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Overview of the status of soilOverview of the status of soil 
resource in Uganda, and the needs 
and priorities for its su...
Overview
• Location : Uganda lies astride the Equator, 
between latitudes 4o 12´ N and 1o 29´ S and 
longitudes 29o 34´ W,...
Climate and TopographyClimate and Topography
• ClimateClimate
– Temperature range: 15o ‐ 30o C. 
Annual Rainfall range: 75...
UGANDA SOILS
The soil resources 
GULU
KOTIDO
KITGUM
PADER
ARUA
YUMBE
MOYO
ADJUMANI
of Uganda
LIRA
APAC
MASINDI
MOROTO
KATA...
Inherent productivity rating of Uganda soils
High-Veryhigh
Moderate-High
Low-Moderate
Very Low-Low– High ‐ 8%  
N
EW
S
– M...
Updating the soils inventory
• Current map and data (hard 
copy) developed in the 1960 
and need updating
Aloi
Arua
Gulu M...
The soil testing laboratory
• A running lab. for research 
and the general public
• Analyses mainly soil & plant 
tissue
F...
Challenges facing the soil resource in general
Uganda Soil Erosion Hazard Map
N
EW
S
Northern Shore Streams
Eastern Shore ...
Challenges facing the soil resource in general
• Land degradation (soil erosion esp. in hilly and 
mountainous areas, defo...
Challenges facing the soil resource (cont’d)
• Lack of enforcement of Environment and 
Natural Resource (ENR) Management p...
Current efforts to address soil 
h llmanagement challenges
• Generating and promoting ISFM interventions• Generating and p...
Current efforts to address soil 
h ll ( ’d)management challenges (cont’d)
bl h f• Public‐private partnerships in informati...
Needs and priorities for sustainable soil management
• Promote sustainable land/soil management
– Sensitise grassroot comm...
Needs and priorities for sustainable soil management 
(cont’d)(cont d)
• Increased support to soils research• Increased su...
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Overview of the status of soil resource in Uganda, and the needs and priorities for its sustainable management, Onesmus Semalulu & Kayuki C. Kaizzi -NARO‐Kawanda

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This presentation was made during the regional conference on the Eastern and Southern Africa Soil Partnership which took place in Nairobi, Kenya 25-27 March 2013. This presentation was made by Onesmus Semalulu & Kayuki C. Kaizzi and it presents Overview of the status of soil resource in Uganda, and the needs and priorities for its sustainable management.

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Overview of the status of soil resource in Uganda, and the needs and priorities for its sustainable management, Onesmus Semalulu & Kayuki C. Kaizzi -NARO‐Kawanda

  1. 1. Overview of the status of soilOverview of the status of soil  resource in Uganda, and the needs  and priorities for its sustainable  managementmanagement O S l l & K ki C K i iOnesmus Semalulu & Kayuki C. Kaizzi NARO‐Kawanda
  2. 2. Overview • Location : Uganda lies astride the Equator,  between latitudes 4o 12´ N and 1o 29´ S and  longitudes 29o 34´ W, and 35o 0´ E.  • Size:  Total land area 241, 548 km2 of which  about 15% is covered by water bodiesy • Population : About 32 Million People• Population : About  32 Million People • Population Growth: 3.2 % per annum
  3. 3. Climate and TopographyClimate and Topography • ClimateClimate – Temperature range: 15o ‐ 30o C.  Annual Rainfall range: 750 to 1500 mm– Annual Rainfall range:  750 to 1500 mm T h• Topography ‐ Mainly, lying between 1000 ‐ 2500 metres above  l lsea level.
