2. Print Media Key Terms
Masthead: This is usually situated on the editorial page of a
newspaper/magazine and gives the publications name and the
names of the owners and staff belonging to that publication.
Strapline: A subheading in a newspaper or magazine.
Cover Lines: A cover line is a catchy phrase in a newspaper or
magazine which catches the attention of the audience.
Screamers: A sensational headline.
Billing Block: A billing block is the section situated at the bottom
of a promotional film poster, that lists the productions
company, writers and producers ect.
Tagline: It is a type of advertising slogan that is typically used in
marketing and advertising.
3. Target Audience
Age – 15 years of age and over, this is due to the fact that the film will contain
content of a more mature nature.
Gender – Men may perhaps be more drawn to the movie, however it is aimed
at a „unisex‟ audience.
Class – aimed primarily at a middle class audience due to its content, but it is
of course open for interpretation.
Ethnicity – White/British, as the content within the movie may offend some
religions e.g. Muslims
5. Sherlock Holmes
Film: Sherlock Holmes (2009)
Magazine Features: The film has been featured in various magazines such as
Empire magazine; http://www.empireonline.com/. And also in Total film;
Tie- ins: Sherlock Holmes is of course a well known novel written by Sir Arthur
Conan Doyle, which means there is already an established audience associated
with it. There are also various video games that have been brought out, some of
which can be seen here:
6. Sherlock Holmes
Viral campaigns: The film studios „Warner bros‟ has set up a website dedicated to
news about the film on twitter - http://twitter.com/#!/wbpictures. Also a facebook
page has been established which allows you take part in competitions and „like‟ the
film - http://www.facebook.com/SherlockHolmesMovie
Radio/TV appearances: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAIHw55aeWM There
have been many interviews throughout the films promotional period.
8. The Sorcerers Apprentice
•1.02 minutes running time
•The genre is established within
the first few seconds of trailer;
• the trailer is comprised of
snippets of footage from the
film, the majority of which have a
humorous edge to entice the a
target audience. Which in this
case would be children/family.
• It has a tagline saying “It‟s the
coolest job in the world”
• At the end of the trailer the names of the main characters are mentioned
along with the production studios ect. This therefore complies with codes and
conventions partnered with teaser trailers.
9. Despicable Me
• 1.08 minutes running time
• The clips shown are not from the
• As it is an animated feature
film, this means it would have
been easier to create a teaser
trailer that did not give away the
plot but left the audience wanting
• The film itself is clearly designed to be popular among a younger audience, this is
clear from the over exaggerated facial expressions given to the characters.
• The theme within the trailer is very humorous.
• At the end of the teaser trailer it is stated that the film is produced by the same
executive producer who created „Ice Age‟ and „Horton hears a who‟, which gives
the film credibility (shown above).
10. Harry Potter and the Order of the
• 52 seconds running time
• Shows scenes from the actual film
• It contains flashes of many
different clips – very fast paste;
leaves the audience wanting to
• The colours and music used
indicate the darkness of the film in
contrast to perhaps the others in
• At the beginning the symbolic Warner bros emblem is shown – complies with
the codes and conventions.
• The font used is easily recognisable as „Harry Potter‟ – there‟s already a
strong fan base associated with the series.
• No real plot is given.
• Nothing other the realise date is shown at the end of the teaser.
Iconic Batman symbol. Strapline.
Date and price. Website.
The font used, reflects The use of neon
the ironic theme of fun colours shows the
and games. irony of a murdering
catches the attention „Murdering Clown‟ –
of the audience, it oxymoron.
invites the audience
in. Follows the codes and
conventions of a
The dark background magazine front cover.
is in contrast with the
bright colour s used. Emphasis on „PLUS!‟
to draw an audience in.
13. Total Film
Price, Date and issue Strapline catches the
number. attention of the
This theme has been
designed specifically Website.
with the film’s theme in
mind. This is clear from In photograph the actor
the use of colour which has been cast in shadow
suggests it’s quite a to induce a sense of
cold/dark film, as well as mystery.
the adaption to the
‘FILM’ in ‘TOTAL FILM’ ‘Re-boot of the year?’
which has been The use of a rhetorical
developed to replicate question allows the
scenes from the film. audience an opinion – it
makes them feel
There are various pieces important.
of text that have been
emphasised to attract an The coverline has also
audience's attention, for been designed to create
example ‘FIRST LOOKS!’ intrigue.
