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CSS Notes Pakistan Compilation - PDF

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CSS Notes Pakistan Compilation - PDF

  1. 1. OUTLINES Pakistan Affairs Revised Syllabus Ayesha Younas 8/31/2015 This document is compiled from numerous articles and research papers. Some of the references are mentioned. I hope you make the best use of this hard work. Wish you all Best of Luck! Kindly pray for this soul.
  2. 2. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas Contents 1) Ideology of Pakistan-Definition and Elucidation 2) Muslim Rule in Subcontinent-Downfall and Efforts for Renaissance 3) Movements for Reforms-Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi 4) Movement of Reforms: Shah Walli Ullah 5) Movement of Reforms-Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi 6) Educational Institutions-Aligarh Movement 7) Educational Institutions-DEOBAND 8) Educational Institutions-NADWA 9) Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of ALLAMA IQBAL 10) Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of QUAID E AZAM 11) Land and People of Pakistan-Geography 12) Land and People of Pakistan-Agriculture 13) Land and People of Pakistan-Natural Resources 14) Land and People of Pakistan-Education 15) Land and People of Pakistan-Industry 16) Land and People of Pakistan-Society 17) Nuclear Program of Pakistan, Its Safety and Security; International Concerns 18) Civil Military Relations in Pakistan 19) Political Evolution Since 1971 20) Pakistan and US War on Terror 21) Foreign Policy of Pakistan post 9/11 22) Evolution of democratic system in Pakistan 23) Ethnic Issues and National Integration 24) Hydro-politics; Water Issues in domestic and regional context 25) Pakistan’s National Interest 26) Critical Analysis of Economic Survey 27) Critical Analysis of Previous and Current Budgets 28) Critical Analysis on problems and performance of major sectors 29) Pakistan and changing regional Apparatus 30) The Recent Constitutional and Legal Debates, the Latest Constitutional Amendments and Important Legislations, Legal Cases and the Role of Higher Courts 31) Topic 31: Non-Traditional Security Threats In Pakistan: Role Of Non-State Actors 32) Current Scenario Of Pakistan-Ratings
  3. 3. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas Topic 1: Ideology of Pakistan-Definition and Elucidation 1) What is Ideology? a. A form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones. 2) Evolution of “Ideology’ a. It was first used in French as ‘idéologie’ at the time of the French Revolution, introduced by a philosopher, A.-L.-C. Destutt de Tracy, as a short name for “science of ideas” as the study of the origin, evolution and nature of ideas. 3) Ideology of Pakistan and different Scholars a. Dr. Aslam Syed: “Ideology of Pakistan is the name of molding of individual and collective lives according to Islam and also of saving from conflicting ideologies.” 4) Historical aspects of The Ideology of Pakistan a. Introduction i. Historical experience provided the base; Subcontinent not only faced a struggle of political supremacy but was a clash of two social orders ii. Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation, iii. Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality iv. the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction b. Evolution of ‘Two Nation Theory’; i. Beginning of Muslim Nationalism; first hindu accepted islam ii. Muhammad bin Qasim, the first Muslim invader, invadedand captured parts of India in 712 AD. iii. Mahmud of Ghazna launched 17 attacks iv. The Muslim sufi (saints) like Ali Hejveri, Miran Hussain Zanjani etc. entered Sub- Continent. v. Qutub-ud-Din Aibuk permanently established Muslim dynasty in India that followed Sultanate and Mughal dynasties vi. The War of Independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the Indian Muslims, who were put in the dark. vii. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) awakened and guided his community through his educational drive, the Ali-Garh movement. viii. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded to indicate the beginning of the Indian nationalist movement under the British. ix. "Two Nations Theory" espoused by the All-India Muslim League, founded in 1906 and led to its demand for a separate state for the Muslims of India. x. Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces. Later, they demanded a separate state. c. Hindi-Urdu Controversy
  4. 4. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas i. Hindu revivalist movements turned more against the Muslims especially after 1857 ii. There were demonstrations against Urdu by the Hindus in Banaras in 1867 d. Characteristics of The Muslim nationalism i. Rule of Law, socio-economic justice, equity and fair play. ii. Equality of opportunity to all citizens irrespective of caste, sect, religion or region. iii. Religious and Cultural tolerance. iv. Respect for human dignity and rights. v. Protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and freedom to practice their beliefs and religions. 5) Conclusion Topic 2: Muslim Rule in Subcontinent-Downfall and Efforts for Renaissance 1) Muslim Rule in Subcontinent a. Arab Conquest: The Arab conquest of Sindh is the landmark event in the history of subcontinent. It gave Muslims a firm foothold in the region. (M Bin Qasim’s attack in 711 AD). Arab rule lasted for 3 centuries. Rule of various Caliphs in Baghdad i. Caliph Hashim (724-743 A.D.) ii. Caliph Mansoor (754-775 A.D.) iii. Caliph Mehdi (775-785 A.D.) iv. Caliph Haroon (786-809 A.D.) b. Turkish Period: Arabs were succeeded by Turks from 10th Century. It properly rose in Afghanistan under the leadership of Sultan Mahmud, Mahmud Ghauri in 1196 A.D. i. Ghaznavids (976-1148 A.D.) ii. Ghauris (1148-1206 A.D.) (17 expeditions) iii. Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526 A.D.) 1. Slaves of Mumluks (1206-1290) 2. Khiljis (1290-1320) 3. Tughluq (1320-1413) 4. Sayyids (1414-1451) 5. Lodhis (1451-1526) c. Mughal Period: The Mughal Rule formally began in 1526 with the invasion of Babur i. Babur (1526-1530) ii. Humayun (1530-1539) iii. Sher Shah (1539-1545) iv. Islam Shah (1545-1556) v. Akbar (1556-1605) vi. Jehangir (1605-1628) vii. Shah Jehan (1628-1658) viii. Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
  5. 5. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas ix. Bahadur Shah Zafar (1707-1857) Bahadur was banished to Rangoon, where he died in 1862. His two sons and grandsons were shot by British. The Mughal Period was a brilliant chapter of History which ends with the success of British. 2) Causes of Decline of Mughals a. Majority of Non-Muslim Population b. Akbar’s religious policy of Tolerance ‘Din-e-ilahi’ c. Untrustworthy Administration d. Luxurious Living Standards of Mughal Rulers-Lavish spending e. Lack of military discipline f. Huge size of the Empire g. Lack of timely Communication h. Financial Mismanagement i. Sectarian jealousy and violence j. Wars of succession k. Local Insurections i. Marathas in Deccan ii. Rajpoots and movements of Banaras iii. Sikhs in Punjab l. Foreign attacks and Colonization i. 1739-Nadir Shah of Iran attacked and destroyed delhi ii. Ahmed Shah Abdali attacked India iii. Third Battle of Panipat defeated Marathas iv. 1740-1763 colonization under Robert Clive by British, Battle of Buxar (Bengal and Bihar) v. 1857, exile of Bahadur Shah Zafar 3) Efforts For Renaissance a. Role of Sufis b. Role of Reformists; Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi, ShaH Wali Ullah, and Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi c. Role of Educationists: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Muhammad Iqbal 4) Conclusion Topic 3: Movements for Reforms-Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi 1) Introduction a. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi ; Hazrat Mujadid Alaf Sani (June 1564 – Dec 1626) b. Descendant of second caliph Hazrat Umar c. Father name è Sheikh Abdul Ahad d. Went to Delhi at age of 36 e. Disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah 2) Social Conditions during his time
  6. 6. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas a. Populace belief in Karamat b. Ulema refer to Jurisprudence rather than Quran c. Akbar’s anti Islamic look: Din-E-Elahi, Title Of Mujahhid-I-Azam And Imam-I-Adil. d. Hindu cultural domination e. Bakhti Movement f. Wahdat al Wajood theory 3) Mujadid’s efforts a. Jehad against Din-i-Ilahi (Exposed its fallacy) b. Theory of Wahdat-ul-Shahood c. Emphasis on Ittibat-I-Sunnah and the Commandments of Sharia. d. Countering Wahdat-ul-Wajood: sufis of Akbar’s time presented the wrong concept that there is no difference between God and creations. He negated that and presented wahdat-ul-shahud that creator and creations are two separate entities. e. Refusal to prostate – society purification i. Jehangir imprisoned him in Gawaliar for three years ii. Preaching in fort of Gawaliar f. Preparation of Disciples g. Maktaba-e-Imam-e-Rabbani i. Letters to important nobles and leaders ii. Abdur Rahim, Khan e Azam Mirza Aziz, Mufti Sardar Jehan 4) Books a. Isbat ul Nabuwwat b. Risla e Nabuwwat c. Need & importance of Prophethood d. Maktubat e Imam e Rabbai e. Toheed e Shaheedi f. Islamic philosophy 5) Two nation theory a. First stone of two nation theory – first founder of Pakistan b. Influence over Jehangir – Khutba; Cow Slaughter 6) Shaikh imprisoned a. Asaf Jah, Jehangeer’s PM Shaikh summoned, No prostration, jailed b. After 3 years of imprisonment, Jehangeer released him giving him 10000 rupees c. He stayed 3 years in Jehangeer courts. Died on Dec 10,1024 A.D, buried in Sirhind, “When seen in the perspective of history, whether accepted by Sufis or not, it is in the rejection of monism that Sheikh’s claim for being the Mujadad of his age.” IH Qureshi “Sheikh Ahmad, an individual from Sirhind, rich in knowledge and vigorous in action. I associated him for few days and found marvelous things in his spiritual life. He will turn into a light which will illuminate the world.” Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki quoted by S M Ikram
