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Job analysis, job design, job specification

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Job analysis, job design, job specification

  2. 2. What is Job Analysis?
  3. 3. Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job.
  4. 4. The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person. Job analysis continued….
  5. 5. To establish and document the ' job relatedness ' of employment procedures such as training , selection , compensation , and performance appraisal . Job analysis continued…. Purpose of Job Analysis:
  6. 6. <ul><li>training content </li></ul><ul><li>assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training </li></ul><ul><li>equipment to be used in delivering the training </li></ul><ul><li>methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...) </li></ul>Job analysis continued…. Determining training needs Job Analysis can be used in training/&quot;needs assessment&quot; to identify or develop:
  7. 7. <ul><li>skill levels </li></ul><ul><li>compensable job factors </li></ul><ul><li>work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort) </li></ul><ul><li>responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory) </li></ul><ul><li>required level of education (indirectly related to salary level) </li></ul>Job analysis continued…. Compensation Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
  8. 8. <ul><li>job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions; </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate; </li></ul><ul><li>minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants; </li></ul><ul><li>interview questions; </li></ul><ul><li>selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations); </li></ul><ul><li>applicant appraisal/evaluation forms; </li></ul><ul><li>orientation materials for applicants/new hires </li></ul>Job analysis continued…. Selection Procedures Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:
  9. 9. <ul><li>goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>performance standards </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation criteria </li></ul><ul><li>length of probationary periods </li></ul><ul><li>duties to be evaluated </li></ul>Job analysis continued…. Performance Review Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:
  10. 10. Methods of Job Analysis <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Questionnaire / Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Logbooks / Work Diaries </li></ul>Job analysis continued….
  11. 11. Interviews Job analysis continued…. <ul><li>Most commonly used method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually conducted with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>job incumbents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technical experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what are your most typical duties? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long do they take? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you do them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Con: people may misrepresent/exaggerate job </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lists of many (>200) job characteristics and activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rated in term of frequency and importance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>method is most useful for comparing jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D2 - measure of similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found job of “housewife” is most similar to “patrolman”! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>very commonly used (esp. with interviews) </li></ul>Job analysis continued…. Questionnaire/Inventory
  13. 13. PAQ Example of “Sources of Job Information” Job analysis continued…. Rate the extent to which each is used by the worker as a source of information in performing the job: Extent of Use: N - Does not apply 1 - Very infrequent 2- Occasional 3 - Moderate 4 - Considerable 5 - Very substantial 1.___ Written materials (books, reports, articles). 2.___ Quantitative materials (graphs, tables of numbers) 3.___ Measuring devices (calipers, tire pressure gauges, thermometers) 4.___ Features of nature (landscapes, geological samples, cloud formations)
  14. 14. Observation <ul><li>Unobtrusive method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>camera; video; audio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excellent for understanding and appreciating conditions under which job is performed </li></ul><ul><li>Allows analyst to experience aspects of job that worker may not be aware of </li></ul><ul><li>Not as good for understanding why behaviors do/do not occur </li></ul>Job analysis continued….
  15. 15. Logbook / Worker Diaries <ul><li>Worker makes systematic entries in book outlining activities </li></ul><ul><li>May be useful for jobs that are difficult to observe </li></ul><ul><li>But, not commonly used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too much variance in writing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can exaggerate tasks performed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be done with beepers </li></ul>Job analysis continued….
  16. 16. What is Job Design?