Something that is
Unlimited is „FREE‟
quite odd for a
magazine which is
magazine front cover
is the fact that the
Cineworld, which is a
actor is not making
eye contact with the
audience, which is
The colours, and
usually critical for
theme are all rather
inviting the audience
band, which in a sense
makes the tone much
Coverline used to
catch the audiences
The focus on the front
cover is the infamous
character known as
Emphasis on „PLUS‟
„Captain Jack Sparrow‟
to draw in the
attention of an
The colours used indicate
that this film will be some
sort of horror, however the
fact that font used
„ZOMBIELAND‟ has been
represented as a fair
ground ride insinuates that
this film will perhaps have
an element of humour.
Tagline „This place is
There is no mention of
so dead‟ Ironic as the
characters or actors etc.
film is about
Zombies, hence the
Indication of a viral
campaign „follow us on
Billing Block stating the
17. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy
The picture is one of a
famous actor; Gary The pictures itself is
Oldman. By using a well comprised numbers and
established actor as the letters. This gives the
frontman for the movie illusion of a code – and
it gives the film codes are often
credibility. associated with
organisations such as
Just below the actors MI5; therefore fits in
left eye there is white nicely with the films
text imbedded within the theme and the title –
„code‟ that reads „the „Tinker Tailor Soldier
enemy is within‟ – this is Spy‟.
called a tagline and is
designed to give the The Billing Block gives
audience fluidity the
throughout the actors, directors, and
advertising campaign producers names as
and to give them an well as showing the
idea of what the film production companies
may entail. logo.
The image displayed
on the poster illustrates
The fact that the film is
that this film is one
starring an „academy
involving a man with a
award winner‟ gives the
drinking problem –
however it also
illustrates that this no
average alcoholic as
the tagline reads „the
out‟, suggesting that he
The billing block show
is in fact some sort of
Doctor. This gives the
involved with the movie
audience an idea of
from the actors to the
what the film may
costume designers. IT
contain in terms of the
also displays the
19. Primary and Secondary
Primary research consists in research to collect original data. It is often
undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue by
collecting secondary data. This can be through numerous forms, including
questionnaires, direct observation and telephone interviews amongst others.
Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the
summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary
research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or
What is the BBFC?
The British Board of Film Classification is an independent, non-governmental body
which has classified cinema films since it was set up in 1912 and videos/ DVDs
since the Video Recordings Act was passed in 1984.
What different certifications are there?
U, PG, 12, 12A, 15, 18, R18
What are the main issues they are concerned with?
Examiners look at issues such as discrimination, drugs, horror, imitable behaviour,
language, nudity, sex, sexual violence, theme and violence when making
decisions. They also consider context, the tone and impact of a work (e.g. how it
makes the audience feel) and even the release format (for example, as DVDs are
watched in the home, there is a higher risk of underage viewing).
What possible ways could the BBFC intervene?
In 1988, Trading Standards Officers were given the power to seize illegal video
works. More recently this has included DVDs, Blu-rays and video games. The
BBFC can provide evidence to help Local Authority Trading Standards Officers and
the Police secure convictions under the terms of the Video Recordings Act (VRA)
How many films did the BBFC cut last year?
They cut 5 films last year.
The information found concerning the BBFC was found on the following website: http://www.bbfc.co.uk/
25. Certificate 15
Suitable only for 15 years and over
No one younger than 15 may see a „15‟ film in a cinema. No one younger than 15
may rent or buy a „15‟ rated video work.
Strong threat and menace are permitted unless sadistic or sexualized.
be copied. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorized.
Dangerous behavior (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not
dwell on detail which could be copied. Easily accessible weapons should not be
There may be frequent use of strong language (for example, „fuck‟).
The strongest terms (for example, „cunt‟) may be acceptable if justified by
the context. Aggressive or repeated use of the strongest language is unlikely to be
26. Certificate 15
No theme is prohibited, provided the treatment is appropriate for 15 year olds.
Violence may be strong but should not dwell on the infliction of pain or injury. The
strongest gory images are unlikely to be acceptable. Strong sadistic
or sexualized violence is also unlikely to be acceptable. There may be
detailed verbal references to sexual violence but any portrayal of sexual violence
must be discreet and have a strong contextual justification.
