures and stories To build consensus and collective actions To develop our sense of belonging and identity To develop feelings of solidarity, empathy and respect for differences. LIVE TOGETHER
  26. 26. UNESCO’s vision of GCED • A component of quality education • Link between education and the realization of the other development goals • GCED is based on the conviction that sustainable peace is built in the minds of human beings and not only through ceasefire
  27. 27. UNESCO’s vision of GCED (cont’d) GCED – ESD – HRE – PE Commonalities Linked, complementary and mutually reinforcing • Human rights-based: promoting education as a right and contribute to realizing other rights, based on human rights principles (human dignity, equality, participation, non-discrimination, inclusion, mutual respect, accountability) • Holistic approach: addressing learning contents and outcomes, pedagogy and the learning environment in formal, non-formal and informal learning settings and seeking to be inclusive • Empowering: empower learners to realize their rights and fundamental freedoms through the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that cultivate critical thinking, collaborative skills, a sense of responsibility, solidarity, empathy, respect, understanding, etc. • Transformative: enabling learners to transform themselves and society, contributing to just, peaceful and sustainable development • Pedagogy: promoting learner-centered, action-oriented pedagogies • E2030: included in one of the targets of the Education goal (4.7)
  28. 28. UNESCO’s vision of GCED (cont’d) Specificities  Different agendas, discourses, frameworks  Different thematic emphases  Partly different stakeholder groups GCED ESD HRE Peace Education • One of the three priorities of the UN Secretary-General’s Global Education First Initiative (GEFI), launched in 2012 • A broad framing paradigm encompassing and based on the principles of HRE and ESD • Entails knowledge about global issues, sense of belonging to a common humanity, feelings of empathy, solidarity and respect, and taking action at national and global • Global Action Programme on ESD (GAP) (A/RES/69/211) • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; Hyogo Framework for Action • UN Sustainable Lifestyles and Education Programme of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10YFP) • Legal duty for States and fundamental right for individuals, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and in all major human rights treaties and instruments • Recommandation 1974 concerning education for international understanding, co-operation and peace and education relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms • Plan of Action of the World Programme for HRE: Phase I: 2005-2009, Phase 2: 2010- 2014, Phase 3: 2015-2019 • Entails specific monitoring and reporting duties and • Peace as an overall objective of the UN according to UN Charter and UNESCO Constitution • Article 26 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) • 1974 Recommendation
  29. 29. What are the characteristics of a Global Citizen? It is unique as each of us He/she respects him/herself and others Has skills, values and knowledge to live with people in their community, their nation and the world Is concerned and acts for the welfare of people Take care of him/herself and others As a world citizen: understand its complexities and dynamics Recognizes to live in a diverse world and recognizes others Practice everyday the citizenship, in all dimensions, in all decisions respecting human rights
  30. 30. Global Citizenship Education: Topics and learning objectives 30 • Addressed to curriculum developers, educators, policy makers and other key education stakeholders working in the formal, non-formal and informal education • Developed and piloted by experts and key stakeholders in education: teachers, curriculum developers, etc. • Adaptable and flexible in different contexts. • It suggests ways to implement Global Citizenship Education in formal, no formal and informal education. • Levels: pre-primary, upper primary, lower secondary and upper secondary The first pedagogical guidance from UNESCO on global citizenship education
  31. 31. Core conceptual dimensions
  32. 32. Key learning outcomes of GCED Source: Global Citizenship Education: Topics and Learning Objectives; UNESCO 2015; p.15
  33. 33. Implementation: teaching and learning methods • Active: places emphasis on learning by doing • Interactive: based on the debate and democratic exchange between students • Relevance: raises real situation problems youth encounter in society or in their community • Critical : encourages to think critically by themselves, on the basis of facts • Collaborative: working groups • Participative: involves youth in the teaching and in school life • Access to learning: evaluation system tailored to learning outcomes • Values teachers (role models)
  34. 34. Implementation • Should be adapted to the context: depending on country dynamics, the capacities of students/teachers/administrators; available resources • At all levels: classroom, school, local, national and international community (exchanges); didactical practices, content, policies, environment • At all ages: through life; formal / non-formal/informal (involvement of other sectors: cultural sector, media)