  7. 7. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas Topic 4: Movement of Reforms: Shah Walli Ullah 1) Introduction a. Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah a.k.a Mohadith Delvi b. 1703 DELHI – 1762 c. Father of Modern Muslim India d. Real name Qutabuddin e. Born at Delhi f. Son of Shah Abdur Rahim (Fatwa e Alamgeeri) – scholar of Fiqa and Islamic jurisprudence g. Got knowledge of Fiqah, Ahadith, Tafsir and Hikmat h. Completed study in 15 year of age i. Went to Arabia for higher education and came back in July 1732 j. He taught at Madrasa Rahimia for 12 years k. Aim was to Revive the past glory of Muslims and purify the society inwardly 2) Conditions a. Incapable successor of Aurangzeb b. Un-Islamic trends, c. Muslim life honour property not secured, d. Shia-Suni conflicts, e. Marhats and Sikhs challengers 3) SHAH’S EFFORTS a. Religious work i. Translation of Holy Quran in Persian – 1738 ii. Commentary on Hadith collection of Imam Muttah in Arabic and Persian iii. Urged Muslims to follow Holy prophet & abandon un-Islamic trends iv. Trained students in different Islamic knowledge v. Recommended application of Ijtehad vi. vii. Balance b/w four schools – viii. Removed misunderstanding b/w Shai & Sunni – Khilafat-al-Khulafa b. Political work i. Marathas were threatening the Muslim empire ii. ud Dola, Shuja ud Daula iii. e Third battle of Panipat in 1761 c. Social work i. Strongly opposed integration of Islamic culture in subcontinent ii. Concept of reorientation of Muslim society iii. Basic social justice iv. Removing social inequalities d. Concept of economy i. Production of wealth ii. Consumption of wealth iii. Distribution of wealth iv. Exchange of wealth 4) Literary work a. Izalat-al-Akifa
  8. 8. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas b. Khalifa-al-Khulafa c. Al-Insaf-fi-Bayan-Sababa-al-Ikhtilaf d. Master piece of literature 1738 e. Commentary on Hadith Imam Muttah f. Quranic translation in Persian g. Alfauz-ul-Qabir Fi-Usool-e-Tafseer h. Hujjat-ul-Balagha – about decay, Ijtehad, Mujjad and Ruler “I was informed through Ilham that I would have to undertake this responsibility. The time has come when every injunction of the Sharia and instruction of Islam should be presented to the world in a rational manner.” Quoted by SM Ikram Topic 5: Movement of Reforms-Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi 1) Introduction a. Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barelvi (1786 – 1831) b. Inheritor of mantle of Shah Abdul Aziz c. Birth at Rai Barally in 1786 d. Father Shah Illam Ullah e. Inspired by Shah Abdul Aziz f. 1810 – joined Nawab Ameer Khan as Sawar g. 1818 – wrote Seerat-e-Mustaqeem 2) Condition a. Punjab ruled by Ranjit Singh who mutilated Muslims b. NWFP by Sikhs 3) Objective a. Purification of Muslim society and destruction of British power through armed struggle b. Establishment of a state based on Islamic principles 4) Jehad Movement a. HQ at Nowshehra in Dec 1826 b. Battles i. OKARA 1826 ii. HAZRO 1827 c. Yar Muhammad Conspiracy i. He joined Mujahideen in Pesh, force arouse to 80,000 ii. Tried to poison Syed Ahmad iii. Killed by Mujahideen in 1829 d. BATTLE FOR PESHAWAR i. Ranjit Singh saved Peshawar and gave to Sultan Muhammad e. HAZARA II 1830 i. Sikh were attacked, Sultan M arrested ii. Declaration of Khilafat (1830) f. Sultan M pardoned & withdrew from Pesh g. BALAKOT BATTLE 1831 h. Sikh attacked, Syed Ahmad killed 5) Causes of Failure a. Western generals Vantura and Elite in Ranjit’s army – training & modern war strategy b. Outdated weapons of Mujahideen
  9. 9. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas c. Financial sources of Ranjit Singh d. Misunderstandings created by Ranjit Singh e. Ranjit attracted Pathans by bribing them to spy, revolt & slaughter Mujahideen f. No support for poors – Zakat collection g. Islamic laws during war – compulsory girls & widow marriage h. Severe punishment i. Pathans were against Wahabisim “The movement led by Brelvi was a precursor for later Muslim national movements of the subcontinent.” Dr. Sachin Sen Topic 6: Educational Institutions-Aligarh Movement 1) Introduction a. The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. b. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power c. The British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes d. Arabic, Persian and religious education banned in schools e. English made not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835 f. Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress through modern education. 2) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (17 Oct, 1817 – 27 Mar 1898) a. Got knowledge from Farid ud Din (maternal-grandfather – Ex Mughal PM) b. Got knowledge of Quran, Arabic, Persian, History, Maths and Medicine c. Joined gov’t in 1839 – after father’s death – – promoted as Sub- – – member of – University of Edinburgh – – Knighthood 3) Educational Aspect of Aligarh Movement a. Objective: i. Modern education for Muslims to compete Hindus ii. Cooperation with the British government b. Schools i. Muradabad (1859) ii. Ghazipur (1863) c. Scientific society at Gahazipur (1864) i. (to translate modern work from English to urdu and Persian) ii. 1866 – Society published Aligarh Gazette (to arouse sentiments of goodwill & friendship) d. Muhammadan Educational Conference i. Maulana Hali as members ii. 1869 – went to England, studied education system of Oxford & Cambridge e. Anjuman-i-Taraqi-i-Musalmanan-i-Hind (1870) i. to impart modern knowledge to Muslims f. Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College
  10. 10. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas i. High – – status of University 4) Political Aspects of Aligarh Movement a. Muslims should avoid active politics b. Sir Syed wrote “Risala-i-Asbab-Baghawqat-i-Hind 5) Religious Services of Aligarh Movement a. Wrote “Essay on the Life of Muhammad & Rebattle” in response to William Muire’s objectionable remarks in “Life of Muhammad” b. Philosophical commentary “Tabaeen-al-Kalam” on bible – point out similarities c. Influenced by MBA Wahab and Shah Ismail Shaheed – having positive attitude towards religion 6) Social services of Aligarh Movement a. “Tahzib-ul- b. Established Orphanage houses c. Founded Anjuman-i-Tariki-i- d. Ahkam-i-Taham-i-Ahle- e. Pioneer of two nation theory i. Advocate of Hindu Muslim unity ii. Urdu Hindi controversy 1867 in Banaras, changed his views iii. Shakespeare dialogue 7) Features of Aligarh a. Western & Eastern Education b. Islamic Education c. Residential College d. European and Indian staff e. Non-Muslim students f. Loyalist Disposition 8) Aligarh Movement after Sir Syed’s death a. 1889 – ed Mahmud (son) as joint sec. b. c. Nawab Mohsin-ul- the conflict b/t two groups – Sahibzada Aftab Khan (in favor of European staff) & d. 1912 – health e. - college student played role in Tehrik e Khilafat 9) Causes of WOI 1857 a. Non representation of Indian in legislative councils b. Conversion of Indian into Christianity c. Mismanagement of Indian army d. Ill advised measure of gov’t e. Consequence: Indian membership in Act 1861 f. 1866 – Sir Syed formed British India Association at Aligarh – to express grievances of Indians to gov’t g. wrote Loyal Muhammadans of India
  11. 11. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas h. Indian Patriotic Association 1888 – forum for those who did not join Congress i. Muhammadan Political Association 1903 – Against Hindu Revivalist movements j. Arya Smaj – Hindustan 1977 k. B G Tilak – Cow Slaughter l. Shudhi – m. Shangtahn – 10) Conclusion a. Allama Iqbal: “The real greatness of the man (Sir Syed) consists in the fact that he was the first Indian Muslim who felt the need of a fresh orientation of Islam and worked for it.” b. Jawaharlal Nehru, “Sir Saiyad was an ardent reformer and he wanted to reconcile modern scientific thought with religion by rationalistic interpretations and not by attacking basic belief. He was anxious to push new education. He was in no way communally separatist. Repeatedly he emphasized that religious differences should have no political and national significance”. Topic 7: Educational Institutions-DEOBAND 1) Introduction a. Started at April 1866) b. Aligarh movement was cooperating with British c. Christians working to convert Muslims into Christianity d. Apr 1866 – e. – Maulana M Qasim , Maulan Maulana Shabir A Usmani taught f. “Qasim al Uloom I Deoband” g. Madrasah followed Madrasah I Rahimia (Shah wali Ullah’s father) and British education system h. Mehmood ul Hassan 2) Political Services of Deoband a. Muslim league b. Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i- Ullah influenced by Abu-ul- s 3) Educational Services of Deoband a. b. Mehmood Ul Hassan. 4) Deoband and Aligarh a. Policy towards British b. Political role of Muslims c. Emphasizing area of education 5) Rapprochement with Aligarh a. Jamiat-ul- Swap of education – religious and western
  12. 12. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas b. Jamiat-i-Milia (1920) 6) Conclusion Topic 8: Educational Institutions-NADWA 1) Introduction a. NADVA-TUL-ULEMA OF LUCKNOW (1894) b. c. d. Need for balanced school e. -tul- 1898 f. liberal program 2) Objectives a. Promoting religious knowledge, moral uplift and social regeneration of Muslims, Work to remove secretarial differences b. British gov’t opposed the idea (Anthony MacDonal expressed it as a political institute) 3) Nadva-tul-Ulema & Shibli Nohmani a. Shibli influenced by Maulana M Farooq – opposing Sir Syed while his father influenced by Sir Syed b. c. (Syed Suleman Nadvi, Abu-al-Kalam Aza) d. Established academy “Dar-ul-Musanifin” e. Differences aroused Topic 9: Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of ALLAMA IQBAL 1) Introduction a. The sense of nationhood developed among the Muslims before the establishment of Pakistan. b. Their goal was mostly to protect and promote their identity. c. To shape their lives in accord with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority. 2) Separate Recognition of Muslims: “India is not a country, it is a Sub-continent of human beings belonging to different languages and practicing different religions. Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity.” 3) Condemnation of Western Democratic Concepts: Western democracy is devoid of depth, it has merely an attractive outlook. 4) Concept of separate Muslim State: “I want to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan in the form of one homogenous state. Whether India gets independences under the crown of England or out of it, I think independent state of western provinces is the destiny of the people living there.”
