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Copyright & IPR

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Conference given for Roche on December 8, 2015

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Copyright & IPR

  1. 1. Intellectual property rights 8/12/2015 Jacques Folon, Ph.D. www.folon.com Partner Edge Consulting Maître de conférences Université de Liège Chargé de cours ICHEC Brussels Professeur invité Université de Lorraine ESC Rennes
  2. 2. Available on line www.fedweb.belgium.be 
 in French & Dutch
  3. 3. Some IPR Criticisms 3 http://pyersedandridge.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/website-home-page-critique-550x322.jpg
  4. 4. A short history of copyright
  5. 5. 80% of the Internet Users do consider that Pyracy is not theft 5
  6. 6. 6 COPYRIGHT LENGHT INCREASES
  7. 7. 7 IPR is outdated Beaumarchais created the first copyright society in 1777 FRANCE IS THE « DROIT D’AUTEUR» COUNTRY
  8. 8. IS IPR a property like any other one? • No, it is limited in time 8
  9. 9. • No, it creates a temporary monopoly position 9 IS IPR a property like any other one?
  10. 10. IPR limits art 10
  11. 11. What is the purpose of IPR? • It allows the possibility for an author to live • It gives various type of protection 11
  12. 12. Février 2008 IDEAS Ideas are not protected works. They are not subject to property and are free as far as they are not proposed in an external way (CA Paris 12 sept 1989)
  13. 13. IPR • Inventions – Patents – GMO – IT Chips • Signs – Trade mark – Names – Geographical protection • Esthetical objects & design – Design • Copyright, droit d’auteur & neighboring rights 13
  14. 14. « Droit d’auteur » Original • « shows the personality of the author » • Plagiarism is not original Concretization • Ideas are not protected • A minimum of concretization is enough • two criteria needed Source: Lionel Maurel http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/droit-de-linternet-et-de-linformation-complet
  15. 15. 15 Questions to raise before using protected works • Are these protected works? • Are we authorized to use them? • Do we have a written agreement? => what are the basic principles?
  16. 16. 16 Basic principles •Exclusive right •70 Years after author’s death •Preliminary authorization •transfer of rights •forbidden by law !! Crédit image: http://www.tetedequenelle.fr/2010/03/droit-dauteur-mal-tourne/
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Categories « Droit d’auteur » « copyright system » creative commons assignment of rights Public domain
  19. 19. What is protected ? Text Conferences theatre choreography circus movie paintings music photo maps architecture software design fashion
  20. 20. 20 Protection of the work •Official declaration in the copyright system •Nothing for « droit d’auteur »
  21. 21. 25 The Author  Copyright system the producer Droit d’auteur: the individual
  22. 22. 22 • The author has the exclusive right – to make a copy or accept reproduction – communication to the public – translation – adaptation – sales • Duration in EU: 70 years after the author’s death Crédit image: http://www.rtbf.be/culture/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/AFPgoncourt1.jpg
  23. 23. 27 reproduction right •A copy of the work •Xerox copy •3D printing •Recording •copy of a film •etc.
  24. 24. 24  Contracts   the author is the weak party strict interpretation assignment of right clause
  25. 25. 25 The fact that one buys an object does not means that he/she automatically owns the copyrights 118
  26. 26. Copyright protection does not vary following •the nature of the work (music, sculpture, etc.) •its form (digital, 3D or 2D, etc.) •Its beauty or its price
  27. 27. 27 Moral right Only in some countries end of the work could not be seazed Paternity respect destruction honor & reputation 120
  28. 28. Exceptions 29 Quotations legal licences reprography family news communication as minor element fair use public domain
  29. 29. FAIR USE – the usage of the work may be accepted depending on • the usage (education • the type of work • size and quantities of use • consequences on the market share 30
  30. 30. 31 Neighboring rights categories that help the author or created specific rights !performing artists !producers !broadcasters !database producers !duration 70 years
  31. 31. Which authorization are needed ? • Reproduction rights • Communication to the public • ! each use s/b authorized • Do not forget moral right • assignment of right s/b in writing
  32. 32. To whom may we ask the authorization? • Author • Performing artists • Neighboring rights • Broadcasters • Rightsowners • Collective organizations may help
  33. 33. Assignment of rights (Droit d’auteur) • in writing • Strict interpretation • S/B precise – which right – remuneration – how long – for which territory • Difference with the copyright system
  34. 34. Sub contractors (droit d’auteur) • in writing • Strict interpretation • S:B precise – which right – remuneration – how long – for which territory • Difference with the copyright system
  35. 35. What if no assignment? • The author keeps his rights • Negociation at the end of the contract • legal action from the author possible