These explanations taken from the BBFC website, give an insight into the
restrictions that may be need to be kept in mind within the production stages of
my teaser trailer, so that expectations are upheld for my target audience
Guidelines taken from the BBFC - www.bbfc.co.uk/classification/guidelines
27. The UK Film Council
“Our Research and Statistics Unit (RSU) provides research data and market
intelligence to anyone with an interest in the UK film industry and film culture. The
Unit also exists to improve the UK Film Council's understanding of the economic and
social context of film production, distribution, exhibition and ancillary markets (e.g.
To gather and maintain up-to-date market intelligence on film in the UK and
internationally, and respond to enquiries about the data.
To undertake research projects to support and inform UK Film Council strategic
To disseminate research and market intelligence to interested stakeholders, including
government departments, the film industry, the wider research community and the
To develop strong links, and effective working relationships, with UK and international
This information was extracted from the UK film Councils website
28. The UK Film Council
This table taken from the UK Film Council‟s website is hugely beneficial as it shows „the
types of film that the general public typically enjoy watching‟. This is useful as it is of the
upmost importance that you are aware of your audiences needs before attempting to
29. The UK Film Council
This table shows further demographics that will prove useful within the planning stages of the
project, as it will allow me to aim for a specific audience.
32. Risk Assessment
A risk assessment is an overview of all the possible hazards that could occur
whilst a film is in production. This involves making sure that all hazards are
either avoided or prevented. It is often the production companies or producers
responsibility to ensure that at least the basic legal standards are met.
A hazard is a something that can cause harm, for example – controlled
explosions, loud noises, or broken glass.
Potential Risks within the production stages:
1). A torch is need in order to illuminate face of one of the characters. This
could be a potential hazard as it could cause eye damage or perhaps even
lead to blindness if used inappropriately. To reduce this risk, it is vital that the
torch will not be shone directly into the eyes of actor.
2). A desk lamp will be used to allow the lighting to be controlled. This could be
seen as a potential risk, as the exterior of the lamp is comprised of mental and
could therefore cause skin damage (a burn) if touched. To avoid some a risk
the lamp must be placed in an area where it is not likely to harm anybody.
“A portable object other than furniture or costumes used on the set of a play or
movie”. - http://www.google.co.uk
There are many different props used within the teaser trailer, most of which
make up the interior of Lily-Rose‟s bedroom. For example, posters, bedspreads
Actors are often chosen by a casting director. Depending on the budget and
scale of the film this can either be one person who carries the title of casting
director and nothing else, or it may be that the director or producer takes on
this job, to save time/ money.
The casting director often casts actors through agents, or in some cases „open
auditions‟ are held. However, some directors prefer to work with the same
actors, because it‟s easier than casting new actors all the time and they enjoy
working with one another. A prime example of this is Tim Burton(a director)
who often casts Johnny Depp in his films, as they are good friends...
Alice in Wonderland
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
In my own film trailer, I am going to take on the job of director, actor and
producer, which will allow me to have control over both production and editing.
This will be possible as it is only a small scale project, whereas if it had have
been a full scale production, there would have been need for a significantly
larger production team.
However both on the production poster and within the teaser trailer, many
names appear within the billing block that have simply been made up so that
the marketing campaign looks complete and realistic.
36. Costume Design
Costumes play an important role in the
film industry. Without them characters
would lose part of themselves;
costumes show a characters
personality. For example the character
of Albus Dumbledore in the renowned
Harry Potter series wouldn‟t look
nearly as impressive if he wore jeans
and a t- shirt – it‟s almost as though he
belongs in long sweeping dress robes,
and without them he is lost.
Furthermore a costume helps to get
actors into character, and aids in their
37. Costume Design
The main character (Lily- Rose) within the film is around my age, and so it was
not necessary to provide a specific costume.
The character of the „the shadow‟ however requires make-up, although the
clothes she wears will be identical to Lily-Roses. The make-up will be used in
order protray the story further. The lines which will be drawn on using eye-liner
represent each time the „the shadow‟ see‟s Lily-Rose, and so therefore is a
major part of the costume design.
38. Location Scout
Selecting a location to film in, can be a tedious job, but location is an important
aspect of a film, as it shapes the characters‟ actions and meaning. For example
in the Batman films a whole city is created – Gotham.