  13. 13. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas 5) Acclamation of Idea of Single Nation: “I remained the supporter of this idea but now I am of the view that preservation of separate nationhood is useful for Hindus and Muslims birth. To have the concept of single nation in India is no doubt poetic and beautiful but impractical regarding present circumstances.” (March, 1909 when lqbal refused to address a meeting held by Minvra Raj Amritsar) 6) Concept of Two Nation Theory: “Despite living together for 1000 years, Hindus and Muslims have their own individual ideologies so the only solution of political conflict in India is to have a separate independent parliament for each nation.” 7) Eradication of Racial & Regional Prejudices: “Concept of nation and homeland is confusing the Muslims. That is why Islamic humane objects are becoming dim. It is also possible that these concepts may destroy the real concepts of Islam.” 8) Explanation of Relation of Islam & politics: “Islam does not consider matter and soul separate from each other. Allah, Universe and state all are the basic elements of single unit. Man is not so alien that he should leave worldly affairs for the sake of religion.” 9) Islam is complete code of life: “Islam is not the name of some beliefs and customs but it is a compete code of life. In, Europe, religion is every one’s personal matter which divides the human oneness into two opposite parts i.e. body and soul. In contrast to that in Islam, God, Universe, soul, matter, sate and religions are bound to each other or in other words Muslims are one nation” 10) Islam is a lively power: “Islam is a lively power which frees human mind from thoughts country and race. If we understand this thing then we can be the leaders of prominent Indian civilization.” 11) Islam is the way to success: “The lesson which I learnt from history is that Islam always helped the Muslims. Even today, Ideology of Islam can save your being from destruction by uniting your divided powers”. 12) Opposition of Nationalism: “I am opposed to nationalism, not because if it is allowed to develop in India. It is likely to bring less material gain to Muslims. I am opposed to it because I see in it the germs of atheistic materialism which I look upon as the greatest danger to modern humanity” 13) Foundation of Pakistan: “To address this session of All India Muslim League you have selected a man who is not despaired of Islam as a living force for freeing the outlook of man from its geographical limitations, who believes that religion is a power of utmost importance in the life of individual as well as states.” 14) Conclusion Topic 10: Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of QUAID E AZAM 1) Introduction a. He changed the course of history. He was a real charismatic leader possessing a visionary leadership. b. Gave practical shape to the ideology given by Sir Syed and Allama Iqbal 2) Quaid e Azam political Life a. He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National Congress. He was
  14. 14. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in 1913 he also joined the All India Muslim League (AIML). b. Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule), complete freedom from the British and on using extra-constitutional means, Jinnah resigned from the Congress in 1920. 3) Jinnah and his transition from Hundu-Muslim Unity to Two NationTheory a. His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the Muslim demands: i. Separate Electorate ii. One-third Seats in Central Legislature iii. protection of minority rights b. In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah retaliated forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929. c. 1935 onwards Quaid started emphasizing on separate identity of Muslim and a separate nation. Started mobilizing masses. d. Quaid said “Muslims are third party in India” e. e as a nation and play a role as a nation.” f. and Tide”. He discussed 1.How Hindu and Muslims are separate nations? 2. What should be future of India and how Muslims can be accommodated well? g. He emphasized on Islam as well as modern democracy, Social economic justice and rights of minorities. 4) Pakistan as A modern Democracy: “Pakistan was to be a modern democratic state that derived its ethical foundation from Islam where the source of guidance and inspiration for constitution making and governance is going to be Islam” 5) Muslims as a Nation: “It has been taken for granted mistakenly that Muslims are a minority, and of course we got used to it for such a long time that these settled notions sometimes difficult to remove. The Muslims are not a minority; the Muslims are a nation by every definition. By all canons of international law we are a nation.” 23rd March 1940 6) India an amalgam of cultures: ““India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a sub continent of nationalities, Hindus and Muslims belong to the two major nations. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religion, philosophies, social customs and literature. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that both derive their inspirations from different sources of history” 23rd March 1940 7) Muslims as a distinctive nation a. “We are a nation with our distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, sense of values and proportions, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendars, history and traditions. In short we have our distinct outlook on life and of life By all canons of International law we are a separate nation.” 1942 b. The Muslims are nation by every right to establish their homeland” 1942 8) Islam as the binding force: a. “We should base our democracy on the principals and concepts of Islam” Feb 1942 b. “Pakistan does not mean freedom and independence only, but the Islamic ideology as well which has to be preserved.” June 1945 c. “I cannot understand a section of people who deliberately want to create a mischief and
  15. 15. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas make propaganda that the constitution of Pakistan will not be made on the basis of Shariat. Islamic principals today are as applicable to life as they were 1300 years ago.” Jan 25, 1948 Eid Milad Un Nabbi Karachi Bar Association 9) Conclusion Topic 11: Land and People of Pakistan-Geography 1) Introduction a. The science dealing with the description, distribution and interaction of the diverse physical, biological and cultural features of the earth’s surface. b. Geography is the study that deals with the location of countries, cities, rivers, mountains, and lakes etc. 2) Pakistan’s Geography a. Pakistan is situated between latitude 24 and 37 degrees north and longitude 62 and 75 degrees east. b. The country borders Iran on the west, India in the east, Afghanistan in the North West, China in the north and Arabian Sea on the south. c. The great mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakorum and the Hindu Kush from Pakistan's northern highlight of the north western frontier and the Northern Area d. Province of Punjab is flat, alluvial plain with five major rivers dominating the upper region eventually joining the Indus River flowing south to Arabian sea e. Sindh is bounded on the west by Kirthar range f. The Baluchistan plateau is an arid tableland, encircled by dry mountains. 3) POPULATION (1998 Census): a. Total population: 130.58 million, Growth Rate : 2.61% per annum. b. Density : 164 person / Sq.kms c. Sex Ratio : 108 males to 100 females 4) AREA: a. 8,03,940 (including FATA and FANA) 5) CLIMATE: a. Pakistan has well defined seasons; Winter (December - February), Spring (March - April), Summer (May - September) and Autumn (October - November). b. During summer in central and southern parts of the country, the temperature may go as high as 45oC. However, the northern regions have very pleasant weather during summers. c. Between July and August, the season brings an average 38-51cm of rain to plains and 152-203cm in lower Himalayan valleys of Murree, Kaghan, Swat and Azad Kashmir. 6) Physical Features a. The Northern and Western Highlands i. Northern Mountain Range 1. The Himalayas (Nanga Parbat-8126 meters) 2. The Karakoram (K-2 – 8611 meters, KKH on Hunza river) ii. North Western Mountain Range 1. Hindu Kush (Tirichmir-7690 meters) iii. Western Mountain Ranges 1. The Koh-e-Sufian (Khyber Pass-53 km, trade with Afghanistan khurrai pass) 2. Suleiman Range (Tukht-e-suleman 3500 meters, Bolan)
  16. 16. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas 3. Kirthar Range (max height 2150 meters, south river Hub and Lyari flow) 4. Salt Range( river swan, Avg height 700 meters) b. The Indus Plain i. The Upper Indus Plain (area above Mithan kot, very fertile, low rainfall) ii. The Lower Indus Plain (Indus delta, very fertile) c. The Plateaus i. The Balochistan Plateau (South of coastal Makran Range, Khojak Pass, Sui Gas, avg height 3000 meters, rivers Gomal, Zhob, and Hingol) ii. The Pothar Plateau (Kala Chitta and Margalla hills in North, Salt Range in South, Jehlum flows in East, River Indus in West. Khewra Salt Mine) d. The Desert Regions i. Cholistan (Bahawalpur) ii. Kharan (NW of Balochistan) e. Coastal Areas (700 km long) 7) Conclusion Topic 12: Land and People of Pakistan-Agriculture 1) Introduction a. Agriculture accounted for 20.9 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2014-15 and is a source of livelihood of 43.5 percent of rural population. b. Majority of the population, directly or indirectly, dependent on this sector as it accounts for 45 percent of employed labor force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings. 2) Highlights according to the Economic Survey a. The agriculture growth stood at 2.9 percent during July-March, 2014-15 as compared to 2.7 percent during the last year. b. Crops witnessed a growth of 1.0 percent, Livestock 4.1 percent, Forestry 3.2 percent and Fishing 5.8 percent. c. During 2014-15, cotton production stood at 13,983 thousand bales as compared to 12,769 thousand bales in 2013-14 and registered an increase of 9.5 percent. d. Wheat production decreased to 25,478 thousand tonnes in 2014-15 as compared to 25,979 thousand tonnes in 2013-14 showing a decrease of 1.9 percent. e. Rice production has increased to 7,005 thousand tonnes in 2014-15 as compared to 6,798 thousand tonnes in 2013-14 showing an increase of 3.0 percent f. During July-March, 2014-15 about 446.1 thousand tonnes of improved seeds of various Kharif/Rabi crops were procured. 3) Problems related to Agriculture a. Lack of Education b. Lack of Capital c. Following of old traditions d. Water-logging and salinity e. Uneconomical Land holdings f. Scarcity of Water
  17. 17. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas g. Soil Erosion h. Lack of organized marketing i. Pests and Crop Diseases j. Poor means of transportation k. Lack of Credit Facilities l. Low Yield per acre 4) Suggestions and remedies a. Reclamation of Land b. Irrigation Facilities c. The Use of fertilizers d. Credit facilities e. Better quality seeds f. Plant protection g. Mechanization h. Cooperative farming i. Higher Education Level j. Marketing Facilities k. Improvement in the means of transportation and communication 5) Conclusion Topic 13: Land and People of Pakistan-Natural Resources 1) Introduction a. Natural Resources occur naturally within environments characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems. b. Pakistan has enormous energy surplus resource potential of both renewable and nonrenewable, which is greater than that of oil rich countries of Gulf. 2) Natural Resources and their management a. Contrary to economic potential of its natural resources, Pakistan is a depending on the following i. Foreign aid and debt. ii. Deficit in trade iii. Acute energy crisis to run industry iv. Water stress for agriculture b. Sustainable development required. 3) Richness / abundance of natural resources in Pakistan a. Among the world's 200 plus countries b. Second largest salt mines, c. Second largest coal reserves, d. Fifth largest copper and gold reserves, e. Seventh largest wheat and rice production capacity. 4) Pakistan's Natural Resources a. Energy resources i. Nonrenewable energy resources 1. Oil and Gas reserves
  18. 18. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas a. Crude Oil - proved reserves: 247.5 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.) CC: 57, and Natural gas - proved reserves: 679.6 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.): CC: 31 b. Current oil production is 61,660 bbl/day (2012 est.) c. Current gas production is 39.15 billion cu m (2011 est.) 2. Coal reserves a. 185 billion tons equivalent to 618 billion barrels of crude oil. b. If it is converted into oil by gasification, it will generate 650 barrels of crude oil which at an average market rate of eighty dollars per barrel, would generate 5.2 trillion dollars. ii. Renewable energy resources 1. Wind and solar power a. 1046 km long coastal line gives potential of 40000 MW of electricity b. vast lands of Balochistan can be utilized for solar electricity generation. 2. Hydropower a. Only 33 percent of around 20,000 MW generation capacity is produced from this resource which has the potential of producing 40,000 MW b. Agricultural resources i. Out of 77 million acres cultivable area, only 55.5 million acres have been ploughed ii. Irrigation Network iii. Fertile Land iv. Variety of Crops v. Animal Husbandry (Sahiwal cow-best breeds) vi. Fishing c. Mineral Ore Resources i. Copper and gold resources 1. The Riko deq project, copper and gold reservoir, have been estimated to be worth of 260 billion dollars ii. Salt mines and other minerals iii. Uranium: In 2006 Pakistan produced about 45 tons of uranium. d. Human resources i. Sixth Largest Population in the World ii. Youth comprising major chuck (63 percent below age of 25 years, according to United Nations Development Programme) e. Atomic Energy (Pakistan has operated Atomic blasts in Chagi in Balochistan on 28 May 1998.) 5) Factors leading to poor management / Governance a. Political instability/ rivalry, b. Lack of vision and planning, c. Flawed policies, d. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and corruption, e. Worsened Law and order situation, 6) Implications of mismanagement of natural resources (Economic Survey 2014-15) 7) Way forward
