Sociology is the systematic study of human
societies, particularly modem, industrialized systems.
(Macionis, 2004). At the heart of sociology is a
distinctive point of view known as the sociological
perspective. The perspective incorporates the use
of scientific principles and procedures in the study
of patterns of social behavior and on how groups
influence individuals and vice versa.
The sociological perspective also involves the use of what C.
Wright Mills (1959) called the sociological imagination. For Mills,
the sociological imagination is a "quality of mind - a perspective
that enables us to see ourselves and the society around us
from a distinct sociological point of view.” By this Mills meant
that the sociological imagination allows people to comprehend
the relation between biography and history. It is an awareness
of how events in personal life are often shaped by social forces.
1. Auguste Comte (1798-1857) - Father of Sociology; coined the
term sociology: “socius" (partner), “logos (study); positivism
2. Kail Mane (1818-1883) - class conflict/ struggle
3. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) - sociaMarwinism/evolution
4. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) - group forces; social integration
5. Max Weber (1864-1920) - bureaucracy
The classic definition of culture is provided by Edward
Tylor who describe it as ‘that complex whole which
includes knowledge, belief, art, law, custom, and
any other capabilities and habits acquired by man a
member of society’ (Kottak, 2011).
Enculturation is the process of learning a culture.
1.Material Culture - refers to the material objects that people
create and use.
2.Non-Material Culture - refers to the intangible world of
ideas that people create.
a. Cultural Lag - time lag between a change or innovation
and accomplishment of the social and cultural adjustments.
b. Culture changes by invention, innovation, and
diffusion. An invention is the development of something
totally new, while an innovation is an improvement on
something that already exists. Diffusion is the spread of
cultural traits, from one to another.
ETHNOCENTRISM, AND XENOCENTRISM
a. Cultural Relativism - evaluates a culture by Its own
b. Ethnocentrism - evaluates another culture by the
standards of one's own culture. ’
c. Xenocentrism - refers to preference for foreign things.
FILIPINO SOCIETY AND CULTURE
1. Development of Filipino culture
2. Basic Element of Filipino Society and Culture
Kinship group is a system of social relations based on blood, and marriage affinity.
3. Filipino View-of the World (Panopio and Rolda, 1992
Filipinos believe that the universe consists of the upper world (dwelling place of
gods and angels) and lower world (dwelling place of humans and environmental spirits).
4. Other Characteristics of Filipino Culture
Smooth interpersonal relations (SIR), hiya (shame) utang na loob (reciprocity),
bahala na, respect for elders, hospitality, personalistic cyclic time orientation, close
family ties, amor propio
refers to patterns of interaction and networks of
relationship in a society. Its elements are as follows:
1. Status - social position of an individual:
• Ascribed status - social position assigned to the individual,
• Achieved status - social position which an individual
assumes and reflects personal ability and effort
• Master status - shows a person's social identity and shapes
a person’s life
2. Role - behavior expected of someone who occupies a
•Role conflict - conflict between the roles associated with two
or more statuses.
•Role strain - tension between roles associated with a single
3. Institution - cluster of norms which perform certain social
4. Group is composed of two or more persons who share
a common pattern of social interaction. Generally, a social
group regardless of its nature has the following
• Permanence beyond meetings
• means for identifying and controlling members
• mechanism for recruiting new members.
• goals or purposes
• statuses and roles for members
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION - hierarchical system that
the society uses to divide people into levels based on
wealth, power, and prestige. It exists in all societies and
persists across generations although it may differ in
form or system of operation.
TYPES OF STRATIFICATION SYSTEM
a.Caste system is based on ascription or birth and allows little (or
no) social mobility.
Example: Indian-system-of castes is composed of four
categories: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra. Below these
castes are the Harijans-or outcasts.
b. Class system is based on the system of meritocracy and allows
social mobility based on individual achievement.
For example : industrial and post industrial societies
pattern of norms associated with major societal goal, value, or need
1. Family is considered the basic unit of society.
2. Economic institution is associated with the organization, distribution and
utilization of resources in the society.