  35. 35. Implementation: selected examples • Approach through curricula. Integrated : GCED integrated into existing subjects (ethics, geography, languages, civic education, religious education, health, etc.); eg: Republic of Korea, Colombia, the Philippines. Cross-cutting / stand-alone subject • Whole-school approach: UNESCO Teaching Respect for All; GEM Global Study Pass • Use of ICTs, e.g. TIGed: http://www.tigweb.org/tiged/?npc • Use of arts: http://www.edutopia.org/arts-music-curriculum-child-development • Physical and sports education: International Olympic Committee • Community approach: link the community with the school
  36. 36. Implementation approaches • Integrated approach = • Cross-cutting approach = • Whole-school approach = • Stand-alone subject/activities = + - • more flexible •coherence of messages •Benefits the whole school community. Improves the quality of education •Covers several aspects of GCED • capacities of teachers • capacities of school, administration and teachers • global investment (training, mobilisation, etc.) • programme overload
  37. 37. Global Citizenship Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Forum, Santiago de Chile, September 2015. State of the Art and Identification of challenges : - Raise awareness about the importance of the topic - Integration in the curriculum - Resources identification - Expand the practice of Global Citizenship Education-Creation of integrated spaces of formal, non-formal and informal education - Teacher´s training, school authorities, families, policy makers, civil society leaders, researchers, etc. Main Outcome Creation of Regional Plan to promote a joint Agenda for Global Citizenship Education
  38. 38. Global Citizenship Education and LAC  GCED is trans-disciplinary rather than a separate or overlapping discipline  In LAC: not a new concept; emerging and very relevant considering the particularities and socio-economic situation: MIC trap, violence, pervasive inequality (especially within countries), unmet targets, etc.
  39. 39. In LAC, a pragmatic approach  Values and democracy  Thinking skills for learners to imagine possible, positive futures in the context of uncertainty and change  Cognitive skills to think critically and creatively  Non-cognitive and social skills: empathy, conflict resolution, communication skills and aptitudes for networking and interacting with people of different backgrounds, origins, cultures  Knowing one’s own values and universal values: justice, equality, dignity, solidarity and respect  Behavioral capacities to act collaboratively and responsibly to find solutions to local and global challenges  Ability to motivate oneself and others for action
  40. 40. What instruments?  Innovative programmes and curricula focusing on young people for a culture of peace (“learning to live together”), civic education, physical education and sports, sexuality education, students’ participation, respect for teachers and families, conflict resolution e.g. Central America, Regional Strategy on Teachers  Intercultural and multicultural education programmes in pedagogical, linguistic and institutional terms e.g. Bolivia, Ecuador.  Education systems enriched with contents and methods on Sustainable Development, green practices, climate change, disaster prevention, as a follow-up to Rio+20.
  41. 41. How can educational institutions participate?  Create and strengthen institutionalized spaces to increase and improve students participation in the educational processe, encouraging debate, the concept of "living together" and collaboration.  Create opportunities to perform learning projects and support services at the community level, and in collaboration with other educational institutions. To promote participation of families and community.  Establish and support education professionals’ networks within and between educational institutions.  Create and/or participate in local, national and global educational institutions’ networks, to share experiences and develop joint projects - "School Movement for World Citizenship" or "Global School”  Organize workshops and discussion fora on GCED and related themes within the school, and/or other institutions at local, national and international levels.
  42. 42. At the global level – our partners • UN Secretary-General Global Education First Initiative launched in 2012 Youth Advisory Group (GEFI-YAG http://www.globaleducationfirst.org/ • Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development (MGIEP), UNESCO Category I Institute, India • Asia-Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) UNESCO category 2 centre, Republic of Korea • Learning Matrix Task Force – Working Group on GCED (UNESCO and Brookings Institute) • North-South Centre (CNS) - Council of Europe
  43. 43. Our partners
  44. 44. Available Resources Publications: - Global Citizenship Education: An Emerging perspective (2013) - Global Citizenship Education: Preparing learners for the challenges of the twenty-first century (2014) - Global Citizenship Education: Topics and Learning Objectives (2015) - Clearinghouse: www.gcedclearinghouse.org (Asia Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding – South Korea) Conceptual definition Conpetencies definition Learning standards Experience sharing
  45. 45. Obrigada c.barbieri@unesco.org

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