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Organization development

  2. About Organization Development (OD) Relatively new field of study – 50’s & 60’s OD is about how organizations and people function and how to get them function better Start Point – when the leader identifies an undesirable situation and seeks to change it. Focus - Making organizations function better (total system change). Orientation - Action (achieving results through planned activities). No unifying theory – just models of practice OD is an organization improvement strategy
  3. Intergroup conflictOrganization Interpersonal conflicts Low productivity Poor alignment to organization’s strategy Start Point
  4. Focus Change – new state of things, different from old state of things Can be viewed as an opportunity or as a threat Change First order change Second order change (making moderate adjustments) (reinvent, reengineer, rewrite) OD consultants are experts in organizational change What needs to be changed and how to go about it
  5. Orientation Diagnosing Taking Action Re-Diagnosing Taking New Action This process is known as ‘Action Research’ Change occurs based on the actions taken New knowledge comes from examining the results of the actions. Three ingredients: 1. Participation 2. OD consultant (as collaborator & colearner) 3. Iterative process of diagnosis & action
  6. Definition(s) of OD Organization Development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in organization ’ s “ processes ” , using behavioral-science knowledge. …Beckhard, 1969 Organization Development is a process of planned change – change of an organization ’ s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. …Burke & Hornstein, 1972 Organization Development is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving an organization ’ s effectiveness. …Cummings & Worley, 1993 Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization ’ s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technologies, research, and theory. …Burke, 1994
  7. Organization Development is… a system wide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organization effectiveness.
  8. History of OD Four major stems of OD (1) T-group (2) Survey Feedback Technology (3) Action research (4) Sociotechnical & Socioclinical approaches (1) T-Group (Laboratory Training) – participants learn from their own actions and the group’s evolving dynamics (2) Developing reliable questionnaires, collecting data from personnel, analyzing it for trends, and feeding the results back to everyone for action planning (3) Diagnosing, taking action, re-diagnosing and taking new action (4) Integrate social requirements of employees with technical requirements needed to do work in provided environment.
  9. Revolutionary Values & Beliefs of OD Organic systems (mutual confidence & trust) rather than mechanical systems (authority-obedience) …. Warren Bennis Basic units of change are groups, not individuals …. Richard Beckhard Away from resisting and fearing individual differences towards accepting and utilizing them …. Robert Tannenbaum Trust and respect for individual Open communication Decentralized decision making Collaboration and cooperation Appropriate use of powers Authentic interpersonal relationships Radical departure from accepted values and beliefs of 1960’s
  10. Second-Generation OD Organization Transformation Organizational Culture Learning Organization Total Quality Management Visioning and Future Search Business Process Reengineering Quality of Work Life
  11. Models and theories Kurt Lewin Change is a three-stage process Stage 1- Unfreezing the old behavior/ situation Stage 2- Moving to a new level of behaviors Stage 3- Refreezing the behavior at the new level Edgar Schein modified this theory by specifying psychological mechanisms involved in each stage Later Ronald Lippitt, Jeanne Watson and Bruce Westley expanded this model into seven-stage model
  12. Models and theories Contd.. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 7 Phase 6 Phase 5 Phase 4 Phase 3 Developing a need for change. Establishing the change relationship. Diagnosing the client system’s problem. Examining alternative routes, establishing goals and intentions of action. Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. Stabilizing change. Achieving a terminal relationship. Seven stage model representing the consulting process
  13. Models and theories Contd.. Five critical leverage points (tracks) for organization change 1. The culture track 2. The management skills track 3. The team-building track 4. The strategy-structure track 5. The reward system track AT&T, Eastman Kodak, Ford, General Electric, Xerox etc. Track 1 : Enhances trust, communication, information sharing Track 2 : Provide new ways of coping with complex problems Track 3 : Infuses new culture and updated management skills Track 4 : Develops revised strategy plan for organization Track 5 : Establishes performance based reward system Ralph Kilmann
  14. Models and theories Contd.. Warner Burke The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change Change First order change (Transactional change) Second order change (Transformational change) OD interventions directed towards structure, management practices, and systems (policies & procedures) result in first order change. OD interventions directed towards mission and strategy, leadership, and organization culture result in second order change.