  4. 4. UGANDA SOILS The soil resources  GULU KOTIDO KITGUM PADER ARUA YUMBE MOYO ADJUMANI of Uganda LIRA APAC MASINDI MOROTO KATAKWI NEBBI SOROTI NAKAPIRIPIRIT KABERAMAIDO HOIMA MUBENDE KAMULI KUMI KIBOGA KIBAALE KYENJOJO NAKASEKE IGANGA LUWERO PALLISA NAKASONGOLA TORORO MBALE KAYUNGA KABAROLE BUNDIBUGYO JINJA KAPCHORWA BUSIA SIRONKOFig. 2: Soil map of Uganda  with District boundaries  overlaid MUKONO BUGIRI RAKAI KALANGALA MPIGI MASAKA MAYUGE KASESE BUSHENYI WAKISO IBANDA ISINGIRO KIRUHURA KAMWENGE SEMBABULE MBARARA RUKUNGIRI KANUNGU KAMPALA N overlaid ISINGIRO KABALE NTUNGAMO KISORO 100 0 100 200 Kilometers ACRIC FERRALSOLS ARENOSOLS CALCISOLS DYSTRIC REGOSOLS EUTRIC REGOSOLS GLEYSOLS HISTOSOLS LAKES LEPTIC/SKELETIC ANDOSOLS LEPTOSOLS LIXIC FERRALSOLS LUVISOLS MELANIC ANDOSOLS NITISOLS PETRIC PLINTHOSOLS PLANOSOLS VERTISOLS
  5. 5. Inherent productivity rating of Uganda soils High-Veryhigh Moderate-High Low-Moderate Very Low-Low– High ‐ 8%   N EW S – Medium  – 14% – Fair ‐ 43%   50 0 50 Kilometers – Low – 30%  – Negligible ‐ 5%  ‐Varying productivity  depending on placedepending on place  ‐ Research indicates declining  soil fertility due to nutrient  i i d littl Fig. 3: Inherent fertility of Uganda soils  (based on grading in the soil memoirs, 1960s) mining and little or no  replenishment of nutrients 
  6. 6. Updating the soils inventory • Current map and data (hard  copy) developed in the 1960  and need updating Aloi Arua Gulu Moroto Kitgum LodwarKaabong Pakwach NA 26-2 NA 36-7 NA 36-8 NA 36-4 NA 36-5 NA 36-1 NA 36-3 NA 36-6 and need updating • To‐date, 4 sheets out of 17  have been updated and  d d f MbaleHoima Masindi Fort Portal K l KapenguriaNA 36-9 NA 36-12 NA 36-11NA 36-10 42 41 41 137 42 62 150 65 137 62 62 138 65 150 138 62 41 41 62 44 137 41 137 137 39 39 4161 40 61 137 137 41 41 41 64 137 61 61 41 41 41 137 61 61 63 63 63 63 150 137 61 63 61 61 44 137 100 99 102 100 33 33 31 137 41 41 100 100 99 102 99 98 101 103 33 75 137 75 63 138 100 104 75 113 75 111113 75 137 71 71 75 75 137 71 71113 75 111 71 61 63 75 150 113 75 99 101 100 33102 102 32 32 33 118 65 62 41 137 138 6565 65 65 65 138 62 62 62 62 41 137 137 41 137 118 62 4142 42 137 41 137 137 40 137 138 138 61 61 137 6113747 14 14 65 125 41 125 47 3777 77 50 47 14 14 47 125 125 138 14 41 4141 41 41 42 125 41 41 41 41 41 41 125 125 125 12541 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 41 65 124 137 137 65 65 41 41 41 41 41 125 125 125 125 138 127 150 150 150 150 150 138 41 61 138 137 137 137 64 64 64 64 137 61 61 62 138 137 41 49 137 82 50 123 14 48 14 47 50 50 48 48 48 43 43 40 42 43 125 42 42 125 43 15 42 388 42 388 12716 25 388 388 125 125 65 65 65 41 40 125 125 351 9 351 9 42 42 42 42 12543 43 43 40 40 43 124 11 25 127 42 42 65 65 41 4141 40 42 40 4040 40 40 65 65 65 65 17 17 138 125 125 19 43 40 4043 43 41 137 137 41 42 138 137 41 41 101 98 40 41 138137 137 137 137 33 33 33 Masindi Mbale Kampala Jinja digitised for easier use • Efforts to convert hard copy  soil memoirs into digital  Jinja Mbarara Masaka Fort Portal Kampala Homa BaySA 36-1 NA 36-13 SA 36-2 SA 36-3 NA 36-14 NA 36 -15 41 41 137 137 41 41 137 18 18 42 111 9 25 24 24 11232 4 126 128 12 17 17 171 32 17 18 137 137 18 18 35 27 27 124 124 27 35 35 150 20 21 21 124 21 124 20 20 126 20 126 20 128 126 65 65 124 124 128 11 11 11 11 11 11 68 127 42 27 27 126 38 38 19 19 19 19 11 11 181 29 128 12 9 128 12 9 171 28 17 12 11 18 1818 18 18 181 29 13 127 127 25 25 11 11 150 111 9 111 9 111 9 111 9 111 9 27 42 42 181 29 181 29 181 29 151 38 38 187 2 126 126 22 126 22 232 4 11 128 42 137 137 137 137 24 40 40 40 34 34 34 11 18 17 137 41 40127 126 40 137 24 12 40 41 Kampala Jinja g format are on‐going • Development of the soils  database is underway to Kabale SA 36-5 database is underway to  integrate newly generated  analytical data into the  i i il dexisting soils data. Fig. 4: Uganda map showing the four soil map  sheets that were updated