  19. 19. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas 8) Conclusion a. country comparison to the world: CC b. Source CIA factbook c. Bbl: barrel Topic 14: Land and People of Pakistan-Education 1) Introduction a. Educational indicators of Pakistan are still dismally low, although steady progress has been noticed during last few decades. b. Article 25-A of constitution of Pakistan states: “State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law”. c. At present, about one third primary school age children are out of school, 42% population (age 10+) is illiterate. d. Gender Parity Index in case of participation in primary education is 0.82. e. Over 6.7 million children are out of school, and majority of them (62%) are girls 2) Current Statistics According To The Economic Survey 2014-2015 a. According to Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2013-14, literacy in urban areas is 74 percent and in rural areas (49 percent), and is more prevalent for men (81.0 percent) compared to women (66.0 percent) in urban areas. b. Government is spending 2.1 percent of its GDP on education sector. c. Net Enrolment Rates (NER) at the national level during 2013-14 remained at 57 percent. d. Under Prime Minister’s “Hunarmand Pakistan Program” short-term skill development training up to six-month duration courses was conducted in collaboration with public and private sector training institutes. e. During the period 2008-14, a total number of 10,376 Scholarships were awarded under different programmes of HEC. 3) Education System in Pakistan a. Introduction i. Education is a provincial subject as a result of the 18 Constitutional Amendment legislated by the parliament during April 2010 ii. The Ministry of Education and Trainings and Standards in Higher Education (MET&SHE) at the federal level coordinates with international development partners. iii. Public sector formal school system consists of 12 academic years. iv. It starts from Primary and ends at Intermediate level or Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC). v. Private sector; one third enrolled children, following either public sector national curricula or that of Cambridge International Examinations. b. Primary and Secondary Education i. 146,185 formal primary, 42,147 middle level (Lower Secondary) and 29,874 secondary schools ii. 75% are public sector schools; 10% private sector schools; others ‘deeni madressahs’ and non-formal basic education systems
  20. 20. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas iii. Enrolment in Middle Schools: 6 million with 57% boys and 43% girls, enrolment in secondary schools: 2.8 million with 58% males and 42% females c. Non-Formal Basic Education i. an extensive network of Non-Formal Basic Education (NFBE) institutions for out- of-school children; enrolment of at least 2.5 million students ii. 13,000 Basic Education Community Schools (BECS) are functioning; 0.6 million enrollment iii. BECS are financed by the Federal Government and operate directly under MET&SHE d. Private Sector Contribution in Primary Education i. At the primary level, overall 4.8 million (34%) children of 5-9 years age group are enrolled. ii. 34% of boys and 33% of girls e. Religious Education (Deeni Madaris) i. According to NEMIS data, at present, the total number of Deeni Madarisin Pakistan is 13,240 ii. These Madaris are run by five different WAFAQS(governing bodies) iii. 1.79 million students enrolled; 1.1 million boys and 0.66 million girls 4) National Education Policies a. The National Education Policy (1998-2010) b. The National Education Policy (2009) c. Education Sector Reforms (2001-06) d. National Plan of Action for EFA (2001-15) e. Provincial Education Sector Plans f. Free Education and Incentives to Enhance Enrolments and Retention g. The National Plan of Action for Accelerating Education-Related MDGs (2013-16) 5) Key Education Challenges in Pakistan a. Lack of Access to Education b. Poor Quality of Education c. Budgetary Constraints d. Weak Governance e. External Factors i. Poverty ii. Law and Order iii. Natural Disasters 6) Prospects For 2015 and Beyond a. Expanding and improving comprehensive Early Childhood Education (ECE) b. Increased Equitable Access c. Improved Learning Outcomes d. Literacy e. Gender Parity f. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) g. Education for Culture of Peace h. Consultative Workshops in Provinces and Areas on Improving Quality Beyond 7) Priority Areas To Be Achieved a. Basic education b. Post-basic and Tertiary education c. Youth and adult literacy
  21. 21. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas d. Skills for work and life e. Quality and relevant teaching and learning f. Financing of education 8) Conclusion (Source: Education for All 2015 National Review, UNESCO Document) Topic 15: Land and People of Pakistan-Industry 1) Introduction a. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP. b. Cotton textile production and apparel manufacturing are Pakistan's largest industries, accounting for about 66% of the merchandise exports and almost 40% of the employed labor force. 2) Current Statistics According To The Economic Survey 2014-2015 a. Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM) during July-March 2014-15 registered a growth of 2.5 percent as compared to 4.6 percent in the same period last year. b. The Year on Year (YoY) growth for March 2015 stood at 4.5 percent as against negative growth of 1.0 percent in March 2014. c. Negative Growth: Wood Product declined by 78.46 percent, Engineering Products 10.68 percent, Paper and Board 7.26 percent, Food Beverage and Tobacco 1.03 percent and Rubber products 0.56 percent. d. Positive Growth: Iron and Steel Products 35.63 percent, Automobiles 17.02 percent, Leather Products 9.62 percent, Electronics 8.21 percent, Pharmaceuticals 6.38 percent, Chemicals 5.94 percent, Non Metallic mineral products 2.56 percent, Coke & Petroleum Products 4.73 percent, Fertilizers 0.95 percent and Textile 0.50 percent. e. Automobile sector such as trucks, tractors, cars & jeeps and LCVs registered growth of 53.9 percent, 44.6 percent, 23.1 percent and 31.2 percent, respectively. f. Mining and Quarrying sector grew by 3.8 percent in 2014-15 3) SWOT Analysis Of Iron And Steel Industry Of Pakistan a. Strengths i. Development Projects; Dams, Bridges ii. Boom in Construction Sector; Real Estate iii. Defense Production b. Weaknesses i. Old depreciated plant and machinery ii. Limited capacity to fulfill demand iii. Lack of infrastructure iv. High taxes v. Declining Skilled force c. Opportunities i. Abundant coal available to power Steel Mills ii. Abundant Iron ore available domestically iii. Increase in prices and demand of steel worldwide d. Threats i. Political instability ii. Competition on mainstream iii. Increase in iron ore prices worldwide
  22. 22. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas 4) Critical Analysis of Textile Industry a. Contribution of Textile Sector i. Increase in National Income ii. Contribution to Taxes iii. Economic Stability iv. Improvement in Balance of Payments v. Agricultural Development vi. Increased Employment Opportunities vii. Collateral Industrial Development viii. Enhanced Government Revenues ix. Diversification of Economy b. Problems Faced By The Textile Industry Of Pakistan i. Financial Problems ii. Domestic Issues iii. Global Recession iv. Textile input Issues v. Taxation Issues vi. Energy Crisis vii. International Competition viii. Environmental Issues c. Remedies and Solutions i. Input-related Remedies ii. Remedies for Energy Crisis iii. Financial Remedial Measures iv. Human Resource Development v. SME’s Promotion vi. Labor Intensive Industries vii. Taxation Solutions viii. Foreign Investment Promotion ix. Environmental Remedies 5) Conclusion Topic 16: Land and People of Pakistan-Society 1) Introduction a. The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community. b. Pakistan was created in 1947, as a homeland for Muslims in South Asia, and about 97 percent of Pakistanis are Muslim c. Pakistani society is ethnically diverse. d. It is largely rural yet beset by the problems of hyper-urbanization. e. Pakistan has enjoyed a robust and expanding economy, but wealth is poorly distributed f. A middle-class is emerging, but a narrow stratum of elite families maintains extremely disproportionate control over the nation's wealth, almost one-third of all Pakistanis live in poverty.
  23. 23. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas g. It is a male-dominated society in which social development has lagged considerably behind economic change 2) Salient features of Pakistani Society a. Religious Uniformity b. Diversity of Ethnicity c. Unity In Family Structure d. Language e. Literature and Poetry f. Dress and Diet g. Male Dominated Society h. Arts and Architecture i. Recreational Activities-Sports 3) Critical Indicators of Society a. Sanitation b. Access to health care c. literacy d. Increasing population pressure on limited resources e. Social and Economic Inequity 4) Role Of Religion on Ideology a. Founders of Pakistan hoped that religion would provide a coherent focus for national identity b. A focus that would supersede the country's considerable ethnic and linguistic variations c. Islam has been a pervasive presence in Pakistani society d. Role that Islamic law should play in the country's affairs and governance remains an important issue 5) Regional Diversity a. Pakhtuns, Baloch, Punjabis, and Sindhis are all Muslim, yet they have diverse cultural traditions and speak different languages. b. Ethnic, regional, and--above all--family loyalties figure far more prominently for the average individual than do national loyalties c. Punjabis predominate in the central government and the military. d. Baloch, Pakhtuns, and Sindhis find the Punjabi preponderance at odds with their own aspirations for provincial autonomy. e. Ethnic mixing within each province further complicates social and political relations. 6) Role of Social Movements a. After 1990, social movements, assumed a more central role in public life. b. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) committed to economic and social development c. Loss of a sense of social contract among Pakistanis that has adversely affected the country's infrastructure d. The populace has failed to develop a sense of publicly committed citizenship 7) Personal Approach of Individuals
  24. 24. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas a. The self-centeredness is increasingly noticeable in many areas of social life b. Many people once imagined that economic development would by itself improve the quality of life, not now c. Family or personal interest and status take precedence over public good in Pakistan d. All the individual affairs depend more upon connections or wealth than on ability and merit such as admissions in schools 8) Sectors of the Country a. Failure to develop civic-minded citizenship is also evident in public administration b. There is imbalanced government spending c. The bureaucracy has not modernized sufficiently to incorporate new technologies and innovations 9) Conclusion Topic 17: Nuclear Program of Pakistan, Its Safety and Security; International Concerns 1) Introduction a. Pakistan; first Muslim country to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants. b. It is one of the four nuclear armed states that is not a party of the nuclear non- proliferation treaty. c. Member on International Atomic Energy Commission (IAEA). d. Plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050. 2) Nuclear Power Program of Pakistan a. 725 MWe capacity; nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60-90 nuclear warheads b. Pakistan's nuclear weapons capabilities have arisen independently of the civil nuclear fuel cycle, using indigenous uranium. c. Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, due to its weapons program, it is largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, and however, China is positive to cooperate. d. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for all nuclear energy and research applications; two divisions; Nuclear Power Generation (NUPG) and Nuclear Power Projects (NUPP) e. The Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) at Rawalpindi near Islamabad is managed by the PAEC and is one of the largest science and technology research establishments in the country 3) General Potential Threat Of Nuclear Terrorism Defined By IAEA: a. Theft of a nuclear weapon b. Theft of material to make an improvised nuclear explosive device c. Theft of other radioactive material for an RDD d. Sabotage of a facility or a transport 4) Concerns On Security Issues Of Pakistan a. Extremist government in power. b. Radicals taking over