  15. Models and theories Contd.. Transformational factors Transactional factors
  16. Models and theories Contd.. Jerry Porras Peter Robertson Porras & Robertson Model of Organizational Change OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviors, which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. Work setting factors Organizing arrangements Social factors Physical setting Technology 1 2 3 4
  17. Models and theories Contd.. Organizing arrangements Goals, strategies, structure, policies, procedures Social Factors Culture, management style, informal networks, individual attributes Physical Settings Space configuration, physical ambiance Technology Machinery, tools, IT, job design
  18. Systems Theory Organizations are open systems in active exchange with their environment David A. Nadler TheCongruenceModel
  19. Systems Theory Contd.. Eric Trist Sociotechnical Systems Theory (STS) All organizations comprised of two interdependent systems: 1. Social system 2. Technical system To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction, organizations must optimize both systems. Changes in one system affect the other system.
  20. Participation & Empowerment Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or top people; it is extended broadly throughout the organization. Increased participation and empowerment have always been central goals and fundamental values of OD. Participation enhances empowerment and empowerment in turn enhances performance. Empowerment is the key to getting people to want to participate in change.
  21. Teams & Teamwork Many tasks are so complex that they cannot be performed by individuals; people must work together to accomplish them. Putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance. Teams create synergy i.e. sum of efforts of team is far greater than sum of individual efforts. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. Examples – team building, quality circles etc. Characteristics of successful teams 1.clear, elevating goal 2.result driven structure 3.competent members 4.unified commitment 5.collaborative climate 6.standards of excellence 7.external support and recognition 8.principled leadership …..Larson & LaFasto
  22. Parallel Learning Structures A parallel learning structure consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups* that study what changes are needed, make recommendations of improvements, and monitor the change efforts. (* Idea groups, action groups, implementation groups etc.) One or more top executive should be part of steering committee Representatives from all parts of the organization In large bureaucratic organizations : 1. High forces of inertia 2. Hierarchical communication pattern 3. Standard ways of addressing problems Here parallel learning structures are best way to initiate change Inhibit : learning Innovation Change
  23. Normative-Reeducative Strategy of Change Norms form the basis for behavior, and change comes through reeducation in which old norms are discarded and replaced by new ones. Changes in normative orientations involve changes in: • Attitudes • Values • Skills • Relationships Norms can be best changed by focusing on the group, not the individual.
  24. Applied Behavioral Science OD is an application of behavioral science Pure/ Basic Science Applied Science Generating knowledge Knowledge to Solve practical problems Practice Theory : Diagnosing the situation, then selecting and implementing treatments based on diagnosis, and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. What helps me solve this problem? What helps me solve real problems? Applied Behavioral Science Practice Research Practice Theory Behavioral Science Research Behavioral Science Theory Pure/basicscience AppliedScience
  25. Researcher enters a problem situation, diagnoses it and make recommendations for remedial treatment (recommendations may not be put into effect by client group) People who are to take action are involved in the entire process from the beginning (involvement increases the likelihood of carrying out the actions once decided upon) Researcher keeps the systematic, extensive record of what he/ she did and what effects it had (may encounter situations too divergent from one another, which may not permit generalizations) It is controlled research on the relative effectiveness of various techniques (is difficult to do when client wants immediate answers) Diagnostic Participant Empirical Experimental Action Research Data Collection Feedback of data to client system members Action planning based on the data Taking action Evaluating results of actions Types Diagnostic Participant Empirical Experimental
  26. Managing the OD Process Three basic components of OD programs: Diagnosis Continuous collection of data about total system, its subunits, its processes, and its culture Action All activities and interventions designed to improve the organization’s functioning Program management All activities designed to ensure success of the program