Although the locations that will be
shown in my teaser trailer won‟t
be quite as extravagant as
Gotham City (mainly due to
budget) they will however relate
to the Lily-Rose, and help set the
scene. This will, I hope, assist in
the audience‟s understanding of
The location for the teaser trailer
will be set in Lily-Rose‟s home.
50. In what ways does your
media product use, develop
or challenge forms and
conventions of real media
51. Teaser Trailer
My teaser trailer Harry Potter teaser trailer
The green screen is one of the many codes and conventions associated with the film
industry, and so in order to make my own teaser trailer seem as authentic as possible, it
was therefore necessary to include one.
52. Teaser Trailer
My Teaser Trailer Harry Potter Trailer
The addition of a production company logo within a films promotional stages, gives a film
creditability. This is an important aspect of the codes and conventions displayed by teaser
trailers as it which allows an audience to make presumptions about the quality of a
film, before it is released. The Warner bros. shield for example is easily identifiable as it
has gained a positive reputation among audiences.
53. Teaser Trailer
My Teaser Trailer Harry Potter Teaser Trailer
some of the key conventions that are often displayed within teaser trailers are the film‟s title
and release date. And so to comply with this particular convention , I too, included them.
54. Teaser Trailer
My Teaser Trailer Sherlock Holmes Teaser Trailer
A billing block appears at the end of most teaser trailers, and so was an important convention
to consider when producing my own teaser trailer. As it was a common occurrence within
many trailer, I decided to include it in my own.
The only code/convention that I can think of that I did not abide by was any use of dialect
between characters, or indeed any use of speech at all.
55. Film Poster
These annotations display the codes and conventions that were employed within
my film poster, and shows how they are similar to existing products.
The only part of my film poster , that perhaps challenges the codes and conventions
associated with it, is the addition of a website address, which was pointed out within the
audience feedback I received. However this was due to an error rather than a conscious
56. Magazine Front Cover
These annotations display the codes and conventions that were employed within my
magazine front cover, and shows how they are similar to existing products.
Date and Price
57. How effective is the
combination of your main
product and ancillary texts
58. Please follow the url link below to hear
my commentary about ancillary texts.
60. Audience research turned out to be hugely beneficial, in the sense that it allowed me to
correct mistakes that perhaps I myself may have overlooked.
To gain this all important audience feedback, a questionnaire was sent out to around 10
people, and all the questions were regarding my teaser trailer, as that was the main
product, and so had the most marks to offer, meaning that it was essential to grasp as
many of them as was possible. An example of the questionnaire is shown below....
61. The question that I thought was of the upmost importance was question
two, which read – “In your opinion did the trailer fit in with the codes and
conventions associated with other teaser trailers?”. The statistics that
followed this question made a big impact upon the teaser trailer, and can
be seen below.
Furthermore, when the audience were asked for further explanations, it was suggested
that things such as a green screen and billing block should be added “to make the
trailer look more authentic” - all of which was taken into account and rectified.
62. To see the full impact that audience feedback had upon the final product, I withheld a previous
edition of the teaser trailer before it was edited.
What may seem particularly different about the two is the addition of a scream to the latter
which was done so in response to feedback that I received regarding the lack of “scariness”
within the trailer.
63. How did you use media
technologies in the
planning and evaluation
64. Photoshop was used in the construction stages as the
photographs taken by the camera (mentioned previously) needed
to be edited before they were positioned into the ancillary texts.
ITunes was used in the production stages to convert audio
files from mp4 to mp3.
Windows movie maker was used , as it was necessary to edit my
teaser trailer. And so was therefore used within the construction
stages of the project. This software was also used within the
evaluation stages of the project .
65. YouTube was used in most stages of the project; it was used in the
planning/ research aspect of the project to watch teaser trailers that
were already on the market, so that I decide which codes and
conventions I would follow or deviate from; it was used in the
construction phase the final teaser trailer was uploaded unto to it, to
gain audience feedback, but lastly so that it is easy to view and it fits
with the codes and conventions that most production companies
employ – they upload a trailer to you tube.
A Camera was used for the filming aspect of the
production stages. It was also used for taking
photographs, which were needed for the production of
my film poster and magazine front cover.
A headset was used in order to complete the evaluation stage of
the project. They were used so that I was able to record myself