  25. 25. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas c. Terrorist attack on nuclear installations d. The insider dimension 5) Starting Of Safety And Security Issues Of Pakistan Nuclear Program a. The terrorist attack on twin towers and Fukushima power plant disaster has changed the whole global discourse of safety and security of nuclear weapons. b. Attack on army GHQ in 2009,PNS mehran attack in 2011 and KAMRA air base attack in 2012 c. Political instability d. The pace of developing nuclear weapons 6) Security System Of Nuclear Program In Pakistan a. In May 1998, the Government of Pakistan announced its National Command Authority (NCA), which comprises the Employment Control Committee, the Development Control Committee and Strategic Plans Division (SPD) - the secretariat of the Authority. b. The SPD has developed a foolproof security system such as Permissive Action Link system, which is modeled after the one used in the US, among other responsibilities. c. Pakistan National Security Council: estb. in Feb 2000 to supervise the employment, deployment, research and development and command structure of Pakistan nuclear program d. Security Division: Most imp. organ of strategic planning division which is responsible for security and protection of Pakistan nuclear arsenal, facilities and the entire strategic organization e. Personal Reliability Program (PRP): security clearance and screening processes of all individuals for employment in the strategic organizations to break the insider link with any terrorist group f. Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities: security division is responsible for physical protection of all civilian and military nuclear installations. g. Transportation Security: Pakistan has approved the convention on physical protection of nuclear material in 2000 to ensure safe transport of nuclear material h. Fissile Material Protection, Control And Accounting: SPD measure and do external audits on nuclear inventories and implementing regular and surprise inspections at all facilities. i. Export Control Regime: In 2000,Pak estb. a strategic export control division to control export of nuclear material by any means. j. International agreements to prevent nuclear terrorism: Pak joined US led containee security initiative in 2006 and global initiative to combat nuclear terrorism in 2007. k. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority: came into being under PAEC. Supervise all matters relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection. l. Radiological Source Security: The PNRA is tasked to protect workers in the facilities, public, and the environment against accidental or malicious acts m. Nuclear Security Summit (NSS): Pakistan has participated in two NSS in 2010 and 2012. 7) Conclusion a. The country’s nuclear security is supported by five pillars
  26. 26. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas i. a strong command and control system led by the National Command Authority (NCA); ii. an integrated intelligence system; iii. a rigorous regulatory regime; iv. a comprehensive export control regime; v. and active international cooperation Topic 18: Civil Military Relations in Pakistan 1) Introduction a. Governance in Pakistan is a delicate balancing act between the military chiefs and the elected civilian government b. It is a power-sharing arrangement whereby the military has important influence over foreign, security and key domestic issues c. Soft Military Intervention-The military has repeatedly demonstrated that it can and will influence the nature and direction of political change without necessarily assuming power. d. 'soft' military intervention a common dilemma for civilian leaders 2) The Transition to Civilian Rule a. The ascendancy of Pakistan's military began in 1947. b. Direct assumption of power by the Army Chief, General (later Field Marshal) Ayub Khan, October 1958- June 1962, c. A second coup was staged in March 1969' by General Yahya Khan, who surrendered power to an elected civilian leader in December 1971 (1971 Indo-Pakistan war) d. General Zia ul-Haq reasserted military dominance by overthrowing the civilian government in July 1977.( July 1977 December 1985) e. The civilian system that replaced Zia's military rule in 1985 enabled the military to shift its emphasis from overt 'rule' to a more subtle. Zia introduced far-reaching changes in the 1973 Constitution, powerful President (Zia himself) and a weak Prime Minister 3) A Pivot in the Power Structure a. The Army Chief is a pivot in Pakistan's post-1988 power structure. b. Together with the President and the Prime Minister, he constitutes one-third of the 'Troika' -an extra-constitutional arrangement for civilian-military consensus-building on key domestic, foreign policy and security issues. c. Its members not only discuss security and organizational and professional matters, but also deliberate on domestic issues such as law and order, and general political conditions d. A smooth interaction among the Troika members ensures the military's support for the Prime Minister, which contributes to general political stability. e. The military's primary consideration is not direct exercise of power, but protection and advancement of its professional and corporate interests. 4) The Military's Interests
  27. 27. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas a. National security: nuclear policy, Strong and credible conventional defense and nuclear- weapons capabilities b. Overseas weapons and equipment procurement is another military interest with foreign-policy implications c. Military autonomy and civilian non-interference in internal organizational matters and service affairs d. The military is opposed to any unilateral cut in defense expenditure by civilian leaders e. Protection of perks and privileges provided to officers along with generally improving service conditions. f. The military also expects a civilian government to ensure socio-political stability 5) The Military and the Intelligence Agencies a. Role of the Military Intelligence (MI) b. Role of the ISI c. Role of Intelligence Bureau (IB) 6) Conclusion a. The military's decision to stay in the barracks after President Zia's death in 1988, began Pakistan's democratic transition b. The civilian governments that followed were troubled by the necessity of balancing democratic imperatives with the legacy of long military rule. c. The military elite concede that governance is not one of its primary tasks, and gives this right to the civilian leaders. d. But the military leadership also firmly believes that it must play an autonomous role Topic 19: Political Evolution Since 1971 1) Introduction a. Pakistan has alternated between eras of civilian rule and decades under the control of its powerful military. b. First democratic era in 1947,the government is headed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah as Governor-General, with Liaquat Ali Khan serving as Prime Minister. c. First military period: President Iskander Mirza carries out a coup d'etat, suspending the constitution in 1958 d. The controversy over General Elections in 1970 leads to a war, also involving India that results in the independence of Bangladesh after a brutal Pakistani army action in East Pakistan. 2) Second democratic era a. 1972: Martial Law is lifted. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto is elected as president. He also launches Pakistan's nuclear programme. b. 1973: A new constitution is enacted, declaring Pakistan a parliamentary democracy, with a prime minister as head of state, leading a bi-cameral legislature. Bhutto goes from president to prime minister.
  28. 28. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas c. 1976: Bhutto appoints General Zia-ul-Haq as his chief of army staff. d. 1977: General elections are held, Bhutto's party wins. Amid unrest following allegations of vote-rigging from the opposition, General Zia-ul-Haq steps in, removing Bhutto in a coup, suspending the constitution and declaring martial law. 3) Second military period a. 1978: Zia-ul-Haq is sworn in as president. He retains the office of army chief. b. 1979: After having been found guilty of "conspiracy to murder" in a trial heavily criticized for having been influenced by Zia, Bhutto is executed. Zia's 'Islamisation' policy. c. 1982: Having put off polls indefinitely and banned political activity, Zia forms a federal council of 'technocrats' he has nominated. d. 1984: Zia-ul-Haq holds a referendum on his Islamisation policies. His government claims that more than 95 per cent of votes cast were in support of Zia. e. 1985: General elections are held (on a non-party basis). Martial law is lifted and elects Zia as President. Muhammad Khan Junejo is elected as prime minister. f. 1988: Amid widening rifts, Zia dissolves parliament, dismissing Junejo's government under Article 58-2(b) of the constitution. He promises elections within 90 days. On August 17, however, he is killed, along with 31 others, in a plane crash. 4) Third Democratic Era a. 1988: General elections are held, the PPP Benazir Bhutto wins. Bhutto is sworn in as prime minister. b. 1990: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolves the National Assembly, dismissing Bhutto's government on charges of alleged corruption and incompetence. Fresh elections are held, and Nawaz Sharif, groomed under Zia as the head of the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI), is elected prime minister. c. 1991: The National Assembly adopts the Shariat bill, codifying elements of Islamic law into Pakistan's legal system. d. 1993: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismisses Sharif's government for alleged corruption and incompetence. General elections are held, with Benazir Bhutto elected prime minister for her second term. Farooq Leghari, a member of the PPP, is elected as the country's president. e. 1996: President Farooq Leghari dissolves the National Assembly, dismissing Benazir Bhutto's government, corruption allegations.
  29. 29. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas f. 1997: General elections are held, the fourth time such polls have taken place since 1988. Nawaz Sharif's PML-N party wins and he is elected prime minister for the second time. Rafiq Tarar is sworn in as President the next year. g. 1998: Pakistan conducts nuclear tests in the Chaghai Hills of Balochistan, in response to similar Indian tests days earlier. The international community imposes strict economic sanctions on the country in response. 5) Third military period a. 1999: After the Kargil War, Nawaz Sharif attempts to replace General Pervez Musharraf, his army chief. Musharraf takes power in a coup. b. 2000: The Supreme Court validates Musharraf's coup and gives him executive and legislative authority for a period of three years. Nawaz Sharif and his family flee to exile in Saudi Arabia c. 2001: General Pervez Musharraf assumes the office of president, while remaining chief of army staff. d. 2002: Musharraf wins a referendum on his presidency, granting him five more years in the job. The government claims he wins the poll by more than 95 per cent. A general election is also held, with the PML-Q, a party created by Musharraf and loyal to the president, winning most seats. The PML-Q's Zafarullah Khan Jamali is elected prime minister. Musharraf, meanwhile, institutes a raft of amendments to the 1973 constitution. e. 2004: Zafaraullah Khan Jamali is replaced by Shaukat Aziz, then the finance minister, as prime minister of Pakistan. f. 2007: President Musharraf dismisses Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, prompting a nationwide protest movement for his reinstatement. Chaudhry is eventually restored, but Musharraf imposes a state of emergency later in the year ahead of a key apex court ruling on the legality of his rule. The National Assembly, meanwhile, completes its five-year term for the first time in Pakistan's history. Benazir Bhutto, who returned to the country to campaign in the general elections after the passage of a controversial blanket corruption amnesty deal, is killed in a bomb attack in Rawalpindi. 6) Fourth democratic era
  30. 30. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas a. 2008: General elections are held, with the PPP winning the majority of seats in the national assembly. Yousuf Raza Gilani is elected prime minister, with Asif Ali Zardari, Bhutto's widower and now co-chairman of the PPP, replacing Musharraf as president. b. 2009: After heightening tensions over the issue, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry and his colleagues in the judiciary are restored to their positions, having been dismissed by Pervez Musharraf after his 2007 state of emergency. c. April 8, 2010 Pakistan's parliament passes the 18th amendment to the 1973 consitution, which, among other things, reverses some of the changes brought about by Musharraf and also removes the President's power to dissolve the parliament unilaterally under Article 58-2(b). d. December 22, 2010 passing of 19th amendment for the appointment of the Judges of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and made amendments in the number of members of the parliamentary committee for the appointment of Chief Electoral Officers at Election Commission of Pakistan. e. 2011: Caught amidst scandals involving both corruption probes and the so-called "Memogate" affair, the PPP government comes under increasing pressure from the opposition to hold early elections. f. February 14, 2012 passing of 20th amendment for For Free and Fair Elections g. 2012: After being found guilty of having committed contempt of court for not implementing a Supreme Court order to reopen a corruption case involving President Asif Ali Zardari, Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani is deemed to be ineligible to hold public office. He loses his seat in parliament, but not before he becomes the longest serving prime minister in Pakistan's history. He is succeeded as PM by Raja Pervez Ashraf, another leading PPP member and Zardari loyalist. h. 2013: The PPP-led coalition government becomes Pakistan's first democratically elected civilian-led government to complete its five-year term in office. A caretaker government is appointed and a general election is set for May 11. i. 2013 June - Parliament approves Nawaz Sharif as prime minister after his Muslim League-N wins parliamentary elections in May. July - Mamnoon Hussain elected president by parliament j. 2013 November - Lt Gen Raheel Sharif takes over as head of the army on the retirement of General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani. k. January 7, 2015, passing of 21st amendment for Speedy Trial Military Courts to deal with terrorism.
