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HISTORY
THEORIES
PRINCIPLES
the
of urban and regional planning
RAGENE ANDREA L. PALMA, EnP
ragenepalma@gmail.com
and
HOW TO REMEMBER CONCEPTS
JOT DOODLE CONNECT
TELL ME IF YOU NEED ME TO
STOP REPEAT ELABORATE
I will discuss everything I can

The more you draw, the better

I arranged the lecture so that concepts
are clustered

I p...
WHAT WE’LL LEARN ABOUT
1  The history and foundation of urban and
regional planning
2  Theories
3  Evolution of urban form...
?
Urban and regional planning
Town and country planning
Environmental planning
Human settlements planning
City planning
Ma...
“urban”
“regional”
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/
Skyscrapers_of_Shinjuku_2009_January_(revised).jpg/900px-
Skysc...
“urban”
of, relating to, characteristic of, or
constituting a city (Merriam Webster)
LARGE CITY
LARGE AMOUNT
SIGNIFICANTLY...
“regional”
Google
of or relating to a particular region,
district, area, or part, as of a
country; sectional; local
LOCALI...
“rural”
“environmental”
“rural”
“environmental”
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Barossa_Valley_South_Australia.jpg
http://www....
“rural”
LOW
POPULATION
OFTEN AGRICULTURALLY-BASED
of or relating to the country and
the people who live there
instead of t...
“environmental”
relating to the natural world and the
impact of human activity on its condition
PERSON’S
SURROUNDINGS
LIVI...
http://
www.nscb.gov.p
h/activestats/
psgc/articles/
con_urbanrural.
asp
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/group-business-people-meeting-
planning-41699625.jpg
What is planning?
“planning”
PROCESS
SEQUENCE
ACTIVITY
ORGANIZATION
PROFESSION
DISCIPLINE
INVOLVES
ALLOCATION
STRATEGY-
MAKING
GOAL AND
OBJE...
Environmental planning, also known as urban
and regional planning, city planning, town and
country planning, and/or human ...
I’M A
PLANNER.
In the Philippines, an environmental
planner refers to a person who is
registered and licensed to practice
...
what is
my role?
o  One who creates and
recommends plans on land
use and other planning fields
o  An advisor and regulator ...
Let’s start history with the
Ancients.
http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/64/89964-050-7C939C5B.gif
MESOPOTAMIA

10,000 BC – 7TH CENTURY AD
•  “Fertile crescent” means land between rivers
•  Scope of the Tigris and Euphrat...
MESOPOTAMIA
http://lhmrramsey.com/Mesopotamia.jpg
Sketch what you just saw.
They say planners see things that
other’s don’t.
What can you derive from
Mesopotamia?
http://lhmrramsey.com/Mesopotamia.jpg
ZIGGURAT
MOAT
HIGHER BUILDINGS
SMALLER HOUSES
AGRICULTURAL LANDS
MESOPOTAMIA

10,000 BC – 7TH CENTURY AD
•  Sumer was one of the early civilizations
•  15 city-states created
•  Religion ...
ANCIENT EGYPT
http://newlinetravel.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Ancient-Egypt-Pyramids-4.jpg
ANCIENT EGYPT

3,000 – 300 BC
•  Religion still powerful: Ancient Egyptians
worshipped kings as gods
•  Once buried, lives...
http://newlinetravel.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Ancient-Egypt-Pyramids-4.jpg
PYRAMID IS A TOMB
PHAROAH HEAD ON
MORTUAR...
ANCIENT GREECE
http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2013/12/acropolis-athens-H.jpeg
HIPPODAMUS OF MILETUS

498-408 BC
•  “Inventor / father of formal city planning”
•  Made the Hippodamian Plan or the grid ...
PIRAEUS GRID
museumofthecity.org
PIRAEUS
museumofthecity.org
CHICAGO
BUENOS AIRES
PLATO

428 - 347 BC
•  Established the Polluter Pays Principle
“If any one internationally pollutes the water of another,
...
PLATO

428 - 347 BC
•  Polluter Pays is in our Environmental Code (PD1152)
It shall be the responsibility of the polluter ...
ARISTOTLE

384 - 322 BC
•  Provided the foundation for the concept of
intergenerational equity
•  For our children’s child...
ARISTOTLE

384 - 322 BC
INTERGENERATIONAL
EQUITY
http://www.unis.unvienna.org/images/2015/Infographic_5_elem_related_l.jpg
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
THE ROMAN EMPIRE

29 BC – 393 AD
•  Excelled in military science and engineering
•  Designs and inventions looked at impro...
ROME, THE
IMPERIAL CITY
http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
WALLED FOR
PROTECTION
“CASTRA”
OR CAMP
GRID...
VIA APPIA
http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
THE ROMAN FORUM
http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
COLOSSEUM
http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
THE ROMAN EMPIRE

29 BC – 393 AD
•  Heavily dependent on water
•  Engineered sewerage, canals, hydraulics
roman aqueducts....
THE ROMAN EMPIRE

29 BC – 393 AD
•  Socio-political events resulted to religious
divisions, absence of military discipline...
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Lorenzetti_amb.effect2.jpg
THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD

5TH – 15TH CENTURY AD
•  The church and monasticism
•  Rise of Islam
•  Byzantine empire
•  State pow...
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Lorenzetti_amb.effect2.jpg
HIGH WALLS
CENTER OF
ACTIVITIES
MUNICH, GERMANYmaps.google.com
CATHEDRAL
IN CENTER
WITH
DEFINED
BOUNDARY
RADIAL GROWTH
CATHEDRAL CITIES
•  Cathedral or monument as a focal point of the
city
•  Radial growth
•  Retained the walled city from R...
RENAISSANCE
https://daliennation.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/renaissance.jpg
RENAISSANCE

14TH TO 17TH CENTURY AD
•  Commerce as a driving factor
•  Called for accessibility and mobility
•  Like the ...
RENAISSANCE
maps.google.com
VENICE, ITALY
FINGERS
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI

1404-1472
•  Wrote the De Re Aedificatoria: Ten books of
planning and design principles
Growth is
ch...
GEORGES-EUGENE HAUSSMANN

1809-1891
PLAN AND RENOVATION OF PARIS
GEORGES-EUGENE HAUSSMANN

1809-1891
travellingandfood.com
ARC DE TRIOMPHE
AS CENTER
RADIATING
OUTWARD
AVENUES
LINED WITH
T...
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
https://nextdaybetter.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/DC.jpg
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT

1800s – 1900s
•  Emphasized beauty and aesthetics
•  Think monuments, grand buildings, parks,
per...
DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM

1846-1912
•  Father of American
City Planning
•  Together with
Frederick Law
Olmstead and John
Well...
DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM

1846-1912
“Make no little plans; they have no magic to
stir men’s blood and probably themselves wil...
CHICAGO MANILA BAGUIO
burnhampi.files.wordpress.com
•  Greatest feat was the Plan of Chicago (called Paris on
a Prairie); o...
CANBERRA
http://www.capitalmetro.act.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0020/802730/Canberra-
Carosel.jpg
MELBOURNE
http://accorhotels.com.au/files/MelbourneBridge_2400x1350_0.jpg
SIR EBENEZER HOWARD

