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Integrated Agricultural System of Tri Hita Karana - Tri Mandala in Bali

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This presentation was presented during the Joint Meeting of Steering and Scientific Commitee that took place at FAO headquarters 14-15 December 2016. The presentation was made by Mr. Hadi, Susilo Arifin, Bogor Institute, Indonesia

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Integrated Agricultural System of Tri Hita Karana - Tri Mandala in Bali

  1. 1. INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM OF TRI HITA KARANA – TRI MANDALA IN BALI, INDONESIA Coordinating Ministry of Human Development and Culture Republic of Indonesia 2015 Collaborated by: Local Government of Karangasem District – Bogor Agricultural University Udayana University Globally Important Agriculture Heritage System (GIAHS) Application
  2. 2. LOCATION • Site: Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia • Accessibility: Jakarta-Denpasar: 2 hours Denpasar-Amlapura: 2.5 hours • Area: 839,54 km2 • Agro-Ecological Zones: tropical climate: wet & dry land.
  3. 3. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM AND GLOBAL IMPORTANCE • Karangasem District has limited land and water resources which are features of island regions. • The agricultural system of Karangasem is based on unique Balinese philosophy of THK and TM which emphasize harmonization among God, human and nature. • Subak for paddy field and Abian for dry land, with sustainable water resources management and land use patchwork has overcome and enabled agriculture to prosper. • It's has conserve food and livelihood security for a large population and over ten centuries Agriculture practices for terraces and flat paddy field, and upland management
  4. 4. Diagram of Tri Hita Karana (top) and Tri Mandala (bottom) philosophies TRI HITA KARANA & TRI MANDALA
  5. 5. SUBAK & ABIAN 1. Subak for paddy field and Abian for dry land are based on unique Balinese philosophy of THK and TM which emphasize harmonization among God, human and nature, including respect to God, importance of human relationship and sustainable use of natural resources such as water and land. 2. Subak is mainly water management system by Subak organization, and under Subak, limited water resource is distributed equally and efficiently 3. Abian is mainly land use system by Abian organization, and under Abian, limited land resource is used efficiently and sustainably such as land use mosaics and agroforestry which maintains diverse crops. Primary and secondary irrigation system of Subak System, paddy field, upland crops Abian System on mixed gardens and stoned terraces for agroforestry/agrosilvopastural
  6. 6. FOOD AND LIVELIHOOD SECURITY • Food security  suited local food from wet and dry farmland • Main agriculture product is rice, Seraya corn, cassava, sweet potato, Culik peanuts and soy bean, also includes the fishery sub-sector (marine and fresh water) and cattle raising by using agro-silvo-pastural practices. • Agriculture products contributed the most to Regional Gross Domestic Product involved 47% of total labor wongking in this sector. Snacks made from fish and chicken feet (left), traditional rice cookies with palm sugar inside and coconut topping (right) Local culinary made from sea foods and dry land vegetable
  7. 7. Red and Sugar snake fruits; Manggosteen, Seraya corn , Balinese cattle and Gembrong goat Offering elements consist of agriculture products: flowers, coconut and leaf, fruits, and meat Local Balinese rice, wani mango, and Balinese durian BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION Diverse agriculture activities and diverse genetic resources & biodiversity as food crops, vegetables, fruits, and livestocks.
  8. 8. Terraces on stone walls (left), terraced dry land hill (mid) and water pond (right) KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND ADAPTED TECHNOLOGIES Irrigation system as knowledge systems and technology adaptation applied in Subak water management system
  9. 9. CULTURES, VALUE SYSTEMS & SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Mendak Toya (left)Tumpek Uduh in rice field (mid), Tumpek Wariga in mix garden (right) Galungan Celebration Subak system consist of 16 types of ritual activities, starting from taking water for irrigation namely “Mendak Toya Ceremony” to post-harvest activities in the storage called “Mantenin Ceremony”.
  10. 10. REMARKABLE LANDSCAPES, LAND AND WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT FEATURES In Karangasem is possible to find Subak rice fields and upland crops, also Abian throughout the region as remarkable landscape Subak Tirta Gangga (left); Subak Lumpadang (right) Sayan Samu Hill (left) ; Abian Seraya stoned uplands (right)
  11. 11. THREATS AND CHALLENGES Threats 1. The speedy development on tourism in Bali has affected Karangasem District and threatened the land use shifts. 2. The weakening spirit among the young generation coming from farmers‟ family and having no intention to be farmers as their profession. Landuse and landcover changes for infrastructure (left) due to the speedy development on tourism (right). Challenges A number of challenges are faced to protect the existence of agriculture by using the systems of Subak and Abian by keeping Subak Temple called “Pura Subak” and Abian Temple called “Pura Abian” as a form of social stability.
  12. 12. DYNAMIC CONSERVATION PLAN FOR GIAHS SELECTED SITE Five action plans: 1. To protect agricultural land by the law 2. To establish Research and Development Center for Agribusiness and Agro-tourism 3. To empower community development – PNPM Mandiri 4. To conserve and to promote Ecosystem Services 5. To conserve Agricultural diversity and food security – SIMANTRI, P2KP, KRPL Agribusiness Center – post harvest agriculture product Improvement Promoting ecosystem services Land use & cover changes National Program for Comm. Dev/PNPM Mandiri - iprovement agriculture infrastructure Agrobiodiversity conservation by Integrated Farming System/ SIMANTRI