  31. 31. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas 7) Conclusion Topic 20: Pakistan and US War on Terror 1) Introduction a. “One man’s terrorist is another’s freedom fighter” reveals the wide range of variations in the interpretation of the term “terrorism” b. Simply, ‘terror is extreme or intense fear’ c. It is a psychological state, which combines the physical and mental efforts to create dread and insecurity. 2) State Terrorism To Counter Terrorism a. Examples of Kashmir and Palestine speak horrors of inhuman acts. The Chechens have been branded through the Western media as terrorist movements. b. Israel as well as India’s state-terrorism falls in this scenario c. Current imbroglio of Middle East Crisis and Yemen Crisis 3) Ulterior Motives Of US in “War On Terror” a. Obtaining natural resources of Muslim countries, either by the policy of friendship or confrontation. b. To malign Muslim freedom struggles c. To damage the ideologies of Islam specially Jihad to project Islam as a religion of intolerance. d. To stop the rise of orthodox Muslim governments in the name of democracy. e. To ensure a greater Israel on Arab Land for the satisfaction of American Jewish lobby. f. To spread its own culture. If a nation dies it’s a national death but if a nation dies of cultural death, it’s all over. g. To check the nuclear technology of the Muslim countries like Iran and Pakistan. 4) Cause Of Terrorism In Pakistan a. Rise of sectarian terrorism through anti-Shiite militant groups such as Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan after the 1979 revolution in Iran. b. Sunni-dominated Iraq with the backing of the USA and Saudi Arabia waged a war upon Shiite dominated Iran. c. The Soviet Afghanistan War; Fighting proxy war, funds for arming the “Mujahideen” through religious propaganda urging them to expel the infidels from Afghanistan. d. Soviet withdrawal exposed the damage leading to transformation of violence e. Armed freedom struggle surfaced in Kashmir during the eighties f. After 9/11, when a gag was put on the fighters, they turned their guns towards their adopted country. 5) The Internal Factors a. The derailing of democracy, political alienation, leading to sense of powerlessness. b. Economy of Pakistan, replete with corruption, has disturbed the distribution of wealth.
  32. 32. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas c. Dishonesty, bribery, and drug trade; Black money has disturbed the balance of social structure. d. The sense of deprivation and social injustice among the small provinces e. Polarization based on various castes, classes, religious affinities f. The prevalent unfulfilling system of education is a colonial legacy g. The ‘Zamindars’ and ‘Jagirdars’ own 32 per cent of the privately cultivated land. a suppressed community often rises violently against this injustice leading to extremism in the society. h. A weak judicial system and judiciary are also responsible for these unwanted tendencies. (fear, favor and corruption) i. Incomplete facility of the national data base is a major security concern.(NADRA) 6) Causes At International Level a. Unresolved political disputes: e.g. Kashmir, Palestine, Iraq, Afganistan, Chechnya. b. Ineffectiveness of UNO c. Universal law of cause-and-effect: State terrorism will produce obviously terrorism. d. Double standards of the West e. The pride of US as being Unipolar. 7) Terrorists Groups in Pakistan a. Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islami and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen were formed to wage Afghan Jihad. merged to form Harkat-ul-Ansar (HUA) redirecting their focus for freedom struggle in Indian held Kashmir. b. The Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) c. Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) d. Lashkar-e-Omar (LeO) e. Tehreek-e-Jaferia Pakistan (TJP) f. Lashkar-eJhangvi (LeJ) g. Sipah-e-Muhammad Pakistan (SMP) h. Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM) i. Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) j. Lashkar-e-Jabbar (LeJ) 8) Pakistan’s Efforts a. A number of sectarian organizations was banned and their assets frozen b. Madrassas reforms. c. Revamping the law enforcement agencies by better equipping and training them, d. NADRA e. The government directed the expulsion and extradition of all foreign students. f. At the international level, the government cooperated with the UN to curb the menace. 9) Counter Terrorism Strategy a. Obama should avoid Bush’s policies of use of force to avoid further military and financial losses. b. Involving UNSC & OIC would be in the interest of US to minmise anti US sentiments in the Muslim world. c. Interfaith dialogue can clear the misconceptions against each other.
  33. 33. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas d. Solution of issues like Kashmir and Palestine e. The Muslims should discourage extremist groups in their social life. f. Madressa reforms g. Positive role of world media 10) Counter Terrorism Strategy By Maleeha Lodhi a. “There is no silver bullet that can address global terrorism in all its complexity,” writes Dr Maleeha Lodhi in “The Threats of all Threats”. b. She proposed a broad-gauge counter-terrorism strategy based on nine ‘Cs’: i. Comprehensiveness and multifaceted strategy is needed ii. Consensus at the global level is required iii. Causes and conditions that breed terrorism iv. Confusion about the definition of terrorism v. Capabilities must be improved and national capacities strengthened vi. Cooperative rather than coercive national and international strategies vii. Civil liberties and principles of good governance must be viii. Civilization and cultural: dialogue and understanding ix. Conference at the summit level must be called 11) Conclusion a. Today terrorism is complex in scope, even across the continents by non-state actors. b. Deprivation and an unjust political and socio-economic dispensation rapidly give rise to frustration. c. The remedy lies in a tolerant and democratic society. d. Make a distinction between terrorism and legitimate struggle for freedom and right of self-determination, the denial of which can breed terrorism and a threat to “peaceful co-existence”. Topic 21: Evolution of democratic system in Pakistan 1) Introduction a. Democracy and participatory governance are popular political notions in today’s world. b. The founders of Pakistan had ardently supported and emphasized for democratic system that could ideally permeate the governance structure and body politic of Pakistan. c. Contrary to dreams, hopes and promises, Pakistan offers chequered history of democracy and unstable democratic process. d. Ironically, the country’s constitution has been abrogated twice (1958 and 1969) and suspended thrice (1977, 1999 and 2007). e. More than half of its political life has been encroached by military generals. Five elected governments have been removed by army. 2) Prerequisites of Democratic Process a. Sovereign parliament b. Free and fair electoral process
  34. 34. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas c. Socio-economic Justice d. Supremacy of constitution e. Independent Judiciary f. Rule of Law g. Accountability of those exercising state power h. Equal citizenship and Equality of opportunity i. Security of Life and property j. Guarantee of freedoms of movement, expression, association and assembly 3) Pakistan’s political history with reference to the dominant style of governance and political management a. August 1947-October 1958 (Civilian Political Government) b. October 1958-June 1962 (Direct Military Rule) c. June 1962-March 1969 (Selective Use of Democracy by the Military; Post-military rule) d. March 1969-December 1971 (Direct Military Rule) e. December 1971-July 1977 (Civilian Political Government) f. July 1977- December 1985 (Direct Military Rule) g. March 1985-November 1988 (Selective Use of Democracy by the Military; Post-military rule) h. December 1988-October 1999 (Military’s influence from the sidelines on policy making under civilian governments) i. October 1999-November 2002 (Direct Military Rule) j. November 2002-February 2008 (Military’s direct involvement in power management after the end of military rule; constitutional and legal role for the military) k. September 2008-March 2013 (Civilian Political Government) l. May 2013-till the present (Civilian Political Government) 4) Causes of weak Democracy a. Colonial Inheritances and Institutional Imbalance b. Frequent intervention of Non civilian forces into political domain c. Weak Party System d. Non Democratic Social structure e. Manipulation of election process. 5) Solutions/Recommendations a. State: All prerequisites of democracy to be installed. i. Reforms in Judiciary ii. Separation of Powers iii. Devolution of powers b. Political parties i. Efficient accountability c. Civil Society organizations d. For Youth 6) Conclusion
  35. 35. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas Topic 22: Foreign Policy of Pakistan post 9/11 1) Introduction a. Every foreign policy has two sides—one is the making (formulation) of the policy, and the other its implementation. If national interest is associated with the formulation part, diplomacy is linked with the implementation part of a foreign policy. b. The foreign policy of Pakistan is primarily directed to the pursuit of national goals of seeking peace and stability through international cooperation. c. To project the image of the country as a dynamic and moderate society, Seeks to promote the internationally recognized norms of interstate relations d. Generally Pro-West, India-centric and Security-oriented 2) Guiding Principles of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy a. According to Quaid e Azam: “Our foreign policy is one of the friendliness and goodwill towards all the nation of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the principle of honesty and fair-play in national and international dealings, and are prepared to make our contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world and in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter.” b. The Constitution of Pakistan also lays down guidelines in Article 40: “The State shall endeavour to preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic unity, support the common interests of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America, promote international peace and security, foster goodwill and friendly relations among all nations and encourage the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.” c. Objectives i. Promotion Pakistan as a dynamic, progressive, moderate, and democratic Islamic country ii. Safeguarding national security and geo-strategic interests, including Kashmir iii. Consolidating our commercial and economic cooperation iv. Safeguarding the interests of Pakistani Diaspora abroad. v. Ensuring optimal utilization of national resources for regional and international cooperation 3) Determinants of Foreign Policy of Pakistan a. Ideological Obligation: Islamic ideology; Liaquat Ali Khan once said: “Pakistan came into being as a result of the urge felt by the Muslims of this subcontinent to secure a territory, however limited, where the Islamic ideology and way of life could be practiced and demonstrated to the world.” b. Historical Legacy: Pakistan inherited from the British files; fear of Russia. Pakistan’s foreign policy makers always sought western assistance. c. Geographical Location: “the foreign policy of Pakistan largely begins and ends at her borders, more particularly at the Indian border,” seems to be accurate.
