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ICAR - National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning

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Fifth Asian Soil Partnership workshop
26 February - 1 March 2019, New Delhi, India
S.K. Singh, ICAR-NBSS&LUP, NAGPUR

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ICAR - National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning

  1. 1. S.K. SINGH Director ICAR-NBSS&LUP, NAGPUR ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning Amravati Road, Nagpur  NBSS&LUP- In the service of nation since 1976  Five regional canters: RC Kolkata, eastern region RC Jorhat, north eastern region RC Delhi, northern region RC Bangalore, southern region RC Udaipur, Western region
  2. 2. 2 Mandate  To conduct soil survey and mapping of the soils of the country to promote scientific and optimal land use programmes in collaboration with relevant institutions and agencies.  To conduct and promote research in the National Agricultural Research System in the areas of Pedology, Soil survey, Remote sensing applications, Land degradation, Land evaluation and Land use planning.  To impart training and education to create awareness on soil and land resources and their state of health.
  3. 3. 3 Landmark Achievement Soil Resource map of the country on 1:1 million scale and for the states on 1:250000 scale
  4. 4.  Food security  Ecosystem services  Facility of Infrastructure  Industrialization Mountains 10.3% Hills 12.8% Plateaus 30.6% Desert 6.3% Coastal plains 4.8% Island 0.3% Eco-sensitive area o Food and water supply o Flood and disease control o Cultural services o Nutrient cycling Food Security Act, Land Acquisition Act, NREGA Pushing Agriculture on the back end LD: Harmonized data-120 mha; 64 mha arable land Estimating degradation
  5. 5. Completed the Assessment of Soil Loss in India under Collaborative Project between NBSS&LUP and CSWCR &TI Soil Loss/Erosion Assessment in India 5 Class (t/ha/yr) % Area Very Slight (< 5) 30.16 Slight (5 – 10) 19.84 Moderate (10 – 15) 12.82 Mod.Severe (15 – 20) 6.97 Severe (20 – 40) 11.28 Very Severe (40 – 80) 6.76 Extr.Severe (> 80) 4.04 Others* 8.12 15 States reports have been printed
  6. 6. Salt Affected Area
  7. 7. 2017 Monitoring degradation : Wind erosion : Increasing sand load in the desert command area
  8. 8. Extent of Degradation Slight: 29% Moderate: 30% Severe: 15% Very severe: <1% Monitoring environmental degradation
  9. 9. Shifting River Case study- Bihar Heavy siltation and erosion Monitoring degradation
  10. 10. Monitoring degradation: short and long term consequences on estuarine and coastal waves
  11. 11. Monitoring degradation: Arsenic and fluoride contamination in West Bengal
  12. 12. o Acidity is increasing in the flood plains of Bengal o Area under Multi-nutrient deficiency is increasing due to the intensification of agriculture Monitoring degradation: Multi-nutrient deficiency
  13. 13. Monitoring climate change: Aridity Index 1992 2018
  14. 14. 14 20 Agro-Ecological Regions (1992) 60 Agro-Ecological Sub-Regions (1999)
  15. 15. Sub-humid moist, Humid Per-humid Aridity Revision of Agro-ecological Region Map  Reduced number of rainy days  Increased frequency of dry spells  Increased extreme events of rain, cold, storms…….. Degradation Vulnerability increased
  16. 16. Agro-ecological Sub-region
  17. 17. Assigning the reasons: Defined sustainable area for major crops and cropping sequences in India Wheat Rice Cotton
  18. 18. 18 Current area Vs. Sustainable Area, Wheat
  19. 19. Current area Vs. Sustainable Area, Rice
  20. 20. Current area Vs. Sustainable Area, Rice