1850 - 1928
•  Wrote the book Garden Cities of Tomorrow
•  Addressed population and pollution that ca...
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Garden_City_Concept_by_Howard.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Garden_City_Concept_by_Howard.jpg
5,000-acre
CENTRAL CITY
58,000 PEOPL...
http://33.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_mb1k1lYqWy1rsuub0o1_500.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Howard-three-magnets.png
SIR RAYMOND UNWIN

Architect – city planner for Letchworth

Wrote Nothing Gained by Overcrowding
SIR FREDERIC JAMES OSBORN...
http://www.letchworth.com/sites/default/files/images/letchworth_aerial_photos_142.jpg
http://www.shropshirestar.com/wpmvc/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/6114828.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/
The_Metropolitan_Green_Belt_among_the_green_belts_of_England.sv...
question
What do you call the area
between a city and the
outskirts?
say it
URBAN FRINGE
LE CORBUSIER

(CHARLES EDOUARD JEANNERET)

1887-1965
•  Created the Radiant City
•  Modernist, futuristic, and orderly
•  ...
http://alanamuir.wikispaces.com/file/view/Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jpg/333908066/
Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jp...
http://alanamuir.wikispaces.com/file/view/Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jpg/333908066/
Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jp...
?
GARDEN CITY RADIANT CITY
GARDEN CITY RADIANT CITY
FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT

1867-1959
•  Champion and proponent of urban decentralisation
•  Involved communities
•  Designed the ...
http://metropolismag.com/images/cache/cache_a/cache_6/cache_b/broadacre1-9c603b6a.jpeg?
ver=1415421530&aspectratio=1.78082...
http://mediaarchitecture.at/architekturtheorie/broadacre_city/content/
quadruple_block_plan_jss_022802_wright_008.jpg
HENRY WRIGHT

1878-1936
CLARENCE STEIN

1882-1975
RADBURN
http://www.fradkinmcalpin.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/1130x640-fradkin-mcalpin-nyc-
architects-projects-3-radburn-nj-11...
https://c2.staticflickr.com/8/7070/6974616023_cfc849f274_b.jpg
CLARENCE STEIN

1882-1975
•  Initiated plans to produce greenbelt resettlements all
over the US
•  Wrote the book Toward N...
https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/60/57/b8/6057b80059133de5d5d850cbe9f8e621.jpg
GARDEN ISLAND
CUL-DE-SACS
THOROUGH...
CLARENCE PERRY

1872-1944
•  Conceptualized the
neighborhood unit
•  Similar to the
superblock
•  Bounded by major
streets...
https://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/planning/research/urban-regional-development-governance/images/from-the-sky
SIR PATRICK GEDDES

1954-1932
•  Introduced the notion of a region
•  Became the Father of Regional Planning
•  Biologist,...
spur.org
THE VALLEY SECTION
spur.org
THE VALLEY SECTION
RIDGE-TO-REEF
SIR PATRICK GEDDES

1954-1932
•  Introduced the
term conurbation, which
means “an aggregation of
continuous network of
urb...
SIR LESLIE PATRICK ABERCROMBIE

1954-1932
•  Created the post-war plans for London, and combatted
sprawling by resettlemen...
thesemaphoreline.wordpress.com
SOCIAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
CENTRAL
COMMUNITIES
SUBURBAN
COMMUNITIES
OPEN SPACES
SHOPPIN...
LEWIS MUMFORD

1895-1990
•  A historian-sociologist who studied cities and
architecture
•  From his 23 books, the most pro...
Mumford was friends
with City Beautiful
advocates Frank Lloyd
Wright, Clarence Stein,
and Frederic Osborn.
Mumford and
Wri...
BENTON MCKAYE

1879-1975
•  Originator of the 3,500 km Appalachian Trail in the
eastern United States (Georgia to Maine)
•...
atc.civicore.com and daveallenphotography.com
personal.umich.edu, Wikipedia, ak-cahce.legacy.net, boiseplanning.wordpress.com
THE FOUNDERS: Clarence Stein, Benton McKay...
https://www.vectoropenstock.com/media/users/2049/76727/raw/83c2a55cb583cdb1c73f9313b3f719c0-industrial-
cityscape-silhouet...
EDWARD BASSETT

1863-1948
•  Urban planner and lawyer who was the Father of
American Zoning. He was the first to use zoning...
DON ARTURO SORIA Y MATA

1844-1920
•  Made the concept Linear City, which has many
parallel and specialized functions
Wiki...
DON ARTURO SORIA Y MATA

1844-1920
The linear city gears away from the usual centric urban
forms. The lines help control t...
TONY GARNIER

1869-1948
•  Made the concept Linear Industrial City, which has
many parallel and specialized functions
•  U...
aria.archi.fr and s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com
•  Plan caters to 35,000 residents
•  Follows the principles of funciton, g...
THOMAS ADAMS

1871-1940
•  Worked primarily on low-density residences or garden
suburbs
•  Founded the British Town Planni...
http://ekistics.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/first_forest_img_02.jpg
CONSTANTINOS APOSTOLOS DOXIADIS

1914-1975
•  Studied the science of
human settlements,
called ekistics
•  Looks into the ...
skyscrapercity.com
GRID
PRINCIPLES
OF EKISTICS
ISLAMABAD
FRANCIS STUART CHAPIN

1888-1974
•  As a sociologist
and educator, he
stressed the
importance of
quantifying social
activi...
http://financialtribune.com/sites/default/files/field/image/07_AH_Transportation%20439-ab-ED.jpg
IRA LOWRY
•  Published A Model of Metropolis, a computer model for
spatial organization of anthropogenic activities in a
m...
say it
distance decay
h"ps://www.cmu.edu/joss/content/ar4cles/volume4/KrempelPlumper_files/m1.jpg	
  
(The farther the dist...
Wikipedia
WILLIAM LEVITT

1907-1994
•  Father of American Suburbia / The King of Suburbia /
The Inventor of the Suburb
•  Mass produ...
http://www.dailytexanonline.com/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/
2013/10/2013-10-18_Traffic_I-35_Joe.Capraro2...
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Saskatoon_gated_community.JPG
SO COMMUNITIES
BECAME GATED
twisted sifter.com
SUCH A TERRIBLE WASTE OF SPACE. L
http://thewestendmuseum.org/wordpress/wp-content/gallery/urban-renewal/urban_web.jpg
CATHERINE BAUER WURSTER

1905-1964
•  An advocate of social and public housing. She
authored the American Housing Act of 1...
ROBERT MOSES

1888-1981
•  The Master Builder of New York
•  His plans had parkways, expressways, and housing
development
...
http://untappedcities.com/2013/12/18/5-things-in-nyc-we-can-blame-on-robert-moses/
http://www.shropshirepcas.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Pcas-support-250x300.jpg
SAUL DAVID ALINSKY

