Chapter1- Introduction to Computers and the Internet

1,[object Object],1,[object Object],Introduction to Computers and the Internet,[object Object]
2,[object Object],1.2 What is a Computer?,[object Object],Computer,[object Object],Device capable of ,[object Object],Performing computations ,[object Object],Making logical decisions ,[object Object],Works billions of times faster than human beings,[object Object],Fastest supercomputers today,[object Object],Perform hundreds of billions of additions per second,[object Object]
3,[object Object],Programs,[object Object],Sets of instructions that process data,[object Object],Guide computer through orderly sets of actions specified by computer programmers,[object Object],Computer system,[object Object],Comprised of various hardware devices,[object Object],Keyboard,[object Object],Screen ,[object Object],Disks,[object Object],Memory,[object Object],DVD drives,[object Object],Processing Units,[object Object],1.2 What is a Computer? (Cont.),[object Object]
4,[object Object],Every computer divided into six units,[object Object],1. Input unit,[object Object],“Receiving” section of computer,[object Object],Obtains data from input devices,[object Object],Usually a keyboard, mouse, disk, scanner, uploads (photos and videos) and networks (Internet),[object Object],Places data at disposal of other units for processing,[object Object],2. Output unit,[object Object],“Shipping” section of computer,[object Object],Puts processed info on various output devices ,[object Object],Screens, paper printouts, speakers,[object Object],Makes info available outside the computer (e.g., Internet),[object Object],1.3 Computer Organization,[object Object]
5,[object Object],3. Memory unit,[object Object],Rapid access, low capacity “warehouse” section of computer,[object Object],Stores computer programs while they are being executed.,[object Object],Retains information entered through input unit,[object Object],Retains info that has already been processed until can be sent to output unit,[object Object],Often called memory, primary memory, or random access memory (RAM),[object Object],4.Arithmetic and Logic Unit,[object Object],“Manufacturing” section of computer,[object Object],Performs calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division),[object Object],Contains decision mechanisms and can make comparisons,[object Object],1.3 Computer Organization (Cont.),[object Object]
6,[object Object],5. Central Processing Unit (CPU),[object Object],“Administrative” section of computer,[object Object],Coordinates and supervises other sections,[object Object],Multiple CPUs (multiprocessors),[object Object],6. Secondary storage unit,[object Object],Long-term, high-capacity “warehouse”,[object Object],Stores programs or data not currently being used by other units on secondary storage devices (like CDs and DVDs) ,[object Object],Takes longer to access than primary memory,[object Object],1.3 Computer Organization (Cont.),[object Object]
7,[object Object],1.4 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages,[object Object],Three general types of programming languages,[object Object],Machine languages,[object Object],Assembly languages,[object Object],High-level languages,[object Object]
8,[object Object],1.4 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages (Cont.),[object Object],Machine languages,[object Object],“Natural language” of a computer,[object Object],Defined by hardware design of computer,[object Object],Generally consists of strings of numbers,[object Object],Are machine dependent,[object Object],Cumbersome for humans,[object Object],Slow and tedious for most programmers,[object Object]
9,[object Object],1.4 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages (Cont.),[object Object],Assembly languages,[object Object],Programmers began using English-like abbreviations to substitute for machine languages,[object Object],Represents elementary operations of computer,[object Object],Translator programs called assemblers convert assembly-language to machine-language,[object Object],Example:,[object Object]
10,[object Object],1.4 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages (Cont.),[object Object],High-level languages,[object Object],Developed as computer usage increased, assembly language proved inadequate and time-consuming,[object Object],Single statements can be written to accomplish substantial tasks,[object Object],Translator programs called compilers,[object Object],Allow programmers to write instructions almost like every-day English,[object Object],Example:,[object Object]
11,[object Object],1.4 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages (Cont.),[object Object],High-level languages (II),[object Object],Much more desirable from programmer’s standpoint,[object Object],Specific languages include,[object Object],C, C++, Visual Basic.NET, C# and Java,[object Object],Among most powerful and widely used languages today,[object Object],Interpreter programs developed to execute high-level programs without compiling,[object Object],Popular in program development environments,[object Object],Once program developed, compiled version made,[object Object],In this book, several key programming languages,[object Object],JavaScript, ActionScript, PHP and Ruby on Rails—each of these scripting languages is processed by interpreters,[object Object],Study markup languages ,[object Object],XHTML and XML, which can be processed by interpreted scripting languages,[object Object],Achieve their goal of portability across a variety of platforms,[object Object]