  21. 21. Market based Land Use- The driver Lack of Land use based market Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu- Maize area with support of poultry industry; cotton is being replaced Groundnut- Gujarat; Sugarcane- Maharashtra and U.P Bihar- Potential area for maize, lack of processing unit; farmers do not have interest Assigning the reasons for degradation
  22. 22. Poverty and Degradation Schedule caste maximum in high productive soils and schedule tribe on Challenges
  23. 23.  Sustainable agriculture includes sustainable area with the area specific best management practices (BMP) covering soil conservation measures for water harvesting in the rain-fed areas, the best water management in the irrigated areas and nutrient management in site specific mode.  Sustainable area (SA) is an uniform piece of land, potentially suitable for a crop and cropping sequence in terms of soil, water and climate, presently available for the defined use. Scale: National, Regional, State, district, village and farm Conceptualizing Sustainable Agriculture
  24. 24. Total Food grains Agriculture can share the land for Infrastructure and Industry
  25. 25. Attaining State of Degradation Neutral Sustainable Area with BMP
  26. 26. Land Resource Inventory (LRI) at 1:10000 scales ( SA at Farm level) Integration of traditional soil survey and advancing remote sensing technology involving high resolution remote sensing data (RS), digital terrain model
  27. 27. Assumption if landform, slope and land use are identical in a given geographic setting, there is high possibility for setting similar kinds of soils Attaching cadastral is optional Landscape Ecological Unit - A base map
  28. 28. Base Map- Landscape Ecological Unit o New : Degree, length and curvature of slope together with contour and drainage o New information links LRI with soil water conservation planning, irrigation, water harvesting potentials and precision agriculture (IRS LISSS IV, Cartosat DEM, Geo Eye)
  29. 29. Phases of soil series -mapped Soil Map
  30. 30. Manipur Sikkim Characterization - degradation prone and Climate change vulnerable area- Hot spot Nagaland
  31. 31. Characterization of Jhum land in north eastern region
  32. 32. North Eastern Region-Tripura
  33. 33. West Coast - Goa o State o District o Taluka o Panchayat wise map
  34. 34. West Coast - Gujarat Districts Nos. of blocks covered Surat 10 Kutch 10 Junagadh 10 Valsad 6 Navsari 6 Bharuch 9 Ahmedabad 1 Banaskantha 1 Porbandar 3
  35. 35. Soils of Kultuli block, 24 Paragana South, West Bengal Soil map of Basudevpur block, Bhadrak district, Odisha East Coast – West Bengal & Odisha
  36. 36. Desert Ecosystem – Rajasthan
  37. 37. Chhotanagpur Plateau District State Block Hazaribag Jharkhand 16 Sahibganj Jharkhand 9 Dumka Jharkhand 10
  38. 38.  Leh  Lahul  Pangi The Cold Desert- Lahaul Block, Himachal Pradesh
  39. 39. Tamil Nadu Annur Block, Coimbatore Veerapandi Block, Salem Rasipuram Block, Namakkal Gingee Block, Villupuram Thirumannur Block, Ariyalur R.S. Mangalam Block, Ramanathapuram Perambalur Block, Perambalur Uthanagarai Block, Krishnagirai Sarkar Samakulam Block, Coimbatore Valapadi Block, Salem Southern India Telangana Gajwel mandal, Medak Thimmajipet mandal, Mehboobnagar Indravelle mandal, Adilabad Garedapally mandal, Nalgonda Huzur Nagar mandal, Nalgonda Chilkur mandal, Nalgonda Andhra Pradesh Bukkarayasamudram mandal, Anantpur Kerala Iddukki block Soil map of Indervalle mandal, Adilabad district, Telangana
  40. 40. Chronically waterlogged area- Bihar