  27. Diagnosing Organizational Subsystems Diagnostic targets Information sought Methods of Diagnosis The total organization Q) What is organization’s culture? Q) Are organizational goals and strategy understood and accepted? Q) What is organization’s performance? • Examination of organizational records – rules, regulations, policies • Questionnaire survey • Interviews (both group & individual) Large and complex subsystems Q) What are the unique demands on this subsystem? Q) Are organization structures and processes related to unique demands? Q) What are the major problems confronting this subsystem? • Questionnaire survey • Interviews • Observations • Organization records Small and simple subsystem Q) What are major problems of the team? Q) How can team effectiveness be improved? Q) Do individuals know how their jobs relate to organizational goals? • Individual interviews • group meeting to review the interview data • Questionnaires • Observation of staff meetings and other day- to-day operations Intergroup subsystems Q) How does each subsystem see the other? Q) What problems do the two groups have in working together? Q) How can they collaborate to improve performance of both groups? • Interviews of each subsystem followed by ‘sharing the data meeting’ • Flowcharting critical processes • Meetings between both groups Individuals Q) Do people perform according to organization’s expectations? Q) Do they need particular knowledge or skills? Q) What career development opportunities do they have/ want/ need? • Interviews • Information from diagnostic meetings • Data available with HR department Roles Q) Is the role defines adequately? Q) What is the ‘fit’ between person and role? Q) Is this the right person for this role? • Role analysis • Observations • Interviews
  28. Diagnosing Organizational Processes Organizational Processes Information sought Methods of Diagnosis Communication patterns, styles & flows Q) Is communication open or closed? Q) Is communication directed upward, downward, laterally? Q) Are communications filtered? ….. Why? How? • Observations – in meetings • Questionnaires • Interviews and discussion with group members Goal setting Q) Do people set goals? Q) Who participates? Q) Do they possess necessary skills for effective goal setting? • Questionnaires • Interviews • Observations Decision making, problem solving & action planning Q) Who makes decisions? Q) Are they effective? Q) Are additional decision making skills needed? • Observations of problem-solving meetings • Analysis of videotaped sessions • Organizational records Conflict resolution and management Q) Where does conflict exist? Q) Who are involved parties? Q) How is it being managed? • Interviews • Flowcharting critical processes • Meetings between both groups Superior-subordinate relations Q) What are the prevailing leadership styles? Q) What problems arise between superiors and subordinates? • Questionnaires •Interviews Strategic management & long range planning Q) Who is responsible for ‘looking ahead’ and making long term decisions? Q) Do they have adequate tools and support? Q) Have the recent long range decisions been effective? • Interviews of key policy makers • Group discussions • Examination of historical records
  29. Diagnosis – The Six-Box Model Leadership Purposes Relationships Helpful Mechanisms Rewards StructureWeisbord identifies six critical areas where things must go right if organisation is to be successful. According to him, the consultant must attend to both formal and informal aspects of each box. This model is still widely used by OD practitioners Marvin Weisbord
  30. Actions Interventions are the actions taken to produce desired changes. Four conditions that give rise to the need for OD interventions: 1. The organisation has a problem (corrective action – to fix it) 2. Organization sees an unrealized opportunity (enabling action – to seize the opportunity) 3. Features of organization are out of alignment (alignment action – to get things back ‘in sync’) 4. Yesterday’s vision is no longer good enough (action for new vision – actions to build necessary structures, processes and culture to make new vision a reality)
  31. Interventions Major families of OD interventions: 1. Diagnostic 2. Team-Building 3. Intergroup 4. Education and Training 5. Structural 6. Process Consultation 7. Grid Organization Development 8. Third-Party Peace Making 9. Coaching and Counseling 10.Life and Career Planning 11.Planning and Goal Setting 12.Strategic Management Each of these families of interventions includes many activities
  32. Example : Team Building Interventions Team building interventions Intact work teams Special teams Diagnostic meetings Team building focused on goal setting, decision making, problem solving etc. Building & mainitaining effective interpersonal relationships Role analysis techniques for role clarification & defination Team building focused on task accomplishment Task allocations Interunit conflicts Role negotiation
  33. Program Management Motivating Change Creating a Vision Developing Political Support Managing the Transition Sustaining Momentum Effective Change Management Cummings and Worley identified 5 sets of activities required for effective change management:
  34. Program Management Contd.. John P. Kotter Kotter’s 8-stage process for managing organizational change: Establishing a sense of urgency Creating a guiding coalition Developing a vision and strategy Communicating the change vision Empowering a broad base of people to take action Generating short term wins Consolidating gains and producing even more change Anchoring (institutionalizing) the new approaches into the culture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HBR,Mar-Apr1995,p.61
  35. SIGNIFICANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT • The term refers to the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents, aptitudes, values and beliefs of an organization’s workforce • Human resources development improves the utilization value of an organization • The efficiency of production process and various areas of management depends to a greater extent on the level of human resources development