12,[object Object],Portability Tip 1.1,[object Object],Interpreted languages are more portable than compiled languages. Interpreters can be implemented for each platform on which the interpreted languages need to execute. ,[object Object]
13,[object Object],1.5 History of the Internet and World Wide Web,[object Object],ARPANET,[object Object],Implemented in late 1960’s by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency of DOD),[object Object],Networked computer systems of a dozen universities and institutions with 56KB communications lines,[object Object],Grandparent of today’s Internet,[object Object],Intended to allow computers to be shared,[object Object],Became clear that key benefit was allowing fast communication between researchers – electronic-mail (email),[object Object]
14,[object Object],1.5 History of the Internet and World Wide Web,[object Object],ARPA’s goals,[object Object],Allow multiple users to send and receive info at same time,[object Object],Network operated packet switching technique,[object Object],Digital data sent in small packages called packets,[object Object],Packets contained data, address info, error-control info and sequencing info,[object Object],Greatly reduced transmission costs of dedicated communications lines,[object Object],Network designed to be operated without centralized control,[object Object],If portion of network fails, remaining portions still able to route packets,[object Object]
15,[object Object],1.5 History of the Internet and World Wide Web,[object Object],Transmission Control Protocol (TCP),[object Object],Name of protocols for communicating over ARPAnet,[object Object],Ensured that messages were properly routed and that they arrived intact,[object Object],Organizations implemented own networks,[object Object],Used both for intra-organization and communication,[object Object]
16,[object Object],1.5 History of the Internet and World Wide Web,[object Object],Huge variety of networking hardware and software appeared,[object Object],ARPA achieved inter-communication between all platforms with development of the IP,[object Object],Internetworking Protocol,[object Object],Current architecture of Internet,[object Object],Combined set of protocols called TCP/IP,[object Object],The Internet,[object Object],Limited to universities and research institutions,[object Object],Military became big user,[object Object],Next, government decided to access Internet for commercial purposes,[object Object]
17,[object Object],1.6 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C),[object Object],W3C Founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee,[object Object],Homepage at www.w3.org,[object Object],Goals,[object Object],Internet universally accessible,[object Object],Standardization,[object Object],W3C Recommendations: ,[object Object],Technologies standardized by W3C,[object Object],include the Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML), Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), HyperText Markup Language and the Extensible Markup Language (XML). ,[object Object],-not an actual software product, but a document that specifies a technology’s role, syntax rules and so forth. ,[object Object]
18,[object Object],1.7 Web 2.0,[object Object],The term Web 2.0 was coined by Dale Dougherty,[object Object],Web 2.0 definition = companies use the web as a platform to create collaborative, community-based sites (e.g., social networking sites, blogs, wikis, etc.).,[object Object],Web 1.0 (1990s and early 2000s) focused on a small number of companies and advertisers producing content for users to access ,[object Object],Web 2.0 involves the ,[object Object],Web 1.0 is as a lecture, ,[object Object],Web 2.0 is a conversation,[object Object],Websites like MySpace , Facebook , Flickr , YouTube, eBay  and Wikipedia , users create the content, companies provide the platforms. ,[object Object]
19,[object Object],1.8 Personal, Distributed and Client/Server Computing ,[object Object],1977 Apple Computer popularized personal computing,[object Object],Computers became economical for personal or business use,[object Object],Machines could be linked together in computer networks ,[object Object],Local area networks (LANs) ,[object Object],Distributed computing,[object Object],Workstations,[object Object],Servers offer data storage and other capabilities that may be used by client computers distributed throughout the network, ,[object Object],Client/server computing,[object Object],Popular operating systems,[object Object],UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft’s Windows,[object Object]