  41. 41. LMU Description Present land use Suggested land use options Suggested management practices 1 Very deep, extremely acidic, fine soils on very steeply sloping high hills Rainfed upland paddy Forestry and natural vegetation Contour bunding, grassed waterways and allocation of land for natural vegetation 2 Very deep, extremely acidic, fine soils on steeply sloping high hills Rainfed upland paddy Rubber / tea / pineapple Land shaping, contour bunding, graded bunding and liming at every alternate year 3 Very deep, extremely acidic, fine soils on very steeply sloping medium hills Rainfed upland paddy Forestry and silvi- pastoral system Contour bunding, afforestation and silvi-pastoral system with multipurpose tree species 4 Very deep, extremely acidic, fine soils on strongly to steeply sloping medium hills Rainfed upland paddy Rubber / tea / pineapple Bench terracing, contour bunding and liming at every alternate year 5 Very deep, extremely acidic, very fine soils on moderately steeply sloping low hills Rainfed upland paddy Rubber / tea / pineapple Bench terracing, contour bunding, contour farming and liming at every alternate year 6 Very deep, very strongly acidic, fine loamy soils on moderately to strongly sloping low hills Rainfed upland paddy Upland paddy /Rubber / tea / pineapple / coffee Bench terracing and liming at every alternate year Mokokchaung district, Nagaland LUP: Intensification of jhum land through rubber plantations Area Specific Best Management Practices
  42. 42. LMU Description Present land use Suggested land use options 1 Very deep, excessive to well drained, very strongly acidic, sandy loam to silty clay loam soils, moderate to severe erosion Rubber plantation  Rubber plantation  Inter-cropping with pineapple, ginger and turmeric for first three years. 2 Very deep, moderate to well drained, very strongly acidic, silty clay loam soils, slight erosion Kharif paddy / fallow  Paddy / maize – mustard / lentil / pea / groundnut  Summer green gram in water scarcity. 3 Deep, somewhat to poorly drained, strongly acidic, sandy clay loam to sandy clay soils, slight to moderate erosion Paddy – mustard / pea / lentil / winter vegetables / groundnut / paddy / fallow  No change, prefer medium duration HYV paddy varieties. 4 Deep to very deep, somewhat to poorly drained, strongly acidic, Paddy – lentil / pea / fallow  No change. Preference should be given to medium duration paddy varieties. Bishalgarh block, Sipahijila district, Tripura Ginger based processing units
  43. 43. LMU Landform Crops and cropping systems 10 Restricted Summits/ High Hills Cashew +pineapple/ Kokum /Oil palm(Rainfed) Coconut+ Nut mug +Mango+ Areca nut+ Lemon+ Sapota+/ Turmeric (Rainfed) Vegetables like Chiili, Cluster bean, Brinjal, Tomato, Potato, Onion, Radish, Sweet potato (irrigated) 6 Undulating Lands  Rice (Kharif)- Vegetables like Chilli, Cluster bean, Guava, Brinjal, Tomato, potato, Onion, Radish, Sweet potato(rabi/ summer with irrigation)  Sugarcane, Oil palm,  Coconut + Areca nut +Pepper + Turmeric +Ginger + Pineapple ,  Coconut+ Banana+ Vegetables  Coconut+ Kokum+ Nut mug+ Sapota + Lemon 14 Inter-Hilly Basin/Valleys / Narrow valleys Rice- Rice-Rice Rice-Rice –Vegetables (in summer with protective irrigation) Rice – Vegetables on raised beds (brinjal, chilli, tomato, potato, cluster bean, okra, green leafy vegetables on raised beds in rabi/ summer with irrigation) Coconut + Areca nut + Pepper Coconut + turmeric/ginger Coconut + banana Cashew + pine apple/ Napier grasess (on bunds) Cashew, guava, mango, sapota  Protective cultivation of cut flower and archids and high value vegetables 19 Plains 23 Mudflats Rice, Coconut, Bajje (Acorus calamus) 25 Salt pans Coconut 26 Swamps and Marshes Rice and Bajje 27 Acid sulphate Plains Rice, Coconut and Kokum 1 Beach and Beach Ridges Coconut, Cashew, Areca nut Site Specific Information and Situation Specific Recommendations- Goa State
  44. 44. Gajwel mandal : Medak district Telangana
  45. 45. http://www.bhoomige oportal-nbsslup.in/ Digitalized soil and site information Our Visitors from India, China, USA, Canada, Europe, Australia and  LRIS Goa  Potential Crop Zone Mapper  Smart mobile phone for collecting Geo- referenced samples  Automated Land Evaluation system  Rubber information system  Digital soil library
