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FMA2001 L1 Aquaculture history.pptx

  1. Principles of Aquaculture FMA2001 (2+1)
  2. Course name: Principles of Aquaculture (FMA2001) Credit 3 (2+1) Learning outcomes: Students able to 1. relate history, principles and techniques in aquaculture 2. explain basic biology and economical principles related to aquaculture 3. analyze problems related to aquaculture This course covers the history and development of aquaculture, differences between aquaculture practices, biological and economics principles in aquaculture. The needs and physicochemical quality of water is also emphasized.
  3. FMA2001 Assessment Test 1 (before week 5) 10% Test 2/Quiz (before week 9) 10% Presentation 10% Group assignment 10% Report 20% Final Exam 40% TOTAL 100%
  4. Principles of Aquaculture FMA2001 (2+1) LU 1: Aquaculture and history
  5. Learning Outcomes 1. The definition of aquaculture, mariculture 2. Purpose and importance aquaculture 3. History and development
  6. Aquaculture DEFINITIONS •The farming of aquatic organisms including fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants. (Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations) •Rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. Underwater agriculture. •The controlled production of aquatic organisms •Aqua-farming
  7. Mariculture • Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater.
  8. Fisheries / Fishery Capture of aquatic organisms in marine, coastal and inland areas. (FAO)
  9. HISTORY • Human basic needs: food and shelter. • Collect and hunting. • Increase population, less food availability. • Culture plants and animals for food. • Food surplus, pursue other priorities.
  10. • Foraging and hunting. • Agriculture and fishing. • Story from spear and hooks, fishnets to mode of payment and salary, herring industry, preserved herring, 15th century herring disappear, commercial fishing, small boats, traps, nets, sailing vessels, larger vessels and more developed methods. • Resources depleted • Develop from fishing practices (trapping > holding > maintain for freshness > feeding).
  11. Australia: • Gunditjmara people raised eels 6000B.C China: • 3500 B.C, common carp. • 475 B.C, documentation for broodstock selection, stocking, managing ponds. • A.D 618-906, polyculture – grow more than one species in the same water. • Fish rearing integrated with sugarcane, fruit, forage crops, vegetables
  12. • Egypt: tilapia drawing on tomb. 2000 B.C • Japan: Farming oyster. 1000 B.C • India: Fattening fish in pond. 321-300 B.C • Roman: saltwater and freshwater, fish pond, oysters. 1 B.C • English and Europe: Artificially fertilize, incubate trout eggs. 11th Century. • Hawaii: coastal ponds flooded for stocking marine organisms. 500 years ago • Korea: 15th century seaweed culture • German: Farmer gathered fish eggs, fertilized, grew and raised. 1733
  13. Malaysia • Started 1920’s, Polyculture in ex-mining pools • Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) • Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) • Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) • 1930’s, marine shrimp trapping ponds
  14. • 1940’s, blood cockles (Anadara granosa) • 1950’s, freshwater fish in earthern ponds • 1970’s, semi-intensive shrimp culture, green grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in floating net cage culture • 1990’s, intensive commercial aquaculture
  15. Emergence of Aquaculture since 1950s • Harvest stagnation • Overexploitation • High demand for protein • Cheapest animal protein • Fish have highest food conversion rate • Government: food security, economy, employment opportunity
  16. food conversion rate
  17. Importance • Food • Jewellery • Stock enhancement • Ornamental • Bait production • Pharmaceutical products • Nutritional supplements
  18. Status in Malaysia • Brackish water, freshwater, pond, marine aquaculture • Majority shellfish & finfish (blood cockles, tiger prawn, whiteleg shirmp, tilapia, cat fish, carp) • Government priority area in 1998-2010. Challenges: land acquisition, production cost, lack skill labour, disease. • Research priority: Aquaculture as alternative source of fish supply. • Brackish water aquaculture (70% of total production in 2003)
  19. ● Aquaculture contributing 0.2% of Gross domestic product (GDP) ● Successful poverty alleviation program: bivalve molluscs culture at coastal area, seaweed culture in Sabah, tilapia in earthen ponds, floating net-cages in lakes and reservoirs. ● Development of marine fisheries & aquaculture under Department of Fisheries Malaysia (DoF), Fisheries Act 1985. ● Development of freshwater fisheries & aquaculture under Ministry of Modernisation of Agriculture, Native Land and Regional Development, State Fisheries Ordinance 2003.
  20. ● 7th Malaysia Plan (1996-2000) - Aquaculture as critical activity to ensure food security ● 8th Malaysia Plan (2001-2005) - Enhance aquaculture development ● Potential export earner after oil palm and rubber. (most productive income per hectare per annum and return to investment) ● Aquaculture requires land. 400,000 ha of land and inland water bodies suitable. Competition with other economic activities makes land acquisition difficult. ● High production cost, lack skill labour, threat of disease, quality of produce ● Fish consumption index 53.1kg (2011) 61.1kg (2020)
  21. • Applied research, education and training: Fisheries Research Institute Malaysia, UPM, USM, National Agriculture Training Institute • University Putra Malaysia • University Malaysia Terengganu • University Malaysia Sabah • Universiti Malaysia Sarawak • Universiti Selangor • Tunku Abdul Rahman University College Johor Branch
  22. Status in ASEAN Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, Cambodia (inland fisheiries) (top 25 countries in aquaculture volume)
  23. Global Status ● The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Goal SDG14 : Conserve and sustainably use the ocean, seas and marine resources for sustainable development ● The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018: critical importance of fisheries and aquaculture for food, nutrition and employment of millions of people. ● Fish production 2016 = 171million tonnes (88% for direct human consumption)