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Food Biotechnology- Food flavours

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Food Flavours

Publicado en: Alimentación
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Food Biotechnology- Food flavours

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: DAIAMONLANG RANI II M.Sc FOOD SCIENCE & NUTRITION
  2. 2. • IMMOBILIZED PLANT CELLS FOR PRODUCTION OF FOOD FLAVOURS AND COLOURS • PRODUCTION OF FOOD ADDITIVES AND SUPPLEMENTS
  3. 3. • Plant cell culture has been for sometime considered as an alternative method for the production of flavours, colours and pharmaceuticals to their extraction from plants. • It has been defined as “ a technique, which confines to a catalytically active enzyme or to a cell within a reactor system and prevents its entry into the mobile phase, which carries the substrate and product.”
  4. 4. FOOD FLAVOURS • According to the US Society of Flavor Chemists, flavor is “ the substance taken into mouth, which stimulate one or both senses of smell and taste and/or also the general pain, tactile and temperature receptors in the mouth.” • The era of biotechnology has ushered with the use of microorganisms for the purpose of developing flavors both for food as well as non-food applications.
  5. 5. • Using immobilized lipase from the yeast Candida cylindracea. • Produce broad range of esters including ethyl-butyrate, isoamyl acetate and isobutyl acetate. • Ethyl- butyrate has a large market demand.
  6. 6. • Diacetyl or biacetyl-2,3 butadione is an important flavour constituent of cultured buttermilk, sour cream, cultured butter, etc. • It is based on the bioconversion of citrate by Streptocccus diacetylactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum through inducible citric acid permease system. • A pH >5.5, temperature between 20-30ºC, aeration and presence of citrate is essential for production of diacetyl.
  7. 7. 3.Pyrazines • Cultures of Bacillus subtilis when grown in a media containing sucrose, asparagine, metal ions, ferrous, Mg, Na, K, Mn are known to produce tetramethyl pyrazine. • Another componenet of pyrazine is 2-methyl-3- isopropyl pyrazine produced from Pseudomonas perolenes, Streptococcus lactis, Streptomyces which gives bell pepper, earthy, peas, potatoes odour.
  8. 8. 4. Lactones • Lactones impart fruity, coconut-like, buttery, sweet and nut-like flavor notes which are generally made by chemical synthesis from keto acids. • Candida and Saccharomyces, Penicillium notatum, Cladosporium butyricum, C.suaveolens and Sarcina lutea yield optically active lactones within 48 hours and when incubated with solutions of glucose and keto-acid.
  9. 9. 5. Terpenes The components of Terpenes are: • Linalool produced from Ceratocystic variospora, C.moniliformis having floral,rose, light, sweet, fresh citrus odours. • Citronellol produced from Ceratocystic variospora having sweet, rose, slightly bitter odour. • Geranyl acetate from C.coarulescens having a fruity odour.
  10. 10. FLAVOUR ENHANCERS & POTENTIATORS • Flavor enhancers is defined as “ a substance which increases the pleasantness of the flavor of another substance.” • Flavour potentiators is defined as “a substance which increases the percieved intensity of the flavor of another substance.”
  11. 11. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) • It is added to ready-to-eat food food but should not exceed 1%. • On fermentation, α-glutamic acid is obtained and is suspended in water and neutralised with NaOH, decolourised with active charcoal to obtain clear liquid which is further concentrated to crystallize MSG. • Organisms producing α- glutamic acid are Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium and Arthrobacter.
  12. 12. 5′ nucleotides • It can be produced directly by fermentation using Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacterium and Actinomycetes. • Treatment of an enzyme 5′ Phosphodiesterase results in the simultaneous production of 5′-AMP, 5′-GMP, 5′-CMP, 5′-UMP.
  13. 13. FOOD COLOURS Food colours is defined as “a substance of which the purpose is to impart high aesthetic appeal to the foods.”
  14. 14. 1.Colour from the moulds • In Japan, red rice is fermented with Monascus purpurens to yield a mixture of six pigments (red, yellow and purple pigmented polyketides). • Other compounds produced from moulds are: -Rubropunctatin & Monascorubin which are red pigment. -Rubropunctamine & Monascorubramine which are purple pigment.
  15. 15. 2.Colour from yeasts • Phaffia rhodozyma produced a red pigment, Asthaxanthin. • Yields of asthaxanthin depend on dissolved oxygen concentration at low aeration rate.
  16. 16. 3.Colours from algae • Rhodophyta produces Phycocyanins and Phycoerythrins apart from chlorophyll a. • Cyanophyta and Cryptophyta produces red or blue pigments, Phycobiliproteins.
  17. 17. FOOD ADDITIVES • Food additive is defined “any substance not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of food, where they are used for nutritive value, freshness maintenance, sensory quality improvement, processing aids.”
  18. 18. • There are four general categories of food additives: nutritional additives, processing agents, preservatives, and sensory agents. • Other typical examples are: acidulants, anti-browning agents, anti-caking agents, anti-microbial agents, antioxidants, emulsifiers and stabilizers, firming and crisping agents, flavour enhancers, food colours, sweeteners, sequesterants.
  19. 19. NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTS • Nutrient supplements are substances which are used in food processing to compensate for the nutrients that are lost during food processing. • E.g., fortification of butter/ margarine with vitamins A & D, enrichment of wheat flour with lysine, calcium, thiamin, niacin and iodization of common salt. • Various types of research and health laboratories use these products, and health-food stores sell them as nutritional supplements.
  20. 20. • Amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, and organic acids are produced in tons by microorganisms. • For e.g., the lysine prescribed by some doctors to treat herpes simplex infections is a product of the bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) and vitamin B2 (riboflavin) are produced by a bacterium and a mold.
  21. 21. THANK YOU

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