  46. 46. Monitoring of resources periodically using RS data Constant low values of NDVI as Proxy Indicator  Erosion  Organic carbon decline  Salinization  Compaction and land slides  Contamination  Sealing  Nutrient dynamics  Land use changes  Other threats
  47. 47. Periodic monitoring of Prime Agricultural Land using MODIS data High constant value of NDVI as Proxy indicator- Prime land
  48. 48. o Soil Health card o NAREGA o PMSKY o Neeranchal o PFBM o RKVY o Sujala o Jalyukt sivar o POCRA o Crop colony o Desiltation o Mera Goan mera Gauron o TSP o Kishan Portal o Soil Health card portal o National Agri-Market portal o Seednet India portal o Ensuring state funding for soil and water conservation plans through different Govt. Scheme enabling employment for landless, small and marginal farmers o Regulating subsidy on seeds, fertilizers- Diversification of agriculture with middle group farmers o Value added crops with large farmers Policy interventions Ensuring knowledge based agriculture Single window information
  49. 49. India < Sri Lanka, China, Bangladesh, Afghanistan; Desert India < Desert of China, Africa; USA, Russia and Europe > Asian Countries Soil misuse or over exploitation- nutrient recycling Challenges
  50. 50. Land Use Options for Basaltic terrain of Maharashtra – Warud model Soil water conservation together with Bt cotton in deep black soils; sorghum or deshi cotton on shallow soils
  51. 51. Rice cultivation with community nursery - Gondia, Bhandara, Gadchiroli, Chandrapur (Community Nursery)
  52. 52. Land Use Model – Mysore Plateau (Sujala)
  53. 53. Land Use Model – Desert Command Area  Bajra- wheat  Bajra-mustard  Cotton-mustard  Bajra-gram
  54. 54. Managing Coast of West Bengal with Land Shaping Technology
  55. 55. Farm size Income Total man days created Before management After Management 0.20 ha Rs. 2300 Rs.34400.00 285 0.266 ha Rs. 3100 Rs. 47800.00 405 0.39 ha Rs. 4500 Rs. 68900,00 600 Reduced soil degradation, increased employment for the landless and improved social status of the farmers Up-scaling of site-specific soil-land use plan in the benchmark sites of National Land use Planning Land Use Plan for Coastal Region
  56. 56. Land Use Model – Brahmaputra Plain
  57. 57. 1. National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad 2. BISAG, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 3. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Telangana 4. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Karnataka 5. Meghalaya Basin Development Authority, Meghalaya 6. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Goa 7. Land Use Board, Agartala, Govt. of Tripura 8. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh 9. Neeranchal Project by DoLR – Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Goa Collaborations (Land Resource Inventory)
  58. 58. TECHNOLOGY USERS  KEC International Limited, Maharashtra for foundation of towers  Sterlite Tech. Ltd., Mumbai, Maharashtra for spreading optical fibers in India  Nagarjun Sagar Left Canal Command Area for division of Krishna river water between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana  AFRO for enhancing livelihood in Kelapur block, Yevatmal district  APMC precision agriculture for Nagpur block, Maharashtra  National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)  Watershed Development Department, Karnataka (World bank Funded Project – Sujala)  Kerala State Land Use Board
  59. 59. POTENTIAL USER  Govt. of Maharashtra for watershed development under Neeranchal Project  Govt. of Rajasthan for watershed development under Neeranchal project  National Dairy Development Board for fodder production in Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra  Project on Climate Resilient Agriculture in Maharashtra

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