  36. 36. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas d. The Indian Threat; Security e. Economic Compulsions f. National Interests g. Diplomacy and Decision making h. Public Opinion Formulation 4) Foreign Policy of Pakistan i. Pattern of relationship established with the outside world for the promotion of national interest of a country. ii. Foreign policy of any country is a reflection of its domestic situation, particularly on matters related to politics and economy. Sometimes other factors such as religion, culture, ethnicity and leadership also influence the foreign policy making process. iii. Foreign policy often considered as the first line of defense of any country. This is truer in case of Pakistan, as it was surround by different security situation. iv. Foreign policy is based on shear realism and is free of allusions, romanticism and emotions. v. Pakistan is, geo-politically, at the cross roads of central Asia, west and South Asia. Its proximity to the Persian gulf and the middle east is also a source of its strategic prominence. vi. Pakistan has been a focal point of international political events due to its strategic location and due to the interests of the global powers in the region. vii. Pak foreign policy based on the desire to safeguard the country’s independence and terrestrial integrity. viii. Before 1990’s our elites were comfortable with the west, there fore pro-west policies dominated our foreign policy. . In 1990’s we shifted from bilateralism to multilateralism, after the end of cold war. Pak established better ties with Beijing and Moscow and sought option to play a viable role in the 3rd world and in the Muslim world. ix. Events in international politics in the 1990’s and early 21st century shaped the dynamics of our foreign policy. x. Withdraw of Soviet and rule of Taliban in Afghanistan. xi. Outbreak of violence in Kashmir. xii. Indo-Pak Nuclear tests in May 1998. Arms race in South Asia. xiii. Emergence of Terrorism. xiv. Event of 9/11; attacks on Twin Towers, heavily affected our foreign policy 5) Trends a. Era of Neutrality; 1947-53 – neutral foreign policy b. Era of Allainces; 1953-62 – alignment with the West (SEATO, CENTO, Mutual Cooperation Pact, US Foreign Assistance Act)Pakistan became US’ “most-allied ally in Asia” c. 1963-71 – phase of transition d. Era of Bilateralism: 1971-79 – bilateralism and non-alignment (introduced by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto)
  37. 37. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas e. Era of Non-alignment: 1980-88 – tilted non-alignment (Pro-US but still normal with socialists except Soviet Union) 1989-2000 – search for allies (oscillating relationship with US; issues-based foreign policy) f. Era of ‘War against Terror”: 2000 – on wards frontline state in war on terror; allegations of double game 6) Foreign policy of Pakistan Post 9/11 xv. Introduction i. 9/11 attacks proved to turn the foreign policy of Pakistan upside down ii. It was a crucial time that demanded an intelligence filled response. iii. Musharaf was one of the foreign leaders to receive a call from Washington (You are either with us or against us) iv. Two ways were given, 1. To exigently join US in principle and workout the modalities later on 2. To refuse to submit in clear defiance and be ready for a war. xvi. Consequences Of Choosing Not To Co-Operate: i. U.S might have bracketed Pak with Taliban while declaring Pak a terrorist state. ii. Our territory would have been subjected to furious onslaughts and airstrikes to neutralize resistance under the pretext of eliminating terrorist bases. iii. India would have given a green signal to attack Kahuta as it had done previously. iv. Kashmiri freedom struggle might have been labeled as a terrorist insurgency. xvii.Pakistan's Choice i. Taliban refused to hand Osama to America despite Pak's pleadings. ii. Musharaf on 19th Sept,2001 while addressing to nation said, ''Pakistan comes first, everything else is secondary.'' iii. Pakistan joined U.S in strategic interest of, 1. territorial security 2. protection of its own nuclear and missile programs 3. revival of economy iv. Joining (WOT) was the most appropriate among the available options and was generally, if not entirely, in national interest. v. This shift in foreign policy of Pakistan showed the strategic intelligence of government towards the oncoming hurricane. xviii. Demands By U.S After Alliance i. To stop Al-Qaeda operations at its border. ii. To give blanket over flight and landing rights for military operations. iii. To provide intelligence information. iv. To provide territorial access to allied forces. v. To continue to publicly condemn the terrorist acts. vi. To sever ties with the Taliban, if they refuse to cope. vii. To cut off all shipments of fuel to Taliban and stop recruits from going to Afghan.
  38. 38. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas 7) Challenges a. Improving Pak image in the international community. b. Coping with the situation in Afghanistan. c. Kashmir issue d. Arms race in South Asia e. To take into account the domestic constraints 8) Options with Pakistan a. Pak must not meddle with Afghan affairs and it must support the reconstruction process of Afghanistan. b. Good relations with India. c. Pakistan needs to establish Good relations with China and other countries and should not only stick only to the U.S. d. Strong foreign policy is possible only when Pak’s economy is strong, and there is political stability and good governance in the country. e. Pakistan should not go the extreme extent of assisting U.S. f. No infiltration into Kashmir from Pakistan side.. Instead Pak should opt diplomatic and political support of Kashmiris. 9) Effects of Changing Foreign Policy: a. Pakistan's decision to join world community in the war against terrorism brought it back into the international mainstream and won it the revived and stronger support from major countries of the world. 10) New Strategic Vision Of Foreign Policy Of Pakistan a. The security of its own country and not the security of others. b. Peaceful co existence, i.e. further development of regional ties and the strengthening of their own positions. c. The future strategy of Pakistan in its foreign policy must be a “shift from traditional diplomacy to economic diplomacy as well as cultural diplomacy” d. An effective policy requires domestic stability and a national consensus on issues. e. Deft diplomacy , using innovative and novel means we must strive to promote our interests and at the same time keep a triangular balance among the world giants i.e The U.S, The China ,and the E.U. 11) Conclusion Topic 23: Ethnic Issues and National Integration 1) Introduction a. National integration has remained an evolving pursue in all the post-colonial divided societies. b. Ethnic heterogeneity and cultural pluralism is the major attribute of Pakistani society c. Creation of national integration caused problems due to improper handling of conflicting socio-political fiber of Pakistani Society. d. The state adopted an authoritarian policy to expand and consolidate its power and position but ethnic groups provoked ethnic politics (preservation of their identity)
  39. 39. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas e. For the creation of national integration, assimilationist strategy should be avoided and a pluralistic approach must be incorporated. 2) Ethnicity, Class, And The State in Pakistan a. The state is both a resource in itself and a distributor of resources b. It is of importance to assess how these resources and state power itself are shared by the different ethnic groups, and how state power might be used c. The Pakistani state can be seen as a neocolonial state d. The military and bureaucracy not only command the instruments of state power, but pursue their own interests almost independently of the dominant capitalist and landlord classes. e. Intersection of Ethnicity and Class: Demographically, the Punjabis comprise the largest single ethnic group (48.2 percent) in Pakistan’s population, followed by Pushtoons (13.1 percent), Sindhis (11.8 percent), Siraikis (9.8 percent), Urdu-speaking (7.6 percent), Baloch-Brauhis (4.2 percent), and Hindko-speaking (2.4 percent). Mohajir and Siraiki’s are the other two groups. 3) Ethnic Factors promoting ethno-nationalism a. Culture b. Inequalities in different areas c. Less representation of Baluchis on Influential positions d. Elitist Policies e. Scarcity of resources f. Centralized System g. Role of military and military operations h. Underdevelopment i. Role of externals powers j. Human rights violations 4) Approaches to National Integration and State Strategies a. Assimilation Policy: based on social integration, Distinctive cultures are tried to incorporate fully with the national culture b. Exclusionary Policy: based on the concept to minimize contacts with ethnic minorities, explained by differentialist model, whereby conflicts are managed and resolved through a process of elimination of ethnic minorities c. Pluralist Policy: “social order, consisting of institutionally segmented cultural groups living side by side, yet without mingling in one political unit. One cultural section monopolize power, controls the state apparatus and dominant over others. d. The Consociational Approach: arrangement to secure the interests of major ethnic groups; two or more ethnic groups come together and create consensus that they will recognize each others’ rights and interests. e. Federalism: used to reconcile diversity within the structure of a single state; applies to homeland people who seek a significant measure of autonomy and self rule within their territory 5) Ethnic Politics And The Issue Of National Integration In Pakistan
  40. 40. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas a. Factor of ethnicity specially history, language and culture are the supportive elements for creating nation- hood and promoting national integration b. Pakistanis are the product of many foreign and local influences c. The instrumentalist’s approach is favored, that ethnicity by itself cannot damage but it is the state and elite groups who use it and stresses ethnic differences to get share in power. (Case of East Pakistan) d. In Pakistan’s history, religion and language are considered two important attributes in the formation and deformation of nation- hood (creation of ideology of Pakistan) 6) Suggestions for the Creation of Social Cohesion a. The acceptance of federalism for social and political pluralism b. Ethnic factor should be considered while shaping up the national policy c. State has to evolve the strategies based on structural and perceptual perspective d. Political participation through regular free elections must be ensured in which every group should have to participate e. Unity in diversity must be protected. Any policy to create forced assimilation could be disastrous for federation. f. State should have to conduct a transparent census with regular intervals that reflect the evolving demographic trends in Pakistan 7) Conclusion Topic 24: Hydro-politics; Water Issues in domestic and regional context 1) Introduction a. Water issue is a situation where the available water within a region is less than the regions demand. b. Water scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies and the world in the 21st century. c. Water usage has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. d. Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one fifth of the world’s population, live in areas of physical scarcity, and 500 million people are approaching this situation. e. Another 1.6 million or almost one quarter of the world’s population are going to face water shortage. 2) Dynamics of Issue a. Over use and pollution of water. b. Regional conflicts over scarce water resources. c. Groundwater excessive usage. d. Inadequate access to drinking water for 1.1 billion people. e. Inadequate access to water for sanitation. 3) Determining the issue
  41. 41. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas a. Internationally, an indicator is devised to see if a certain country can be classified as water stressed or water scarce country to determine the emerging seriousness of water crisis. 4) Water issues in Pakistan a. It is more complex and multi facet phenomenon. b. Pakistan is one of the mist arid countries with a per capita water supply of 1,250 m3 per year. c. It is barely above international standards regarding 1000 m3 supply per person per year as acute shortage. d. The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have termed Pakistan as one of the most "water-stressed” countries in the world. 5) Background a. The partition of the subcontinent into the dominions of India and Pakistan gave birth to a host of looming problems including the sharing of waters of Indus Ravi system. b. David Lilienthal's Study c. World bank mediation d. The Indus river Treaty 6) Construction of Dams and Barrages. a. Indus Basin projects. b. Indian projects. i. Wullar Barrage(The Tulbul Navigation Lock) ii. Kishanganga Project iii. International court of Arbitrations Verdict iv. Baglihar Dam c. Pakistans Water Reservoirs. i. Tarbela Dam ii. Mangla Dam iii. Chasma Barrage d. Ongoing projects i. Basha Diamer Dam ii. Kalabagh Dam iii. Munda Dam iv. Akhori Dam 7) Resolving the water issues a. Construction of Reservoirs b. Effective policy making c. Maintenance of Infrastructure d. International code of conduct 8) Conclusion a. Pakistan is at the last stage of water scarcity. b. Need of the hour is to make effective policy to save our life from water shortage and crisis.
