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Building and Scaling the Fastly Network - João Taveira at Fastly Altitude 2015

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Building and Scaling the Fastly Network - João Taveira at Fastly Altitude 2015

Fastly Altitude - June 25, 2015. Fastly set out to build a highly performant, real-time CDN that is both reliable and scalable. This talk will cover how we chose to design our network and its unique routing and load balancing properties, as well as where we're going next.

Video of the talk: http://fastly.us/Altitude2015_Networking

João's bio: João Taveira is a network engineer at Fastly, where he is responsible for making dumb switches do clever things. In addition to writing software for network orchestration, João works on protocol design and performance, and holds a PhD from University College London or something to that effect.

Fastly Altitude - June 25, 2015. Fastly set out to build a highly performant, real-time CDN that is both reliable and scalable. This talk will cover how we chose to design our network and its unique routing and load balancing properties, as well as where we're going next.

Video of the talk: http://fastly.us/Altitude2015_Networking

João's bio: João Taveira is a network engineer at Fastly, where he is responsible for making dumb switches do clever things. In addition to writing software for network orchestration, João works on protocol design and performance, and holds a PhD from University College London or something to that effect.

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Building and Scaling the Fastly Network - João Taveira at Fastly Altitude 2015

  1. 1. Building and Scaling the Fastly Network joão taveira araújo (@jta) - Fastly
  2. 2. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo networking introduction
  3. 3. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo introduction
  4. 4. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo every CDN does networking introduction
  5. 5. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo we do something else introduction
  6. 6. what we do
  7. 7. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo networking has no products what we do
  8. 8. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo geographic reach? what we do
  9. 9. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo what we do
  10. 10. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo RTT POPs where most of you stopped caringorigin hitratio what we do
  11. 11. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo bandwidth? what we do
  12. 12. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo today Time Bandwidth where most of you stopped caring what we do
  13. 13. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo bandwidth is market signalling what we do
  14. 14. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo IPv6? what we do
  15. 15. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo what we do
  16. 16. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo the network is the computer John Gage Sun Microsystems what we do
  17. 17. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo networking has limited marginal utility what we do
  18. 18. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo the network is infrastructure what we do
  19. 19. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo what we do
  20. 20. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo the network is the application what we do
  21. 21. how we do it
  22. 22. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo load balancing routing mitigation how we do it
  23. 23. $$$
  24. 24. not true
  25. 25. $$$
  26. 26. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo load balancing mitigation routing how we do it
  27. 27. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo load balancing mitigation routing how we do it
  28. 28. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo the internet load balancing
  29. 29. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo A B C D router load balancing
  30. 30. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo A B C D router A 25% 25% 25% 25% B D C DNS load balancing
  31. 31. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo A B C D router A 33% 33% 33% 0% B D C DNS load balancing
  32. 32. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo A B C D load balancer State Cost Existingdemand Projecteddemand State Cost Existingdemand State Cost load balancing
  33. 33. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo A B C D ECMP A B C D ECMP Destination network Next hop 10.0.0.0/24 A 10.0.0.0/24 B 10.0.0.0/24 C 10.0.0.0/24 D Destination network Next hop 10.0.0.0/24 B 10.0.0.0/24 C 10.0.0.0/24 D load balancing
  34. 34. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo faild load balancing
  35. 35. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo Destination network Next hop 10.0.0.0/24 10.1.A.1 10.0.0.0/24 10.1.A.2 10.0.0.0/24 10.1.A.3 … … A B C D faild IP Address MAC 10.1.A.1 A:A 10.1.A.2 A:A 10.1.A.3 A:A … load balancing
  36. 36. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo drain a host load balancing
  37. 37. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo Destination network Next hop 10.0.0.0/24 10.1.A.1 10.0.0.0/24 10.1.A.2 10.0.0.0/24 10.1.A.3 … … A B C D faild IP Address MAC 10.1.A.1 A:A 10.1.A.2 A:A 10.1.A.3 A:A … IP Address MAC 10.1.A.1 B:A 10.1.A.2 C:A 10.1.A.3 D:A … IP Address MAC 10.1.A.1 B:B 10.1.A.2 C:C 10.1.A.3 D:D … load balancing
  38. 38. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo Time Activeflows Time Activeflows ecmp load balancing TimeActiveflows
  39. 39. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo Time ActiveflowsState Time load balancer load balancing Time ActiveflowsState
  40. 40. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo State Time Time ActiveflowsActiveflowsState Time faild load balancing Time ActiveflowsState
  41. 41. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo $200,000 F5 BIG-IP 10350v load balancing
  42. 42. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo load balancing mitigation routing how we do it
  43. 43. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo load balancing mitigation routing how we do it
  44. 44. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo How to build a PoP ‣ buy a router ‣ get BGP table from each provider ‣ install routes to FIB ‣ servers use default gateway router vendor BGP FIB A B C D routing
  45. 45. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo ~$500,000 Juniper MX960 Router routing
  46. 46. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo How to build a Fastly PoP ‣ buy switches ‣ reflect BGP down to servers ‣ inject multipath routes into FIB server FIB BGP daemon switch userspace BGP FIB routing
  47. 47. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo distributedsystem server FIB BGP daemon switch userspace BGP FIB How packets egress Fastly ‣ switches emit nexthop IP and MAC ‣ servers configure p2p link / ARP ‣ send directly to provider nexthop! routing
  48. 48. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo $29,995 Arista DCS-7150S switch family routing
  49. 49. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo routing
  50. 50. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo routing
  51. 51. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo shortest path is not always best 📱 every flow is one syscall away from path change routing
  52. 52. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo load balancing mitigation routing how we do it
  53. 53. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo load balancing mitigation routing how we do it
  54. 54. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo no BGP communities? mitigation
  55. 55. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo don’t have large offpeak sinks? mitigation
  56. 56. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo the Internet lots of POPs lots of routes mitigation
  57. 57. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo can’t do arbitrary route injection? mitigation
  58. 58. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo can’t do remote triggered blackholes? mitigation
  59. 59. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo can’t do policy updates? mitigation
  60. 60. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo not global? mitigation
  61. 61. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo not consistent? mitigation
  62. 62. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo not synchronous? mitigation
  63. 63. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo not instant? mitigation
  64. 64. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújoCustomer summit 2015 © 2015 All rights Reserved
  65. 65. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo the Internet lots of POPs one centralized policy lots of routes mitigation
  66. 66. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo mitigation
  67. 67. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo mitigation
  68. 68. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo mitigation
  69. 69. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo mitigation
  70. 70. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo mitigation
  71. 71. why it matters
  72. 72. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo resource pooling1 |rɪˈsɔːs puːlːɪŋ| make a collection of resources behave like a single pooled resource load balancing: a pool of servers. routing: a pool of providers. mitigation: a pool of pops. why it matters
  73. 73. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo why don’t other CDNs do this? why it matters
  74. 74. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo because they can’t change why it matters
  75. 75. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo packet switching “unfeasible” why it matters
  76. 76. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo why it matters
  77. 77. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo why it matters
  78. 78. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo 📱 why it matters
  79. 79. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo ActiveflowsState Time why it matters
  80. 80. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo RTT POPs why it matters
  81. 81. networking at fastly | joão taveira araújo

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