20,[object Object],1.9 Hardware Trends,[object Object],Moore’s law states that the power of hardware doubles every two years, while the price remains essentially the same.,[object Object],Recently , hardware has been moving towards mobile, wireless technology.,[object Object]
21,[object Object],1.10 The Key Software Trend: Object Technology,[object Object],Objects,[object Object],Reusable software components that model items in the real world (classes),[object Object],Makes software developers more productive,[object Object],Object-oriented programs often easier to understand, correct and modify than older types of programs,[object Object]
22,[object Object],1.10 The Key Software Trend: Object Technology (Cont.),[object Object],Object technology,[object Object],Packaging scheme that helps create meaningful software units,[object Object],Large and highly focused on particular applications areas,[object Object],Before appeared, programming languages were focused on actions (verbs) rather than on objects (nouns),[object Object]
23,[object Object],1.10 The Key Software Trend: Object Technology (Cont.),[object Object],Object technology (continued),[object Object],Object-oriented programming ,[object Object],Programmers work in manner similar to how they see the world ,[object Object],More natural process,[object Object],Significant productivity enhancements ,[object Object],Procedural programming,[object Object],Not particularly reusable,[object Object],Forces programmers to constantly “re-invent the wheel” ,[object Object],Wastes time and resources,[object Object],Objects (classes),[object Object],Software modules,[object Object],Kept in libraries,[object Object],Reusable – save time and resources,[object Object]
24,[object Object],1.11 JavaScript: Object-BasedScripting for the Web,[object Object],JavaScript,[object Object],Attractive package for advancing level of programming language education,[object Object],Object-based language ,[object Object],Supports proper software engineering techniques,[object Object],Free as part of today’s most popular Web browsers,[object Object],Powerful scripting language,[object Object],Portable,[object Object]
25,[object Object],1.12 Browser Portability,[object Object],Browser portability,[object Object],Great challenge,[object Object],Great diversity of client browsers in use,[object Object],Many different platforms also in use,[object Object],Difficult to,[object Object],Know capabilities and features of all browsers and platforms in use,[object Object]
26,[object Object],1.13 C, C++ and Java,[object Object],C,[object Object],developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories ,[object Object],development language of the UNIX operating system,[object Object],virtually all new major operating systems are written in C and/or C++,[object Object],C++,[object Object],developed by BjarneStroustrup in early 1980s ,[object Object],“spruce up” the C language and provides capabilities for object-oriented programming,[object Object],Java,[object Object],developed by Sun Microsystems in 1991 ,[object Object],Java is now used to ,[object Object],develop large-scale enterprise applications,[object Object],enhance the functionality of web servers ,[object Object],provide applications for consumer devices,[object Object]
27,[object Object],1.14 BASIC, Visual Basic, Visual C++, C# and .NET ,[object Object],BASIC ,[object Object],Developed in the mid-1960s at Dartmouth College ,[object Object],Primary purpose was to familiarize novices with programming techniques,[object Object],Microsoft’s Visual Basic language ,[object Object],Based on Basic,[object Object],Has become one of the most popular programming languages in the world,[object Object],Microsoft’s .NET platform,[object Object],Provides the capabilities developers need to create computer applications that can execute on computers distributed across the Internet,[object Object],Visual Basic (based on the original BASIC),[object Object],Visual C++ (based on C++),[object Object],Visual C# (based on C++ and Java)  C# (C sharp),[object Object]
28,[object Object],1.15 Software Technologies,[object Object],Linux ,[object Object],Open source operating system ,[object Object],Apache ,[object Object],Most popular open source web server,[object Object],MySQL ,[object Object],Open source database management system,[object Object],PHP ,[object Object],Most popular open source server-side “scripting” language for developing Internet-based applications,[object Object],LAMP,[object Object],Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP (or Perl or Python) ,[object Object],Game programming,[object Object],Software techniques used in game programming Adobe Flash CS3,[object Object],Ruby on Rails ,[object Object],Combines the scripting language Ruby with the Rails web application framework ,[object Object],Developed by 37Signals,[object Object],Software as a Service (SaaS),[object Object],Software runs on servers elsewhere on the Internet ,[object Object],Salesforce.com, Google, Microsoft and 37Signals all offer SaaS,[object Object]
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