1909-1972
•  Founder of modern community organizing
•  Wrote the book Rules for Radicals 
•  Worked wi...
SHERRY ARNSTEIN

1909-1972
•  Social and health worker
•  Published an article on the ladder of citizen
participation, whi...
lithgow-schmidt.dk 8 RUNGS OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
Can you give me some
examples of advocacies in
planning?
Can you give me some
examples of advocacies in
planning?
PARTICIPATORY
CO-MANAGEMENT
SOCIAL INCLUSION
SUSTAINABILITY
https://www.cnu.org/sites/default/files/styles/homepage_slider/public/UptownNormal_hero_0.jpg?
itok=XEvcy15V
NEW URBANISM
What do you notice
about the picture?
https://www.cnu.org/sites/default/files/styles/homepage_slider/public/UptownNormal_hero_0.jpg?
itok=XEvcy15V
PUBLIC SPACE
P...
http://osmosnetwork.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/jane_jacobs.jpg
JANE JACOBS

1916-2006
•  An urban activist who
was strong and vocal
against urban renewal;
she fought for new
urbanism
• ...
planetizen.com
MOSES VS JACOBS
archdaily.com
http://www.palauconservation.org/cms/images/stories/programImages/watershedLandUses.png
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
RACHEL LOUISE CARSON

1907-1964
•  A marine biologist
•  Wrote the powerful book Silent Spring, a haunting
compilation and...
IAN MCHARG

1920-2001
•  Was called an
“architect who valued a
site’s natural features”
•  Transformed efforts of
traditio...
IAN MCHARG

1920-2001
•  Wrote the book Design with Nature, which triggered
responsible planning of landscapes, respecting...
EXPLORATORY
PREDICTIVE
NORMATIVE
https://heimatkunde.boell.de/sites/default/files/
uploads/2008/12/push-pull.jpg
http://www.emigration.link/images/push-
pull-04.png
http://image.slidesharecdn.com/
migration-1-1204994446996443-4-14010814531
2-phpapp02/95/migration-ruralurban-5-638.jpg?
c...
https://thegreenhorns.files.wordpress.com/
2014/08/berglee-fig04_008.jpg
Theory Rural areas organize agricultural production in support of
an urban center. Distance from the center determines the...
https://www.google.com/url?
sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjpseKz8c7MAhXElJQKHYXRB
9oQjBwIBA&url=http%3...
Theory The range of good and threshold population of retail shops
and service establishments are the major influences in
ex...
http://www.mygeo.info/skripte/skript_bevoelkerung_siedlung/images/lanu26.gif
how to draw it
how to draw it
how to draw it
how to draw it
Central Place Theory in the Philippines
: Malls
http://outoftownblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Inside-SM-Mall-of-Asia...
https://apmodels.wikispaces.com/file/view/weber_7.gif/133610959/403x280/weber_7.gif
Theory A factory or plant locates where transport and labor costs
are at a minimum, determined by cost of distance vs.
wei...
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/Bid_rent1.svg/2000px-
Bid_rent1.svg.png
PRICE IS SET,
TIERS ARE LIMITED
BID RENT PUSHES AWAY
THOSE WHO CANNOT
MATCH THE PRICES
CREATES
CONCENTRIC
PATTERNS
THIS IS WHY SLUMS
SURROUND A BETTER
OFF...
Theory The price of and demand for land changes according to the
distance from the center (CBD). The center commands the
h...
https://0901.static.prezi.com/preview/
iuat5aejdzhenvd4ynqqvsekyt6jc3sachvcdoaizecfr3dnitcq_0_0.png
https://www.asu.edu/co...
LEAPFROG!
Theory Birth, mortality rates, and population movement are major
determinants of settlement patterns.
Findings Migration i...
http://www.geographylwc.org.uk/A/AS/
ASpopulation/images/push%20pulled.jpg
MIGRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Theory Migration is an economic dimension of rural dwellers where
individual and household members believe that there is a...
https://www.populationeducation.org/sites/
default/files/dtm.png
WARREN THOMSON’S 1919 DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL
THEORY:...
http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well-
Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_U...
http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well-
Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_U...
MCGRANAHAN’S 2009 

URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSITION THEORY
THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNET’S CURVE
Development Environment
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4e/Environmental_Kuznets_Curve.png
http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well-
Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_U...
http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well-
Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_U...
http://www.assignmentpoint.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Five-Stages-of-
Development.jpg
ROSTOW’S 1960

STAGES OF GROWTH
...
http://www.assignmentpoint.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Five-Stages-of-
Development.jpg
ROSTOW’S 1960

STAGES OF GROWTH
...
http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lmklviriHi1qil6h5.gif
WALLERSTEIN’S WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEM THEORY
http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lmklviriHi1qil6h5.gif
WALLERSTEIN’S WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEM THEORY
STRONG
CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
...
https://figures.boundless-cdn.com/5979/large/
harper-midway-chicago.jpeg
SO MANY
THINKERS!
http://cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/clip_image008_thumb8.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-yg3tTntN3uc/T-
ythq70YfI/AAAAAAAAAGA/TzjSWwGWTkM/
s1600/Chicago+School.png
http://egg-humangeography.weebly.com/
uploads/2/0/5/0/20502018/801740_orig.gif
BURGESS ET AL’S CONCENTRIC MODEL (1923)
https://egyptgeo.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/
screen-shot-2015-04-28-at-9-08-47-am-
e1430441496362.png
INCOME, PROFIT POTEN...
http://cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp-content/
uploads/2014/05/clip_image0102.jpg
PETER MANN’S CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL (1965)
http://cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp-content/
uploads/2014/05/clip_image0102.jpg
PETER MANN’S CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL (1965)...
https://aphug.wikispaces.com/file/view/hoyt.png/
72462597/hoyt.png
HOMER HOYT’S SECTOR MODEL (1939)
https://aphug.wikispaces.com/file/view/hoyt.png/
72462597/hoyt.png
HOMER HOYT’S SECTOR MODEL (1939)
WEDGE-SHAPED
UPPER CLAS...
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/
Multiple_nuclei_model.svg/450px-Multiple_nuclei_model.svg.png
H...
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/
Multiple_nuclei_model.svg/450px-Multiple_nuclei_model.svg.png
H...
https://taylorgeoitalyisawesome.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/multiple-
nuclei-model1.png
https://taylorgeoitalyisawesome.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/multiple-
nuclei-model-sketch-up1.png
http://geographylaunchpad.weebly.com/uploads/
2/5/4/1/25412597/8251168.jpg?581
http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/article_image.php?
image_type=article&id=92
http://s2.thingpic.com/images/Ux/58gecjuCZvntnJhQK6xQ32AA.png
http://ihouse.hkedcity.net/~hm1203/settlement/models-new-color.gif
Where are the paths?
littlemissurbanite.wordpress.com
+ prelims
+ exam overview
+ filing
+ expectations
+ planning bibles
+ TIPS J
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning
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History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning

This presentation is a compilation of selected topics on the history of urbanization, urban and regional planning theories, urban thinkers and their contributes, concepts, bases of land use, applicability to the Philippine setting, and a briefer of urban design elements.