  42. 42. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas c. We should highlight the water issues as a major threat to our existence. d. We need to have an awareness campaign for future water vision for Pakistan. Topic 25: Pakistan’s National Interest A state’s national interest as the name implies, comprises of all the interests of a nation as a whole. Any country’s primary national interest is ‘survival’. In order to achieve survival, one country has to aim for other goals such as national security, economic prosperity, seeking alliances among other interests. Pakistan’s national interest has always been influenced by external powers. Pakistan as a nation must aim at attaining self-reliance in pursuing its national interests that must relate to the economic vision of the country. 1) Introduction a. The national interest is a country's goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. b. Often referred to by the French expression raison d'État ("reason of State") c. Hans Morgenthau defines the national interest as: "The interest of a nation as a whole held to be an independent entity separate from the interests of subordinate areas or groups and also of other nations or supranational groups ; any foreign policy which operates under the standard of the national interest ." d. There are external stakeholders, such as nation-states, organisations and external pressures, economic or political, which are shaping the future of Pakistan. e. Most of the outside influences are proactive whilst the response by Pakistan’s Government is reactive f. National interest should relate to the economic vision of the country and should be achieved with pragmatism. 2) Pakistan’s National Interests a. National Security for survival and Safety of the Nuclear Program b. Economic Prosperity; the nation-state must possess, produce, procure and trade for the means of survival at a predetermined level which reflects its means and aspirations c. Sovereignty of the state i. the ability to resist coercion ii. the ability to coerce other states d. Seeking alliances that may break the isolation e. Attaining the ability to achieve internal reform in order to avoid foreign pressure of all sorts f. Avoiding international isolation to prevent other states from getting together within the United Nations to use international law to harm it g. Embracing pragmatism in the conduct of the state to come close to a theoretical basis for the understanding of the conduct of a weak state. 3) Evolution of National Interest of Pakistan a. Pakistan's primary interest was to remain independent and viable in the face of a much larger and powerful neighbor.
  43. 43. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas b. The nation then adopted several other goals; i. the struggle of Kashmir to join Pakistan - or become independent from India; ii. a friendly and cooperative Afghanistan to ensure strategic depth vis-a-vis India ; iii. close relations with Saudi Arabia representing a religious socio-economic nexus of interests; iv. affirming itself as a front-line state of the religiously tolerant West pitted against a God-less USSR. c. Whilst Pakistan's role as a front line state was galvanized and pivotal during the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, it became ambiguous and anachronistic in the new world order. d. Pakistan immediately bolstered its relationship with China, that it had been developing over many years after the Sino-Soviet split in the seventies as US strengthened its ties with India. e. The end of the cold war and the abandonment by the US and its allies of Afghanistan, and Pakistan, forced the latter to initiate a plan of action f. It combined its policy objectives of maintaining strategic depth in Afghanistan; in accordance with its military doctrine of riposte vis-a-vis its arch enemy India, and close ties with Saudi Arabia g. Thus enabling the Taliban to become pervasively established, and receiving Saudi largesse to finance it all, resulting in the eventual dominance of the Taliban in Afghanistan. h. America had ignored and distanced itself from all Saudi-Pakistani action in Afghanistan from 1991 until the late 90's until the emergence of wahabist-jihadists, Al-Qaeda. i. The test came when, after 9/11, Pakistan had to choose between its interests in maintaining the Taliban in Afghanistan and that of the US, where the latter's objective was to oust the government that had provided a safe haven to the alleged perpetrators of 9/11. j. Apparently, Pakistan had to forego its interest and bow to US demands, furtively, however, this did not prove to be the case as the War on Terror developed. k. After the war had begun, a paradigm shift took place, during the decade, several attacks and assaults began targeting Pakistan and its armed forces along with Afghan Taliban. Once NATO's ISAF and other US troops arrived Pakistan had to recalibrate its policy in Afghanistan. l. It follows that the country's prime interest, that of Security, is not "secure," that its other interests such as a stable and friendly Afghanistan, self-determination of Kashmir, its economic stability, are failing and under attack from exogenous forces." 4) What Pakistan needs to do? a. Pakistan needs to reaffirm its commitment to maintaining a coherent geo-strategy towards India; political nationalism is now getting superfluous and obsolete and economic relations are taking on the driving seat. b. It must redefine its commitment to Kashmir and redouble its efforts to find a political solution to the plight of Kashmiri’s c. It must re-examine its bond with Saudi Arabia and achieve an equitable mix
  44. 44. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas d. It must capitalise on, and foster the economic and military relationship with China, Pakistan’s most venerable and valuable ally e. American and Pakistani interests do not coalesce any longer; therefore, new parameters should be drawn up by both nations that limit and phase out bilateral security cooperation f. Pakistan must seek out its own path; independently, whilst remaining faithful to its raison d’être; selfishly, whilst maintaining unity amongst its peoples; and confidently, whilst maintaining discipline in every field of its endeavor. 5) Conclusion a. In summary, external forces are dictating and organizing Pakistan’s national interests. Internally there is incoherence in defining the national interest as the various political and economic elites identify and explain it in terms of alignment with the US, which is seen as indispensable for progress. Several others, in the country feel that this is a pernicious attempt to change the norms and values of the country and, therefore, are partial to realignment, extracting Pakistan from the American sphere of influence. b. Hence the national interest of Pakistan lies in being a liberal and progressive Islamic state. Topic 26: Critical Analysis of Economic Survey 1) Introduction a. The targeted economic growth for the outgoing year was missed by a long shot as most of targets were missed b. Last year, finance minister Ishaq Dar announced a target of five percent GDP growth but the tally could only muster up 4.24 percent. c. The performance of the agriculture and manufacturing sector is more revealing of why targeted growth was not achieved. d. Agriculture comprises 20.9 percent of GDP where as manufacturing contributes another 13 percent to national income. e. The share of agriculture sector in total employment has dipped slightly in the outgoing fiscal from 43.7 percent but, the report card claims that unemployment has dropped marginally, from 6.24 percent in FY 14. 2) Highlights Of The Economic Survey a. The economic growth rate is 4.24 percent; broad based and is the highest achievement since 2008-2009. b. Major success of the outgoing fiscal year includes i. picking up economic growth, contained at lowest levels since 2003 ii. improvement in tax collection iii. reduction in fiscal deficit iv. workers’ remittances touches new heights v. successful launching of Sukuk vi. foreign exchange and stock market created new history.
  45. 45. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas c. The government is mindful of the limitations caused by energy crisis. The survey cites ongoing energy projects are potential drivers for economic activity in the upcoming year and also as a source of energy for the power deprived industries. 3) Critical Analysis a. Government failing to take full advantage of the fall in global oil prices and riding on loans and grants, the country was able to shore up its foreign currency reserves. b. industrial and agriculture sectors missed their targets c. Over the 2011-2015 period, average growth was 2.9pc, 3.17pc, 4.95pc for each sector respectively. The 4.2% growth rate is the highest in seven years. d. Pakistan is the second largest economy of the entire South Asian region we find that Pakistan’s growth of almost 4 percent in the past 5 years is much low compared to other countries in South Asia which averaged almost 7 percent growth. 4) Inflation: Lowest CPI inflation rate in 11 years a. CPI inflation in FY14-15 is the lowest it has been over the 2009-2015 period at 4.8pc, falling drastically from previous year's 8.6pc, with the pace of decline quicker than that of some regional countries. b. The decline is attributed to cheaper oil prices that fell by almost 50pc in the same period and the lagged effect of “monetary tightening” in 2013 (increased interest rates) 5) GDP Growth a. The difference between budgeted and achieved real GDP growth was much greater than it has been in previous years b. Pakistan is much behind than its regional counterparts in South Asia, which averaged almost 7% growth in GDP. 6) Tax-to-GDP: Ratio one of the lowest in the world a. According to the PES 2014-2015, Pakistan's tax revenue as a percentage of GDP has declined significantly in the past year, from 10.2pc in FY13-14 to 7.5pc in FY14-15 b. The larger South Asian countries like India and Bangladesh have struggled on account of tax revenue. c. Despite introducing tax reforms in 2003, performance not good. d. Until and unless Tax reforms are not introduced and measures are not taken aggressively, deficit would keep increasing. 7) Health: Expenditure increases but health-to-GDP ratio stagnant a. According to the PES 2014-15, the government spent 0.42pc of GDP on health in FY14- 15 8) Education: Literacy regresses a. Pakistan's literacy rate fell two percentage points over FY13-14, according to the PES 2014-2015. b. Average expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP has remained consistent at around 2 percent for the period 2009-2014. c. It is worthy to note over here that the PML (N) government had promised a 4% for the education.
  46. 46. Compiled by Ayesha Younas Compiled by Ayesha Younas 9) PSDP expenditure: Majority of PSDP projects concentrated in Punjab (Public Sector Development Programme) 10) Agricultural Growth a. The 3.3 percent agricultural growth target was missed as the sector grew by 2.9 percent only. b. The production targets of important crops; other crops, livestock and forestry were missed. 11) Services Sector Growth a. The services sector did the best, growing by 4.95 percent, which is a narrow miss of its 5.2 percent government growth target. 12) Industrial Growth a. Industrial sector recorded growth at 3.62 percent as compared to 4.45 percent last year. b. The target for the industrial sector growth was set at 6.8%. Large Scale Manufacturing has registered growth of 2.38% as compared to the growth of 3.99% last year. The target was set at 7%. 13) Debt Servicing a. Pakistan spent 44.5% of its total revenue to service debt payments in first nine months till March 2015 compared to 47% spent during the same period of previous year. 14) Conclusion Topic 27: Critical Analysis of Previous and Current Budgets 1) Introduction a. Estimate of income and expenditures b. Statements whether it is people-friendly or pro rich c. Current Budget partly people friendly 2) Current Expenditure Break down a. Rs. 3482 bn (Expenditure in last fiscal year was Rs. 3463 bn) b. Civil Pension: Rs 56 bn c. Military Pension: Rs. 174 bn d. Subsidies: Rs. 137 bn e. Non salary of civil govt: Rs. 129 bn f. Civil Govt Allowance: Rs. 120 bn g. Civil Govt. Salary: Rs. 73 bn 3) Current Revenue Breakdown a. Rs. 4089 bn b. Rs. 1.347 trillion: Direct tax c. Rs. 1.755 trillion: Indirect Tax d. Rs. 40 bn: Foreign Grant e. Rs. 280 bn: Profit of State Bank f. Rs. 227.6 bn: Property and enterprise Income g. Rs. 40 bn: Royalty