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The retention of an image on the
retina after the object has moved.
When you look at an object, an image
of the object is projected on the retina
( back inner wall) of your eyes. Even if
the object is moved or removed, its
image its image remains on the retina
for a fraction of a second. This is
called persistence of vision.
PERSISTENCE OF VISION
Evidence of artistic interest in depicting
figures in motion can be seen as early as the
still drawings of Paleolithic cave paintings,
where animals are depicted with multiple
sets of legs in superimposed positions,
clearly attempting to convey the perception
Egyptian burial chamber mural, ca. 4000
PRECURSORS TO ANIMATION
A zoetrope is a device that produces an illusion
of action from a rapid succession of static
pictures. The term zoetrope is from the Greek
words "zoe", "life" and τρόπος - tropos, "turn". It
may be taken to mean "wheel of life".
See animated examples
Zoetrope. (2011, July 10). In Wikipedia, The Free
Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:43, July 12, 2011, from
ZOETROPE (180 AD; 1834)
THE MAGIC LANTERN
A thaumatrope was a simple toy used in
the Victorian era. A thaumatrope is a
small circular disk or card with two
different pictures on each side that was
attached to a piece of string or a pair of
strings running through the centre. When
the string is twirled quickly between the
fingers, the two pictures appear to
combine into a single image.
The phenakistoscope was an early
animation device, the predecessor of
the zoetrope. It was invented in 1831
simultaneously by the Belgian Joseph
Plateau and the Austrian Simon von
Flip books are essentially a primitive form of
animation. Like motion pictures, they rely on
persistence of vision to create the illusion that
continuous motion is being seen rather than a series
of discontinuous images being exchanged in
succession. Rather than "reading" left to right, a
viewer simply stares at the same location of the
pictures in the flip book as the pages turn. The book
must also be flipped with enough speed for the
illusion to work, so the standard way to "read" a flip
book is to hold the book with one hand and flip
through its pages with the thumb of the other hand.
The German word for flip book—Daumenkino, literally
"thumb cinema"—reflects this process.
FLIP BOOK (1868)
The praxinoscope, invented by French scientist
Charles-Émile Reynaud, was a more
sophisticated version of the zoetrope. It used the
same basic mechanism of a strip of images
placed on the inside of a spinning cylinder, but
instead of viewing it through slits, it was viewed
in a series of small, stationary mirrors around the
inside of the cylinder, so that the animation
would stay in place, and provide a clearer image
and better quality.
Reynaud also developed a larger version of the
praxinoscope that could be projected onto a
screen, called the Théâtre Optique.
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