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History, Theories, Principles of Urban and Regional Planning

  1. 1. HISTORY THEORIES PRINCIPLES the of urban and regional planning RAGENE ANDREA L. PALMA, EnP ragenepalma@gmail.com and
  2. 2. HOW TO REMEMBER CONCEPTS JOT DOODLE CONNECT
  3. 3. TELL ME IF YOU NEED ME TO STOP REPEAT ELABORATE
  4. 4. I will discuss everything I can
 The more you draw, the better
 I arranged the lecture so that concepts are clustered
 I pulled together the highlights
 But out of my 200 slides about 5-10 topics will just pop out in the exam
  5. 5. WHAT WE’LL LEARN ABOUT 1  The history and foundation of urban and regional planning 2  Theories 3  Evolution of urban forms 4  Types of planning 5  The role of a planner
  6. 6. ? Urban and regional planning Town and country planning Environmental planning Human settlements planning City planning Master planning
  7. 7. “urban” “regional”
  8. 8. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/ Skyscrapers_of_Shinjuku_2009_January_(revised).jpg/900px- Skyscrapers_of_Shinjuku_2009_January_(revised).jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/ Regional_Internet_Registries_world_map.svg/2000px- Regional_Internet_Registries_world_map.svg.png
  9. 9. “urban” of, relating to, characteristic of, or constituting a city (Merriam Webster) LARGE CITY LARGE AMOUNT SIGNIFICANTLY- DEVELOPED AREA http://www.investorwords.com/5192/urban.html DISTANCE BETWEEN BUILDINGS IS VERY SMALL
  10. 10. “regional” Google of or relating to a particular region, district, area, or part, as of a country; sectional; local LOCALIZED A PART OF TERRITORIAL PROVINCE DISTRICTDIVISION SECTION QUARTER ZONE BELT PART
  11. 11. “rural” “environmental”
  12. 12. “rural” “environmental” https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Barossa_Valley_South_Australia.jpg http://www.breakingnewstime.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/in.jpg
  13. 13. “rural” LOW POPULATION OFTEN AGRICULTURALLY-BASED of or relating to the country and the people who live there instead of the city COUNTRYSIDE SPARSELY POPULATED AREA
  14. 14. “environmental” relating to the natural world and the impact of human activity on its condition PERSON’S SURROUNDINGS LIVING ORGANISM SOIL CLIMATE CHANGE PLANTS AND ANIMALS NATURAL FORCES
  15. 15. http:// www.nscb.gov.p h/activestats/ psgc/articles/ con_urbanrural. asp
  16. 16. http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/group-business-people-meeting- planning-41699625.jpg
  17. 17. What is planning?
  18. 18. “planning” PROCESS SEQUENCE ACTIVITY ORGANIZATION PROFESSION DISCIPLINE INVOLVES ALLOCATION STRATEGY- MAKING GOAL AND OBJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION OUTLINING OF TASKS ORDERLY STEP-BY-STEP PLACE-MAKING
  19. 19. Environmental planning, also known as urban and regional planning, city planning, town and country planning, and/or human settlements planning, refers to the multi-disciplinary art and science of analyzing, specifying, clarifying, harmonizing, managing and regulating the use and development of land and water resources, in relation to their environs, for the development of sustainable communities and ecosystems. (RA 10587)
  20. 20. I’M A PLANNER. In the Philippines, an environmental planner refers to a person who is registered and licensed to practice environmental planning and who holds a valid Certificate of Registration and a valid Professional Identification Card from the Board of Environmental Planning and the Professional Regulation Commission. (RA10587) http://img.freeflagicons.com/thumb/waving_flag/philippines/philippines_640.png
  21. 21. what is my role? o  One who creates and recommends plans on land use and other planning fields o  An advisor and regulator to the government, private sector, and the communities o  An urban designer o  Someone who looks far into the future for the welfare of a place o  A capacity builder, facilitator, and educator o  An advocate of causes
  22. 22. Let’s start history with the Ancients.
  23. 23. http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/64/89964-050-7C939C5B.gif
  24. 24. MESOPOTAMIA
 10,000 BC – 7TH CENTURY AD •  “Fertile crescent” means land between rivers •  Scope of the Tigris and Euphrates river systems •  Water as a basis of urban development
  25. 25. MESOPOTAMIA http://lhmrramsey.com/Mesopotamia.jpg
  26. 26. Sketch what you just saw. They say planners see things that other’s don’t. What can you derive from Mesopotamia?
  27. 27. http://lhmrramsey.com/Mesopotamia.jpg ZIGGURAT MOAT HIGHER BUILDINGS SMALLER HOUSES AGRICULTURAL LANDS
  28. 28. MESOPOTAMIA
 10,000 BC – 7TH CENTURY AD •  Sumer was one of the early civilizations •  15 city-states created •  Religion was power purpleteal.wordpress.com
  29. 29. ANCIENT EGYPT http://newlinetravel.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Ancient-Egypt-Pyramids-4.jpg
  30. 30. ANCIENT EGYPT
 3,000 – 300 BC •  Religion still powerful: Ancient Egyptians worshipped kings as gods •  Once buried, lives forever •  Pyramids constructed in capital cities •  Cities of dead people (necropolis)
  31. 31. http://newlinetravel.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Ancient-Egypt-Pyramids-4.jpg PYRAMID IS A TOMB PHAROAH HEAD ON MORTUARY TEMPLE TEMPLES
  32. 32. ANCIENT GREECE http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2013/12/acropolis-athens-H.jpeg
  33. 33. HIPPODAMUS OF MILETUS
 498-408 BC •  “Inventor / father of formal city planning” •  Made the Hippodamian Plan or the grid city to maximise winds in the summer and minimise them in winter •  Has a geometric, arranged style in design •  Also worked on the Piraeus Port and Alexandria
  34. 34. PIRAEUS GRID museumofthecity.org
  35. 35. PIRAEUS museumofthecity.org
  36. 36. CHICAGO
  37. 37. BUENOS AIRES
  38. 38. PLATO
 428 - 347 BC •  Established the Polluter Pays Principle “If any one internationally pollutes the water of another, whether the water of a spring, or collected in reservoirs, either by poisonous substances, or by digging, or by theft, let the injured party bring the cause before the wardens of the city, and claim in writing the value of the loss; if the accused be found guilty of injuring the water by deleterious substances, let him not only pay damages, but purify the stream or the cistern which contains the water, in such manner as the laws… order the purification to be made by the offender in each case.” 
  39. 39. PLATO
 428 - 347 BC •  Polluter Pays is in our Environmental Code (PD1152) It shall be the responsibility of the polluter to contain, remove, and clean-up water pollution incidents at his own expense. In case of his failure to do so, the government agencies concerned shall undertake containment, removal, and clean-up operations and expenses incurred in said operations shall be against the persons and/or entities responsible for such pollution.
  40. 40. ARISTOTLE
 384 - 322 BC •  Provided the foundation for the concept of intergenerational equity •  For our children’s children Human well-being is realised only partly by satisfying whatever people’s preferences happen to be at a particular time; it is also necessary for successive generations to leave behind sufficient resources so that future generations are not constrained in their preferences.” 