  36. 36. What is not protected ? • laws • political speeches (with exceptions) • some public documents
  37. 37. Other licences
  38. 38. « What » No authoriza.on needed as far as you respect the licence A contract is needed for an addi.onal use (commercial by instance) Example Creative Commons 4 criteria 6 liences
  39. 39. the most popular is CC invented by Lawrence Lessig philosophy oh the library of Alexandria Free as a free speech not as a free beer
  40. 40. • 4 criteria : – atribute)
 – no derivative 
 – Share-alike 
 – Non commercial (nc)
  41. 41. Now you know how to handle droit d’auteur, copyright & neighboring rights don’t forget it ! 43
  42. 42. TRADEMARKS An image, a graphic design a word, an image useful to recognize products forbid confusion with other products Duration 10 years renewable by country and for EU
  43. 43. CONDITIONS not forbid by law no confusion new means nothing similar already protected DISTINCTIVE <> GENERIC, USUAL OU DESCRIPTIVE Third party could refuse (ex:Apple)
  44. 44. http://fr.slideshare.net/MillwardBrownFrance/classement-brandz-top-100-des-marques-globales-les-plus-puissantes-au-monde-2014
  45. 45. Trademarks, domain names & user names in social media 200 millions domain names 2 billions user names google search identifies user names crédit image: http://www.them.pro/files/images/domain-names-extensions.jpg
  46. 46. Usernames easy to obtain no control used by search engines crédit image: http://www.saadkamal.com/social-media/change-facebook-username/
  47. 47. Design & models Protects appearance if it is new it is specific Duration 25 years http://lyc-stpaulnotredame-72.ac-nantes.fr/IMG/jpg/Philippe_Starck_1949-_-_Presse-Agrume_1_.jpg https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRLU6-6-PHFcb9sXL9Vmx10ANW5L_gBg2a6RL2f79VbD5dxkQFlMg
  48. 48. Promotes research by giving during a limited time (20 years) a monopoly to a person or a company who invent a product a process that is new Patents
  49. 49. In order to receive a patent 4 conditions : – new technical effect – industrial consequences –new (unknow by the public) –Innovative (as expert decide)
  50. 50. Right on his/her image 52
  51. 51. Basic principles • International treaties • privacy means also right to his image • principally no need for a damage • Preliminary authorization needed • duration 20 years after the individual’s death
  52. 52. How ? Prior authorization requested Exceptions: – person with a public status - even temporary (only during public life) – consent for a shooting does not mean consent for usage the person needs be identified (>< crowd)
  53. 53. Remember authorization is also needed for • Artwork • Buildings and monument (Eiffel tower) • Houses • trademarks • design • For pictures two authorizations needed – photographer – subject (individual or not) • discussion for journalists: right of information >< right of image
  54. 54. Internet: digital far west ? 56
  55. 55. 57 First court case
  56. 56. Legal questions on Internet ? OPTE Project Map of the Internet – CC-BY 58 •Peer to peer •drugs •counterfeits products •Diffamation Virtual world– real world National law - internet
  57. 57. INTERNET LAW ? •There is no internet law •digital is not different •new usages & international level •Digital influence the legal framework 59
  58. 58. Digital influence 60Source: http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/ecriture-web-et-dimension-juridique •Cut & paste •multimedia (voice, music, video, ) •co-working •immediate publication •re-use, re-create, re-publish •a work has an independent life
  59. 59. Digital and the law Laws do exist but are not respected New problems that are not covered by existing laws Who is responsible? (creator, hosted, telecom operator,…) Applicable law ? 61
  60. 60. Google Book Search •US law vs. French law • French stops Google •Finally agreements 62
  61. 61. • more & more influence of the terms & conditions Applicable law is a complex matter
  62. 62. 64 Did you read them ?
  63. 63. 65 http://static.freepik.com/free-photo/psd-social-icon-social-media-social-media-icons_29-30000199.jpg
  64. 64. Is a tweet a protected work?
  65. 65. It’s quite confusing • wording not really understood (copyright, free, free for use,…) • many new laws and regulations • and everything could be copied in one clic
  66. 66. Where is the limit? • What happens after your death? "emails "social media ? "virtual goods "e-reputation CC-BY-NC-ND Henning 69 Source: Lionel Maurel http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/droit-de-linternet-et-de-linformation-complet
  67. 67. Where is the limit ? 70Source: Lionel Maurel http://www.slideshare.net/calimaq/droit-de-linternet-et-de-linformation-complet
  68. 68. WHERE IS THE LIMIT? ARE AVATARS BECOMING LEGAL ENTITIES ? Sur Second Life 71
  69. 69. http://www.scoop.it/t/any-need-for-reinventing-copyright-droit-d-auteur-intellectual-property-news 72 AUTHOR ? A few lines Photo Share… legally? CURATION : ILLEGAL ?
  70. 70. 73
  71. 71. 74
  72. 72. Jacques Folon Jacques.folon@ichec.be
  73. 73. 76 Q & A Crédit image: http://jillsbooks.wordpress.com/2010/09/15/hellooooo-anybody-out-there/raise-your-hand-2/

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