  17. 17. <ul><li>Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized . Job design helps to determine: </li></ul><ul><li>what tasks are done, </li></ul><ul><li>how the tasks are done, </li></ul><ul><li>how many tasks are done, </li></ul><ul><li>and in what order the tasks are done </li></ul>
  18. 18. Job design continued…. <ul><li>It takes into account all factors which affect the work , and organizes the content and tasks so that the whole job is less likely to be a risk to the employee. Job design involves administrative areas such as: </li></ul><ul><li>job rotation, </li></ul><ul><li>job enlargement, </li></ul><ul><li>task/machine pacing, </li></ul><ul><li>work breaks, and working hours </li></ul>
  19. 19. Job design continued…. <ul><li>How can job design help with the organization of work? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Job design continued…. Job design principles can address problems such as: <ul><li>work overload, </li></ul><ul><li>work underload, </li></ul><ul><li>repetitiveness, </li></ul><ul><li>limited control over work, </li></ul><ul><li>isolation, </li></ul><ul><li>shift work, </li></ul><ul><li>delays in filling vacant positions, </li></ul><ul><li>excessive working hours, and </li></ul><ul><li>limited understanding of the whole job process. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Job design continued…. <ul><li>What are common approaches to job design? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Job design continued…. Job Enlargement: <ul><li>Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>the allocation of a wider variety of similar tasks to a job in order to make it more challenging. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A bank teller not only handles deposits and disbursement, but also distributes traveler's checks and sells certificates of deposit. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Job design continued…. Job Rotation: <ul><li>The practice of periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in a planned sequence. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Job design continued…. Job Enrichment : <ul><li>Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility, accountability, and independence when learning new tasks or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities </li></ul>
  25. 25. Job design continued…. <ul><li>Job enrichment: Increasing the depth of the job to include responsibilities that have traditionally been carried out at higher levels of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The teller also has the authority to help a client fill out a loan application, and to determine whether or not to approve the loan. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Job design continued…. <ul><li>What are the overall goals of job design? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Job design continued…. Task Variety <ul><li>To alleviate boredom, avoid both excessive static body positions and repetitive movements. Design jobs to have a variety of tasks that require changes in body position, muscles used, and mental activities. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Job design continued…. Work Breaks / Rest Breaks <ul><li>Rest breaks help alleviate the problems of unavoidable repetitive movements or static body positions. More frequent but shorter breaks (sometimes called &quot;micro breaks&quot;) are sometimes preferable to fewer long breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>During rest breaks, encourage employees to change body position and to exercise. It is important that employees stretch and use different muscle groups. If the employee has been very active, a rest break should include a stationary </li></ul>
  29. 29. Job design continued…. Allowance for an Adjustment Period <ul><li>When work demands physical effort, have an adjustment period for new employees and for all employees after holidays, layoffs, or illnesses. Allow time to become accustomed to the physical demands of work by gradually &quot;getting in shape.“ Employees who work in extremely hot or cold conditions also need time to acclimatize. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Job design continued…. Provide Training <ul><li>Training incorrect work procedures and equipment operation is needed so that employees understand what is expected of them and how they should work safely. Training should be organized, consistent and ongoing. It may occur in a classroom or on the job. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Job design continued…. Vary Mental Activities <ul><li>Tasks should be coordinated so that they are balanced during the day for the individual employee as well as balanced among a group of employees. You may want to allow the employee some degree of choice as to what types of mental tasks they want to do and when. This choice will allow the employee to do tasks when best suited to their 'alertness' patterns during the day. Some people may prefer routine tasks in the morning (such as checklists or filling out forms) and save tasks such as problem solving until the afternoon, or vice versa. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Job Description
  33. 33. Job description is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job. Typically it includes is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job.
  34. 34. Job Description continued…. Job description typically includes: <ul><li>Job Title </li></ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><li>Title of immediate supervisor </li></ul>Statement of the Purpose of the Job <ul><li>Primary Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>List of Typical Duties and Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>General Information related to the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tool use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transportation </li></ul></ul>Signature of the person who has prepared the job description
  35. 35. Job Specification
  36. 36. Job Specification is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job, that is to say, it lists the qualifications. Normally, this would include is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job, that is to say, it lists the qualifications.
  37. 37. Job Specification continued…. Job description typically includes: <ul><li>Degree of education </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable amount of previous experience in similar work </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Skills required </li></ul><ul><li>Health Considerations </li></ul>
  38. 38. Job Specification continued….
  40. 40. Defined <ul><li>Process of determining the value of each job compared to all the other jobs in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluation process is used as the foundation for an equitable and consistent system of compensation. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Objectives <ul><li>To make sure that the job and pay levels do not: </li></ul><ul><li>1. underpay the staff – resulting to loss of valuable personnel </li></ul><ul><li>2. overpay the staff – resulting to extra manpower expense which cannot translate into profit </li></ul><ul><li>3. remain static – resulting to demotivation and low morale of staff thereby minimizing their contribution to the company. </li></ul>Job Evaluation continued….
  42. 42. Process 1. Review JD for any updates. 2. Determine which tasks can be evaluated by peer, customer, self and head. 3. Evaluate JD based on the different job factors. 4. Assign points to each job factor per position. 5. Sum all points of each position to determine level. 6. Come up with salary structure based on the different levels. Job Evaluation continued….
  43. 43. Precautions <ul><li>Process must be objective - job must be evaluated based on the duties and responsibilities of work assigned and not the incumbent’s performance of that work. </li></ul><ul><li>Check for anomalies – e.g. is the subordinate rated with a higher accountability than the head? Are the supervisor and staff rated the same on mental demands? </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision and management often benefit empire builders by awarding additional points for the number of people supervised, size of budget, etc. to the detriment of highly technical or skilled jobs </li></ul>Job Evaluation continued….
  44. 44. ? Questions