  41. 41. ARISTOTLE
 384 - 322 BC INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY http://www.unis.unvienna.org/images/2015/Infographic_5_elem_related_l.jpg
  42. 42. THE ROMAN EMPIRE http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
  43. 43. THE ROMAN EMPIRE
 29 BC – 393 AD •  Excelled in military science and engineering •  Designs and inventions looked at improving transport and military strategies
  44. 44. ROME, THE IMPERIAL CITY http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg WALLED FOR PROTECTION “CASTRA” OR CAMP GRID STREETS
  45. 45. VIA APPIA http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
  46. 46. THE ROMAN FORUM http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
  47. 47. COLOSSEUM http://cdn.history.com/sites/2/2014/01/roman-forum.jpg
  48. 48. THE ROMAN EMPIRE
 29 BC – 393 AD •  Heavily dependent on water •  Engineered sewerage, canals, hydraulics roman aqueducts.info ROMAN AQUEDUCT
  49. 49. THE ROMAN EMPIRE
 29 BC – 393 AD •  Socio-political events resulted to religious divisions, absence of military discipline, murder, and citizen unrest •  Moral decay led to the fall of Rome •  Vikings destroyed the Aqueduct roman aqueducts.info https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/68/7f/81/687f81ef16dffa0ea4774ead7df18a2a.jpg
  50. 50. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Lorenzetti_amb.effect2.jpg
  51. 51. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD
 5TH – 15TH CENTURY AD •  The church and monasticism •  Rise of Islam •  Byzantine empire •  State power •  The Crusades •  Carolingian dynasty roman aqueducts.info https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/68/7f/81/687f81ef16dffa0ea4774ead7df18a2a.jpg
  52. 52. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Lorenzetti_amb.effect2.jpg HIGH WALLS CENTER OF ACTIVITIES
  53. 53. MUNICH, GERMANYmaps.google.com CATHEDRAL IN CENTER WITH DEFINED BOUNDARY RADIAL GROWTH
  54. 54. CATHEDRAL CITIES •  Cathedral or monument as a focal point of the city •  Radial growth •  Retained the walled city from Roman practice •  Enclosure caused problems such as epidemics and limited resources roman aqueducts.info https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/68/7f/81/687f81ef16dffa0ea4774ead7df18a2a.jpg
  55. 55. RENAISSANCE https://daliennation.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/renaissance.jpg
  56. 56. RENAISSANCE
 14TH TO 17TH CENTURY AD •  Commerce as a driving factor •  Called for accessibility and mobility •  Like the Medieval Period, had a radial growth pattern •  Plans began to follow the topography of an area roman aqueducts.info https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/68/7f/81/687f81ef16dffa0ea4774ead7df18a2a.jpg
  57. 57. RENAISSANCE maps.google.com VENICE, ITALY FINGERS
  58. 58. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI
 1404-1472 •  Wrote the De Re Aedificatoria: Ten books of planning and design principles Growth is characterized by a star-shaped form
  59. 59. GEORGES-EUGENE HAUSSMANN
 1809-1891 PLAN AND RENOVATION OF PARIS
  60. 60. GEORGES-EUGENE HAUSSMANN
 1809-1891 travellingandfood.com ARC DE TRIOMPHE AS CENTER RADIATING OUTWARD AVENUES LINED WITH TREES AND POCKET PARKS Paris, the best planned city
  61. 61. CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT https://nextdaybetter.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/DC.jpg
  62. 62. CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
 1800s – 1900s •  Emphasized beauty and aesthetics •  Think monuments, grand buildings, parks, perfect landscapes, lakes, and circular road systems roman aqueducts.info https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/68/7f/81/687f81ef16dffa0ea4774ead7df18a2a.jpg
  63. 63. DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM
 1846-1912 •  Father of American City Planning •  Together with Frederick Law Olmstead and John Wellborn Root, designed the World’s Columbian Exposition, the first comprehensive planning document in the US
  64. 64. DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM
 1846-1912 “Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with ever- growing insistency. Remember that our sons and grandsons are going to do things that would stagger us. Let your watchword be order and your beacon beauty.” 
  65. 65. CHICAGO MANILA BAGUIO burnhampi.files.wordpress.com •  Greatest feat was the Plan of Chicago (called Paris on a Prairie); other plans include Manila, Baguio, Cleveland, and San Francisco DANIEL HUDSON BURNHAM
 1846-1912
  66. 66. CANBERRA http://www.capitalmetro.act.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0020/802730/Canberra- Carosel.jpg
  67. 67. MELBOURNE http://accorhotels.com.au/files/MelbourneBridge_2400x1350_0.jpg
  68. 68. SIR EBENEZER HOWARD
 1850 - 1928 •  Wrote the book Garden Cities of Tomorrow •  Addressed population and pollution that came about by the industrial revolution by creating garden cities
  69. 69. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Garden_City_Concept_by_Howard.jpg
  70. 70. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Garden_City_Concept_by_Howard.jpg 5,000-acre CENTRAL CITY 58,000 PEOPLE 1,000-acre GARDEN CITIES 30,000 PEOPLE CONNECTED BY ROADS AND RAILWAYSGREEN SPACES
  71. 71. http://33.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_mb1k1lYqWy1rsuub0o1_500.jpg
  72. 72. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Howard-three-magnets.png
  73. 73. SIR RAYMOND UNWIN
 Architect – city planner for Letchworth
 Wrote Nothing Gained by Overcrowding SIR FREDERIC JAMES OSBORN
 Championed garden cities LOUIS DE SOISSONS Architect of Welwyn
  74. 74. http://www.letchworth.com/sites/default/files/images/letchworth_aerial_photos_142.jpg
  75. 75. http://www.shropshirestar.com/wpmvc/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/6114828.jpg
  76. 76. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/ The_Metropolitan_Green_Belt_among_the_green_belts_of_England.svg/2000px- The_Metropolitan_Green_Belt_among_the_green_belts_of_England.svg.png https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Vanessa_Carlow/publication/279057647/figure/fig1/AS: 294368092147716@1447194230827/Figure-1-London-Green-Belt-official-map-Graphics-by-VM- Carlow-Data-source-London.png
  77. 77. question What do you call the area between a city and the outskirts?
  78. 78. say it URBAN FRINGE
  79. 79. LE CORBUSIER
 (CHARLES EDOUARD JEANNERET)
 1887-1965 •  Created the Radiant City •  Modernist, futuristic, and orderly •  But socially disadvantageous and unrealistic for settlements •  Criticized because he tried to solve congestion with more congestion •  Wrote the books Urbanisme and The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning
  80. 80. http://alanamuir.wikispaces.com/file/view/Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jpg/333908066/ Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jpg LE VILLE RADIEUSE (THE RADIANT CITY)
