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La learner strategies

  1. 1. Learner strategies By : -
  2. 2. What is learner strategies? Learner strategies considers the internal processes which account for how the leraner handels input data and how the learner utilizes L2 resources in the production of messages in the L2
  3. 3. Two Types of L2 Knowledge Declarative knowledge declarative knowledge is knowing that it consist of internalized L2 rulers and memorized chunks of language Procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge is knowing hos : it consists of the strategies and procedures employed by the learner to process L2 data for acquisition and for use.
  4. 4. Learning Strategies The proliferation of terms and concept, so characteristic of accounts of every aspect of procedural knowledge, is perhaps most evident in discussions of learning strategies. Strategies as varied as memorazation, overgeneralations, inferencing, and prefabricated patternhave all been treated under the general heading of learning strategies.
  5. 5. Formulaic Speech Formulaic speech, its consist of experience expression which are learned as unanalysable wholes and employed on particular occasion (lyons 1968;177) Krashen and Scarcella (1978) distinguish between routines and pattern as, to refer respectifully to whole utterances learnt as memorized chunks and to utterance that are only partially unanalysed and have one or more open slots.
  6. 6. Formulaic speech has been observed to be very common in SLA, particularly in the early stage of development. The particularly chunks which are learnt are likely to vary form learner to learner, but the following appear to be typical: I don’t know Can I have a There is no
  7. 7. Creative speech Creative speech is the product of L2 roles. These are in creative Chomskian sense that they permit the L2 learner to produce entirely novel sentences. A plethora of strtegies have been propose to account for the creative role system. Faerch and Kasper (1980;1983) provide a framework which can be used to consider that strategies systematically. They distinguish strategies involve in establishing interlangguage role and strategies involved in automatizing interlangguage knowledge
  8. 8. Hypothesis formation Faerch and Kasper (1983b) data that hypothesis about interlanguage rules and formed in three ways: 1. by using prior linguistic knowledge 2. by including new rules from the input 3. by a combination of 1 and 2
  9. 9. Hypothesis testing There it was pointed out that language learners may make errors in order to test out hypothesis about the L2 rule system. Once the learners has developed a hypothesis, he can test it out in a variety of ways. Fearch and Kasper (1983b) list these ways: 1. Receptively 2. Productively 3. Metalingually 4. Interactionally
  10. 10. Automatization processes Automatization involves about the practising of L2 rules which enter interlanguage at the formal end of the stylistic continum and the practising of rules which are already in use in the vernacular
  11. 11. Production strategies Production strategies consider the unproblematic use of L2 knowledge and consider specific strategies asociate with the planning and articulating component of this model.
  12. 12. Planning programme Communicative goal Discourse plan Sentence plan Constituent plans
  13. 13. The articulatory programme The selection of the meaning that each constituent is to have The selection of a syntactic outline for the constituent Content word selection Affix and function word formation Specification of the phonetic segment
  14. 14. Two sets of strategies based on the model: Minimal strategies Maximal strategies
  15. 15. Planning strategies Semantic simplification Linguistic simplification
  16. 16. Defining communication strategies Communication strategies are seen as attempts to bridge the gap between the linguistic knowledge of the L2 learner and the linguistic knowledge of the learner’s interlocutor in real communication situation.
  17. 17. A typology of communication strategies Reduction strategies 1. formal reduction strategies 2. functional reduction strategies Achievement strategies 1. compensatory strategies 2. retrieval strategies
  18. 18. The effect of different variables on the use of communication strategies Effects of proficiency level Effects of the problem-source Effects of personality Effects of the learning situation
  19. 19. The issue to do with the role of communication strategies in SLA What extent and in what ways they contribute to L2 learning. What aspect of interlanguage development is affected.
  20. 20. Thanks ,...


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