  7. 7. The soil testing laboratory • A running lab. for research  and the general public • Analyses mainly soil & plant  tissue Fig. 5: The Soils Laboratory and office block  at the National Agric. Res. Labs, Kawanda 10000 6816 9077 6000 7000 8000 9000 Csoil 7000 • Over 12,000 samples  2944 3000 4000 5000 6000 Water Plant Soil Cplant 5000 , p analysed in 2012  •Mostly research  samples analysed 0 0 0 5 458 33 85 122 924 502 714 995 0 1000 2000 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Cwater 500Fig. 6: Trends in the number of  samples analysed at NARL over years 
  8. 8. Challenges facing the soil resource in general Uganda Soil Erosion Hazard Map N EW S Northern Shore Streams Eastern Shore Streams Katonga S L. Victoria Bukora Kagera Very low Low Subcatchment boundaries Soil loss rate 40 0 40 80 120 Kilometers Low Moderate High Very high 40 0 40 80 120 Kilometers Fig 7: Erosion hot spots in the Lake Victoria catchmentFig. 7: Erosion hot spots in the Lake Victoria catchment
  9. 9. Challenges facing the soil resource in general • Land degradation (soil erosion esp. in hilly and  mountainous areas, deforestation, soil fertility , , y decline, …) • Inadequate knowledge on proper soil/land use  tipractices • Poor land management practices leading to  unsustainable useunsustainable use • Population pressure leading to continuous  cultivation • Inability of smallholder farmers to invest in  sustainable land management practices (e.g. very  low fertiliser use)low fertiliser use)
  10. 10. Challenges facing the soil resource (cont’d) • Lack of enforcement of Environment and  Natural Resource (ENR) Management policiesNatural Resource (ENR) Management policies  and regulations • Poor waste disposal• Poor waste disposal • Lack of an updated soils inventory/map S il t d t th il d t b• Soil survey to update the soils database very  expensive! S il l i t th hi h f f (US $• Soil analysis cost rather high for farmers (US $  11.5 for a routine test: pH, OM, N, P, K, Ca,  Mg texture)Mg, texture)
  11. 11. Current efforts to address soil  h llmanagement challenges • Generating and promoting ISFM interventions• Generating and promoting ISFM interventions  (SLM, CA, linking ISFM to profitable  enterprises, etc.)enterprises, etc.) • Multi‐institutional/stakeholder collaborative  projectsprojects • Updating fertiliser recommendations for  major cropsmajor crops • Updating the soils information to meet  requirementsrequirements
  12. 12. Current efforts to address soil  h ll ( ’d)management challenges (cont’d) bl h f• Public‐private partnerships in information  dissemination idi il i i f d• Providing soil testing service to farmers and  private sector P li i i ( d l i• Policy interventions (e.g. developing a  fertiliser strategy, govt support to fertiliser use  through NAADS)through NAADS) • A number of projects by development  partnerspartners
  13. 13. Needs and priorities for sustainable soil management • Promote sustainable land/soil management – Sensitise grassroot communities on sustainable land  management Innovative ways of disseminating soil management– Innovative ways of disseminating soil management  information • Improve information management andImprove information management and  dissemination systems • Improved networking and information/data p g / sharing among institutions/departments
  14. 14. Needs and priorities for sustainable soil management  (cont’d)(cont d) • Increased support to soils research• Increased support to soils research  • Soils inventory update / soil survey and land  se planninguse planning • Policy intervention (e.g. enforcement of ENR  policies and legislation, formulate a land use  policy, increase budgetary support to  )agriculture and ENR programs)

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