  81. 81. http://alanamuir.wikispaces.com/file/view/Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jpg/333908066/ Corbusier_cartesian_skyscrapers.jpg LE VILLE RADIEUSE (THE RADIANT CITY) GRIDS CUBIST AESTHETICS ORDERLY, RATIONAL CITY BLOCKS BOX-TYPE HOUSES 60-STOREY BUILDINGS
  82. 82. ? GARDEN CITY RADIANT CITY
  83. 83. GARDEN CITY RADIANT CITY
  84. 84. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
 1867-1959 •  Champion and proponent of urban decentralisation •  Involved communities •  Designed the 1,000-hectare Broadacre City •  included social services in the forms of schools, trains, and museums, as well as employment in the forms of markets, offices, nearby farms, and industrial areas •  Plan included a helicopter, which was criticized
  85. 85. http://metropolismag.com/images/cache/cache_a/cache_6/cache_b/broadacre1-9c603b6a.jpeg? ver=1415421530&aspectratio=1.7808219178082
  86. 86. http://mediaarchitecture.at/architekturtheorie/broadacre_city/content/ quadruple_block_plan_jss_022802_wright_008.jpg
  87. 87. HENRY WRIGHT
 1878-1936 CLARENCE STEIN
 1882-1975 RADBURN
  88. 88. http://www.fradkinmcalpin.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/1130x640-fradkin-mcalpin-nyc- architects-projects-3-radburn-nj-1130x640.jpg GARDEN CITY SEPARATES VEHICLES FROM PEDESTRIANS CUL-DE-SACS SUPERBLOCK
  89. 89. https://c2.staticflickr.com/8/7070/6974616023_cfc849f274_b.jpg
  90. 90. CLARENCE STEIN
 1882-1975 •  Initiated plans to produce greenbelt resettlements all over the US •  Wrote the book Toward New Towns for America HENRY WRIGHT
 1878-1936 •  Created the superblock
  91. 91. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/60/57/b8/6057b80059133de5d5d850cbe9f8e621.jpg GARDEN ISLAND CUL-DE-SACS THOROUGHFARES HOMES
  92. 92. CLARENCE PERRY
 1872-1944 •  Conceptualized the neighborhood unit •  Similar to the superblock •  Bounded by major streets •  Has a church, school, and shops •  200 sqm to 2 sqkm Wikipedia
  93. 93. https://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/planning/research/urban-regional-development-governance/images/from-the-sky
  94. 94. SIR PATRICK GEDDES
 1954-1932 •  Introduced the notion of a region •  Became the Father of Regional Planning •  Biologist, sociologist, and geographer •  Dissected the planning environment by analysing occupational activities •  Used observation and rational methods •  Instead of gridiron planning, used conservative surgery Wikipedia
  95. 95. spur.org THE VALLEY SECTION
  96. 96. spur.org THE VALLEY SECTION RIDGE-TO-REEF
  97. 97. SIR PATRICK GEDDES
 1954-1932 •  Introduced the term conurbation, which means “an aggregation of continuous network of urban communities.” •  Emphasized the relationships of people and cities, thus the city- region term. •  Used the rational planning method of Survey Analysis •  Wrote the book Cities in Evolution Israel.travel
  98. 98. SIR LESLIE PATRICK ABERCROMBIE
 1954-1932 •  Created the post-war plans for London, and combatted sprawling by resettlement •  Made the London Country Plan (1944) and the Greater London Plan (1943)
  99. 99. thesemaphoreline.wordpress.com SOCIAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS CENTRAL COMMUNITIES SUBURBAN COMMUNITIES OPEN SPACES SHOPPING CENTERS
  100. 100. LEWIS MUMFORD
 1895-1990 •  A historian-sociologist who studied cities and architecture •  From his 23 books, the most prominent in city planning is The City in History, which pointed out how technology and nature could be harmonious •  Gave the concept of an organic city •  Rationalised how planning has various disciplines Wikipedia
  101. 101. Mumford was friends with City Beautiful advocates Frank Lloyd Wright, Clarence Stein, and Frederic Osborn. Mumford and Wright exchanged transatlantic letters on professional and personal matters. news.rracution.com
  102. 102. BENTON MCKAYE
 1879-1975 •  Originator of the 3,500 km Appalachian Trail in the eastern United States (Georgia to Maine) •  Was a forester and conservationist, and co-founded the Wilderness Society •  Championed regional conservationism
  103. 103. atc.civicore.com and daveallenphotography.com
  104. 104. personal.umich.edu, Wikipedia, ak-cahce.legacy.net, boiseplanning.wordpress.com THE FOUNDERS: Clarence Stein, Benton McKaye, Lewis Mumford, Alexander Bing (a real estate developer), and Henry Wright
  105. 105. https://www.vectoropenstock.com/media/users/2049/76727/raw/83c2a55cb583cdb1c73f9313b3f719c0-industrial- cityscape-silhouettes.jpg
  106. 106. EDWARD BASSETT
 1863-1948 •  Urban planner and lawyer who was the Father of American Zoning. He was the first to use zoning as a means of implementing land use in New York. He wrote books about zoning. •  Also coined the term freeway and parkway
  107. 107. DON ARTURO SORIA Y MATA
 1844-1920 •  Made the concept Linear City, which has many parallel and specialized functions Wikipedia
  108. 108. DON ARTURO SORIA Y MATA
 1844-1920 The linear city gears away from the usual centric urban forms. The lines help control the expansion of a city. prezi.com
  109. 109. TONY GARNIER
 1869-1948 •  Made the concept Linear Industrial City, which has many parallel and specialized functions •  Used the concept of zoning and labeled space into leisure, industry, work, and transport Wikipedia
  110. 110. aria.archi.fr and s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com •  Plan caters to 35,000 residents •  Follows the principles of funciton, greeneries, open space, and exposure to the sunlight •  City is linked by circular patterns
  111. 111. THOMAS ADAMS
 1871-1940 •  Worked primarily on low-density residences or garden suburbs •  Founded the British Town Planning Institute •  Wrote the book Rural Planning and Development •  Pushed for planning legislation by mandate, local plans, zoning, building regulations, and recognized the responsibility of a licensed or professional planner
  112. 112. http://ekistics.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/first_forest_img_02.jpg
  113. 113. CONSTANTINOS APOSTOLOS DOXIADIS
 1914-1975 •  Studied the science of human settlements, called ekistics •  Looks into the culture, economics, and society in varying scales http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger2/7109/397093975058892/320/eki_circles.1.png
  114. 114. skyscrapercity.com GRID PRINCIPLES OF EKISTICS ISLAMABAD
  115. 115. FRANCIS STUART CHAPIN
 1888-1974 •  As a sociologist and educator, he stressed the importance of quantifying social activities in an evolving city through statistics. •  He was the first to write the textbooks on urban and regional planning Amazon
  116. 116. http://financialtribune.com/sites/default/files/field/image/07_AH_Transportation%20439-ab-ED.jpg
  117. 117. IRA LOWRY •  Published A Model of Metropolis, a computer model for spatial organization of anthropogenic activities in a metropolitan area •  This generates an assessment that can be the basis for urban policy decisions •  Worked with Robert Garin on a model that looks at the relationship and logic to the spatial arrangement of human activities •  Expands to gravity modeling, or trip distribution in transport planning, or distance decay in physics Amazon
