11. (570 BCE to 459 BCE)
• A mathematician and scientist.
• Credited with formulating the
• His work earned him many followers,
and he established a community
of learners who were devoted to
the study of religion and
12. (535 BCE to 475 BCE)
• Proposed that everything that
exists is based on a higher order
or plan which he called logos.
• For him, change is a permanent
aspect of the human condition as
he was credited with the saying,
“No man ever steps in the same
13. (460 BCE to 370 BCE)
• Devoted himself to the study of the
causes of natural phenomena;
• Among the first to propose that
matter is composed of tiny
particles called atoms.
14. (412 BCE to 323 BCE)
• A known advocate of living a
simple and virtuous life.
• For him, one should not talk of
virtue, but should show it in words
15. (341 BCE to 270 BCE)
• Believed that philosophy could
enable a man to live a life of
16. (470 BCE to 399 BCE)
• Considered the foremost philosopher
of ancient times.
• He was credited with formulating the
Socratic method (a means of
examining a topic by devising a
series of questions that let the learner
examinee and analyze his knowledge
and views regarding the topic.
17. (427 BCE to 347 BCE)
• A student of Socrates;
• Known for his dialectic – a method of
inquiry where two opposing ideas as
discussed in an attempt to arrive at
18. (384 BCE to 322 BCE)
• A prominent student to Plato;
• His studies in logic led to the
formulation of a formal process of
analyzing reasoning which gave rise
to deductive reasoning – the process
by which specific statements are
analyzed to reach a conclusion or
• Whenever we are confronted with an
experience, we always wonder how it
• “Where did we come from?” “Why do
we exist?” “For what purpose are we
21. (RENE DESCARTES)
• Descartes was famous for rejecting or
questioning established ideas, and
he even went as far as doubting his
• A critical and questioning
perspective is necessary to
determine if indeed these ideas or
views are correct or true.
22. (KARL JASPERS)
• A man is often confronted by
experiences which challenge his
ideas and frameworks.
• These challenges are called limit
situations, which are often
accompanied by feelings of
hopelessness, anxiety, or dread.
• To love wisdom is to have an
insatiable desire for truth.
• A philosopher seeks to continue to
question, to probe, and to discuss in
order to get to the bottom of things.
• “An unexamined life is not worth
24. What are some situations that compel a
person to engage in philosophical
How can a person benefit from
30. • The area in philosophy which
understands the human person from
a philosophical perspective –
integrating and synthesizing the
different branches of philosophy and
other fields of study to know the truth
about the human person
31. • What is philosophy?
• Why is there a need to philosophize?
• What are the branches of
• What is ‘Philosophy of the Human
32. Is it possible for a any person to
engage in philosophical discussion?
33. Make a list of 5 “Why?” Questions
“Why do we cry when we are sad, and
smile when we are happy?”