  36. CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS • The vitality of human resources to a nation and to the industry depends upon the level of its development. • HRD assumes significance in view of the fast changing organizational environment and need of the organization to adopt new technologies in order to respond to the environmental changes due to: – Unprecedented increase in competition within and outside the country consequent upon the announcement and implementation of economic liberalization – Trends towards market economy are more prevalent in most of the countries indicating only the industries strong in all respects to continue in the market and other industries are forced to withdraw from the market
  37. THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT • HRD is mainly concerned with developing the skills, knowledge and competencies of people and it is people- oriented concept • The concept of HRD is not yet well conceived by various authors though they have defined the term from their approach as it is of recent origin and still is in the conceptualizing stage. • Many personnel managers and organizations view HRD as synonymous to training and development • The concept was formally introduced by Leonard Nadier in 1969 as “ those learning experiences which are organized for a specific time and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioural chang
  38. FEATURES OF HRD • HRD is a systematic and planned approach for the development of individuals in order to achieve organizational, group and individual goals • HRD is a continuous process for the development of technical, managerial, behavioural and conceptual skills and knowledge • HRD develops the skills and knowledge not only at the individual but also at dyadic level, group level and organizational level
  39. FEATURES OF HRD • HRD is multi-disciplinary. • It draws inputs from Engineering, Technology, Psychology, Anthropology, management, Commerce, Economics, Medicine etc. • HRD is embodied with techniques and processes • HRD is essential not only for manufacturing and service industry but also for information technology industry
  40. SCOPE OF HRD • Recruiting the employees within the dimensions and possibilities for developing human resources • Selecting those employees having potentialities for development to meet the present and future organizational needs • Analysing, appraising and developing performance of employees as individuals, members of a group and organizations with a view to develop them by identifying the gaps in skills and knowledge
  41. NEED FOR HRD • Changes in Economic Policies • Changing job requirements • Need for Multi-skilled Human Resources • Organizational viability and transformation process • Technological Advances • Organizational complexity • Human Relations
  42. HRD OBJECTIVES • To enhance organizational capabilities • To aid total quality management • To provide comprehensive framework for HRD • To prevent employee obsolenscence • To develop creative ability and talents • To prepare employee for higher level jobs • To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships
  43. HRD FRAMEWORK • Recent economic liberalization announced by the government of India tend towards market and economy and started creating more dynamic environment in India than ever before • Human resources planning for HRD should plan for human resources not only for the present and future jobs but also roles • Organizational plans including the plans for change, based on environmental opportunities and threats, are the basis to determine organizational requirements • Human resources to be acquired and developed are determined in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, values, aptitude, beliefs, commitment etc. • The outcomes of HRD are four-fold: to the organization, to the individuals, to the groups and to the society
  44. TECHNIQUES OF HRD • Performance Appraisal • Potential Appraisal • Employee Training • Executive Development • Career Planning and Development • Social and Cultural Programmes • Organizational change & Organizational Development • Workers’ participation in management
  45. TECHNIQUES OF HRD • Quality Circles • Employee Counselling • Role Analysis • Communication Policies and practices • Monetary Rewards • Non-monetary Rewards • Employee Benefits, and • Grievance Mechanism
  46. HRD OUTCOMES • HRD outcomes provide the ground rules to build an organization excelling in people, processes, products and profits: – Training makes people more competent – There is greater clarity of norms and standards – People become more committed to their jobs – People develop great trust and respect for each other – HRD helps inducing multi-skills to the employees
  47. THE FUNCTIONS OF HRD MANAGER • Role analysis • HR planning • Recruitment • Selection • Placement • Induction and orientation • Performance Appraisal • Training
  48. THE FUNCTIONS OF HRD MANAGER • Management development • Career Planning and development • Organization Development • Compensation • Social and Cultural Programmes • Workers’ Participation in Management • Quality Circles • Employee Counselling • Teamwork
  49. HRD TASKS OF LINE MANAGER • Appraisal • Sub-system Training • Career
  50. ATTRIBUTES OF AN HRD MANAGER • Technical – Knowledge and skill in counselling – Knowledge of behavioural sciences – Knowledge of techniques in behavioural research • Managerial – Organizing ability, – Systems development skills
  51. • Personality – Initiative – Faith in human being and their capabilities – Positive attitude towards others – Imagination and creativity – Concern for excellence – Concern for people and their development – Attitude for research and development work – Interest in learning new things – Ability to work as a team member