  118. 118. say it distance decay h"ps://www.cmu.edu/joss/content/ar4cles/volume4/KrempelPlumper_files/m1.jpg   (The farther the distance, the more interaction declines)
  119. 119. Wikipedia
  120. 120. WILLIAM LEVITT
 1907-1994 •  Father of American Suburbia / The King of Suburbia / The Inventor of the Suburb •  Mass produced houses that were affordable
  121. 121. http://www.dailytexanonline.com/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/ 2013/10/2013-10-18_Traffic_I-35_Joe.Capraro21231.jpg?itok=rbss2CM4 CARS WERE PUT ON A PEDESTAL
  122. 122. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Saskatoon_gated_community.JPG SO COMMUNITIES BECAME GATED
  123. 123. twisted sifter.com SUCH A TERRIBLE WASTE OF SPACE. L
  124. 124. http://thewestendmuseum.org/wordpress/wp-content/gallery/urban-renewal/urban_web.jpg
  125. 125. CATHERINE BAUER WURSTER
 1905-1964 •  An advocate of social and public housing. She authored the American Housing Act of 1937 and was an adviser to five presidents. •  Wrote the book Modern Housing •  She also worked with Lewis Mumford
  126. 126. ROBERT MOSES
 1888-1981 •  The Master Builder of New York •  His plans had parkways, expressways, and housing development •  One of the most controversial figures in the history of urban planning
  127. 127. http://untappedcities.com/2013/12/18/5-things-in-nyc-we-can-blame-on-robert-moses/
  128. 128. http://www.shropshirepcas.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Pcas-support-250x300.jpg
  129. 129. SAUL DAVID ALINSKY
 1909-1972 •  Founder of modern community organizing •  Wrote the book Rules for Radicals  •  Worked with the poorer communities, and influenced neighbourhood organisations
  130. 130. SHERRY ARNSTEIN
 1909-1972 •  Social and health worker •  Published an article on the ladder of citizen participation, which gave not only a voice  but power to the citizens. This addressed how citizens were being victimised, and led the way to participatory planning.
  131. 131. lithgow-schmidt.dk 8 RUNGS OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
  132. 132. Can you give me some examples of advocacies in planning?
  133. 133. Can you give me some examples of advocacies in planning? PARTICIPATORY CO-MANAGEMENT SOCIAL INCLUSION SUSTAINABILITY
  134. 134. https://www.cnu.org/sites/default/files/styles/homepage_slider/public/UptownNormal_hero_0.jpg? itok=XEvcy15V NEW URBANISM
  135. 135. What do you notice about the picture?
  136. 136. https://www.cnu.org/sites/default/files/styles/homepage_slider/public/UptownNormal_hero_0.jpg? itok=XEvcy15V PUBLIC SPACE PEOPLE THRIVING ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES GREENS
  137. 137. http://osmosnetwork.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/jane_jacobs.jpg
  138. 138. JANE JACOBS
 1916-2006 •  An urban activist who was strong and vocal against urban renewal; she fought for new urbanism •  Wrote the powerful book The Death and Life of American Cities Her book and activism led to the eventual fall of urban renewal towards city diversity, mixed-use, dense neighborhoods, and vibrant communities. •  Also wrote the book The Economy of Cities
  139. 139. planetizen.com MOSES VS JACOBS
  140. 140. archdaily.com
  141. 141. http://www.palauconservation.org/cms/images/stories/programImages/watershedLandUses.png ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
  142. 142. RACHEL LOUISE CARSON
 1907-1964 •  A marine biologist •  Wrote the powerful book Silent Spring, a haunting compilation and narrative of research about the detrimental and even lethal effects of pesticides and fertilisers on the living environment •  This book launched a global environmental movement
  143. 143. IAN MCHARG
 1920-2001 •  Was called an “architect who valued a site’s natural features” •  Transformed efforts of traditional planning into environmental planning by using the technique of sieve mapping or overlay, which took into account the varied features of the environment.
  144. 144. IAN MCHARG
 1920-2001 •  Wrote the book Design with Nature, which triggered responsible planning of landscapes, respecting natural features •  Laid the foundation for Geographic Information Systems http://www.kln.ac.lk/socialsciences/depts/geography/images/stories/gis/gis.png
  145. 145. EXPLORATORY PREDICTIVE NORMATIVE
  146. 146. https://heimatkunde.boell.de/sites/default/files/ uploads/2008/12/push-pull.jpg
  147. 147. http://www.emigration.link/images/push- pull-04.png
  148. 148. http://image.slidesharecdn.com/ migration-1-1204994446996443-4-14010814531 2-phpapp02/95/migration-ruralurban-5-638.jpg? cb=1389192907
  149. 149. https://thegreenhorns.files.wordpress.com/ 2014/08/berglee-fig04_008.jpg
  150. 150. Theory Rural areas organize agricultural production in support of an urban center. Distance from the center determines the use of land. Findings Longer distance from market Less profitability Easier to transport Applicability or Planning Implication Showed the early analysis of human behavior and its spatial consequences
  151. 151. https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjpseKz8c7MAhXElJQKHYXRB 9oQjBwIBA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmedia.credoreference.com %2Fsagegeography2010%2F381-2.jpg&bvm=bv. 121421273,d.dGo&psig=AFQjCNH4YivoLHw4r9CyDbHEaSR0l9j8Qw&ust=1462948323798 278&cad=rjt
  152. 152. Theory The range of good and threshold population of retail shops and service establishments are the major influences in explaining the number, size and distribution patterns of settlements. Findings Consumers avoid higher transport costs by going to the nearest service location. The larger the settlements in size, the fewer in number they will be. The more number of settlements, the higher order of services, and the higher the degree of specialization that occurs. Applicability or Planning Implication Provides an economic and spatial development of regions through provision of appropriate goods and services, with establishments according to scale.
  153. 153. http://www.mygeo.info/skripte/skript_bevoelkerung_siedlung/images/lanu26.gif
  154. 154. how to draw it
  155. 155. how to draw it
  156. 156. how to draw it
  157. 157. how to draw it
  158. 158. Central Place Theory in the Philippines : Malls http://outoftownblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Inside-SM-Mall-of-Asia-.jpg
  159. 159. https://apmodels.wikispaces.com/file/view/weber_7.gif/133610959/403x280/weber_7.gif
  160. 160. Theory A factory or plant locates where transport and labor costs are at a minimum, determined by cost of distance vs. weight of raw materials, cost of labor, agglomeration and deglomeration. Findings The point of least transport costs is that at which the combined weight movements involved in assembly (from sources and in distribution is at a minimum). If savings in labor cost is labor cost per unit output exceeds the extra transport costs, labor will attract the industry to the location. Applicability or Planning Implication Brings economics into the spatial domain. Provides rationality in determining the location of a firm
