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Tribals (Sociology)

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Tribals (Sociology)

  1. 1. STATUS OF TRIBAL WOMEN:
  2. 2. • In India -635 Tribes (8.2%) • Tribal women – most vulnerable group • Gender based violence, domestic violence high among Tribals, girl child • Tribal more vulnerable to violence • Dropout and illiteracy rates high. • Early marriage, trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation high • Women face violence- killing, torture, rape, inhuman treatment • By law enforcement personnel, opposition groups, non-tribal group
  3. 3. NCRB : • Reported 627 cases of rape in 2007 • Tribal children-victims of killings, sexual violence, arbitrary arrest, illegal detention by security forces.
  4. 4. ECONOMIC SCENARIO OF TRIBAL SOCIETY • Poverty levels of ST’S persistent • Deprived of formal education • Little occurs to capital • Casual employment, agricultural labour, plantation labour, industrial labour • Poverty gap between ST’S and others widened • More than half the tribals below poverty line • Little change in poverty of tribals
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENT: • Forest conservation laws not supporting tribals • Unnatural intruders in their when land. • Tribal’s rights violated in the name of development
  6. 6. HEALTH CARE FACILITIES: • Mortality, mobility, malnutrition rates high. • Remote villages-indifference of medical personnel, limited manpower • Lack of awareness of medical facilities • Medical facilities hardly used by them • Women nearing delivery date to travel 50 to 60 K.M to the hospital
  7. 7. TRIBAL DISPLACEMENT: • 85.39 lakh tribals displaced since 1990 for mega projects • Illiteracy, malnourishment- 50 to 60 percent • Consumption of food grains fallen by 10 to 15 percent • Not much improvement in food and nutrition
  8. 8. VIOLATION OF FOREST LAWS: • Corporate companies violating forest laws destroying community rights • Government decided to stop bauxite mining in Niyamgiri hills, Aruku
  9. 9. LAND ALIENATION: • Degradation of tribal life, alienation of tribal land , indebtedness, alcoholism are the problems • Acquisition of land for public purpose affecting tribals • Extremist violence in tribal districts impedes their development • Mining activities for raw materials • Industrial units causing pollution- weather, water, air, soil • Besides reservation of ST’S • To improve quality of life • Create employment oppurtunities
  10. 10. • FEMALE SEX RATIO: • ST’S sex ratio • More towards females • (972 per 2000 males), 2001 census • FEMALE LITERACY RATE AMONG TRIBALS: • It is far lower (34.76) as compared to overall female literacy for the country (53.67%), 2001 census • DEVELOPMENT POLICIES: • Present policy is to bring tribals into mainstream.
  11. 11. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS: • There are 20 articles and two schedules in constitution concerning welfare of tribals • Articles 15(4),16(4),46,243m,243 2c, 244,334,335,338A,339(1),in fifth and sixth schedules
  12. 12. LEGAL PROVISIONS: • Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 • The SC’S, ST’S (prevention of atrocities) Act, 1989 • The provisions of the panchayats (extension to schedule areas) Act 1996 • The shceduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (Regulation of forest Rights) Act, 2006 • Inspite of constitutional provisions and laws, injustice, exploitation of ST’S persist.
  13. 13. STRATEGIES FOR EMPOWERMENT: • Formal education for socio-economic development • To encourage girl education • To create awareness about rights and duties • To discriminate legal provisions • Rights awareness programmes • Access to public health services • To create awareness about constitutional provisions
  14. 14. • To provide self employment oppurtunities • To raise literacy levels of tribal women • To raise literacy levels of tribal women • To raise voices for rights to involve them in decision – making process • Civil society organisation can play crucial role • Promoting civil society networks • Adopting bottom – up approach for strengthening their capacity • Media can play powerful role to educate tribals and the society
  15. 15. • To form pressure groups from the tribals. • Radical social work intervention • Social work intervention

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