  161. 161. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/Bid_rent1.svg/2000px- Bid_rent1.svg.png
  162. 162. PRICE IS SET, TIERS ARE LIMITED
  163. 163. BID RENT PUSHES AWAY THOSE WHO CANNOT MATCH THE PRICES CREATES CONCENTRIC PATTERNS THIS IS WHY SLUMS SURROUND A BETTER OFF CITY CENTER
  164. 164. Theory The price of and demand for land changes according to the distance from the center (CBD). The center commands the highest value of land because of its proximity to business establishments and supports services as well as the market. Applicability or Planning Implication Provided an explanation on why slums and squatter settlements proliferate in areas close to the CBD or commercial centers
  165. 165. https://0901.static.prezi.com/preview/ iuat5aejdzhenvd4ynqqvsekyt6jc3sachvcdoaizecfr3dnitcq_0_0.png https://www.asu.edu/courses/gcu600/gcu673a/6/Readings/Ravenstein_files/image001.gif
  166. 166. LEAPFROG!
  167. 167. Theory Birth, mortality rates, and population movement are major determinants of settlement patterns. Findings Migration is caused by economic reasons. Migrants tend not to go straight to their ultimate destinations. They leapfrog. Applicability or Planning Implication Gives basis for migration and urban growth studies: distance decay, push-pull studies on migration, and gravity modeling
  168. 168. http://www.geographylwc.org.uk/A/AS/ ASpopulation/images/push%20pulled.jpg MIGRATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
  169. 169. Theory Migration is an economic dimension of rural dwellers where individual and household members believe that there is a higher expected income in urban areas. Findings Pakikipagsapalaran Applicability or Planning Implication This influenced national policy on on-site and services approach to low cost housing, resettlement, relocation and minimization of rural-urban disparities.
  170. 170. https://www.populationeducation.org/sites/ default/files/dtm.png WARREN THOMSON’S 1919 DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL THEORY: All countries experience demographic transition.
  171. 171. http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well- Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_Urban_Systems10.JPG MCGRANAHAN’S 2009 
 URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSITION THEORY
  172. 172. http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well- Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_Urban_Systems10.JPG MCGRANAHAN’S 2009 
 URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSITION THEORY
  173. 173. MCGRANAHAN’S 2009 
 URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSITION THEORY THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNET’S CURVE Development Environment
  174. 174. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4e/Environmental_Kuznets_Curve.png
  175. 175. http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well- Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_Urban_Systems10.JPG MCGRANAHAN’S 2009 
 URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSITION THEORY HOUSEHOLD CITY OR COUNTRY GLOBAL
  176. 176. http://static.trunity.net/images/181082/450x399/scale/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well- Being_Volume_1_Current_State_and_Trends_Urban_Systems10.JPG MCGRANAHAN’S 2009 
 URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSITION THEORY HOUSEHOLD CITY OR COUNTRY GLOBAL WASTE MANAGEMENT RIVER POLLUTION GREENHOUSE GASES
  177. 177. http://www.assignmentpoint.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Five-Stages-of- Development.jpg ROSTOW’S 1960
 STAGES OF GROWTH DEVELOPMENT MODERNIZATION IS LINEAR.
  178. 178. http://www.assignmentpoint.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Five-Stages-of- Development.jpg ROSTOW’S 1960
 STAGES OF GROWTH DEVELOPMENT AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIALIZATION SELF-SUSTAINING ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INDUSTRIES
  179. 179. http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lmklviriHi1qil6h5.gif WALLERSTEIN’S WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEM THEORY
  180. 180. http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lmklviriHi1qil6h5.gif WALLERSTEIN’S WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEM THEORY STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND BUREAUCRACY LACKS STRONG GOVERNMENT TRANSIT POINT
  181. 181. https://figures.boundless-cdn.com/5979/large/ harper-midway-chicago.jpeg SO MANY THINKERS!
  182. 182. http://cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/clip_image008_thumb8.jpg
  183. 183. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-yg3tTntN3uc/T- ythq70YfI/AAAAAAAAAGA/TzjSWwGWTkM/ s1600/Chicago+School.png
  184. 184. http://egg-humangeography.weebly.com/ uploads/2/0/5/0/20502018/801740_orig.gif BURGESS ET AL’S CONCENTRIC MODEL (1923)
  185. 185. https://egyptgeo.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/ screen-shot-2015-04-28-at-9-08-47-am- e1430441496362.png INCOME, PROFIT POTENTIAL AND RENT DRIVE THE DIRECTION CHICAGO’S INTERNAL URBAN STRUCTURE IS COMPOSED OF RINGS
  186. 186. http://cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp-content/ uploads/2014/05/clip_image0102.jpg PETER MANN’S CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL (1965)
  187. 187. http://cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp-content/ uploads/2014/05/clip_image0102.jpg PETER MANN’S CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL (1965) FROM CHICAGO TO BRITAIN COMMUTER VILLAGE SEPARATED FROM BUILT-UP AREAS
  188. 188. https://aphug.wikispaces.com/file/view/hoyt.png/ 72462597/hoyt.png HOMER HOYT’S SECTOR MODEL (1939)
  189. 189. https://aphug.wikispaces.com/file/view/hoyt.png/ 72462597/hoyt.png HOMER HOYT’S SECTOR MODEL (1939) WEDGE-SHAPED UPPER CLASS TENDS TO LOCATE NEAR THE CBD FOR BEAUTY AND ACCESSIBILITY
  190. 190. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/ Multiple_nuclei_model.svg/450px-Multiple_nuclei_model.svg.png HOMER HOYT’S SECTOR MODEL (1939)
  191. 191. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/ Multiple_nuclei_model.svg/450px-Multiple_nuclei_model.svg.png HOMER HOYT’S SECTOR MODEL (1939) NEW NUCLEI EMERGED LAND USES REPEL OR ATTRACT LAND USE CHANGE EMERGES FROM NEW DEVELOPMENTS
  192. 192. https://taylorgeoitalyisawesome.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/multiple- nuclei-model1.png
  193. 193. https://taylorgeoitalyisawesome.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/multiple- nuclei-model-sketch-up1.png
  194. 194. http://geographylaunchpad.weebly.com/uploads/ 2/5/4/1/25412597/8251168.jpg?581
  195. 195. http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/article_image.php? image_type=article&id=92
  196. 196. http://s2.thingpic.com/images/Ux/58gecjuCZvntnJhQK6xQ32AA.png
  197. 197. http://ihouse.hkedcity.net/~hm1203/settlement/models-new-color.gif
  198. 198. Where are the paths?
  199. 199. littlemissurbanite.wordpress.com + prelims + exam overview + filing + expectations + planning bibles + TIPS J

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