3. Political institution deals with allocating and rationalizing the use of power for
the common good.
4. Religious institution involves beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.
5. Educational institution is tasked to provide members of society with important
knowledge, including job skills and norms and values.
Family planning is a national mandated priority public
health program to attain the country’s national hearth
development. It is a health intervention program and an
important tool for the improvement of the health and
welfare of mothers, children, and other members of the
family. The program also provides information and services
for couples of reproductive age to plan their family according
to their beliefs and circumstances through legally and
medically acceptable a family planning methods
a. Responsible Parenthood: each family has the right and duty
to determine the desired number of children they might
have and when they might have them. Beyond responsible
parenthood is responsible parenting which is the proper
upbringing and education of children so that they grow up to be
upright, productive, and civic-minded citizens.
b. Respect for Life: the 1987 Constitution states that the
government protects the sanctity of life. ABORTION IS
NOT A FAMILY PLANNING METHOD.
c. Birth Spacing: refers to interval between pregnancies,
which is ideally three (3) years. It enables women to recover
their health, improve their potential to be more productive, and
to realize their personal aspirations and allows more time to
take care of their children and spouse/husband
d. Informed choice upholds and ensures the rights of couples
to determine the number and spacing of their children
according to their life's aspirations and reminds couples that
planning the size of their families has a direct bearing on the
quality of their children's and their own lives.
METHODS OF FAMILY PLANNING
a. Natural Family Planning (NFP) - refers to methods used to plan or prevent
pregnancy, based on identifying the woman’s fertile days. For all natural methods,
avoiding unprotected intercourse during the fertile days. For all natural method, avoiding
unprotected intercourse during the fertile days is what prevents pregnancy. Natural
methods are also known as fertility awareness-based methods.
1. Two-day method - relies on a simple algorithm to help women identify when they are
fertile, based on the presence or absence of cervical secretions.
2. Symptoms-based - the three primary signs of a woman’s fertility are her basal body
temperature, her cervical mucus, and her cervical position. Computerized fertility
monitors may track basal body temperatures, hormonal levels in urine, or changes in
electrical resistance of a woman's saliva. From these symptoms, a woman can learn to
assess her fertility. .
3. Calendar-based - based on a record of the length of previous menstrual cycles.
4. Lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) - method of
avoiding pregnancy based on the natural postpartum infertility
that occurs when a woman is amenorrheic and fully
breastfeeding. A strict version of LAM is known as ecological
5. Withdrawal (Coitus Interrupts) - a contraceptive method
that prevents fertilization by preventing the contact between
the sperm and egg.
1. Oral contraceptives or the Pill - use of synthetic hormones (progesterone and/or estrogen)
like those produced by the body to regulate the menstrua! Cycle
2. Male condom - made out of latex (rubber), but polyurethane and tactylon (both plastic) are
3. Female condom - a polyurethane (plastic) sheath with an inner ring that fits inside the
vagina, around the cervix (like the diaphragm) and an outer ring that covers the outside
4. Intrauterine 'device (IUD) - a small plastic device-which is placed in the uterus by a
clinician. It is a reversible method of birth control; given only by prescription.
5. Cervical cap - a soft rubber cup like device that is snugly around the base of the cervix.
6. Vasectomy or male sterilization - a surgical procedure that prevents pregnancy by blocking
the passage of sperm into the seminal fluid.
Republic Act 10354 - The Responsible Parenthood
and Reproductive Health Act of 2012
A 'legislation that provides universal access to quality reproductive health care
services, methods, devices, supplies, and relevant information and education.
2. Key Principles
a. Freedom of choice: respect for protection, and fulfillment of reproductive health and
b. Right to non-fraudulent information on reproductive health, including family planning.
c. Abortion is illegal, and is punishable by law.
d. Partnerships are .ideal for enhanced provision of necessary reproductive health
e. A multi-faceted sustainable development process.
3. Relevant Sections of the Law
a. Hiring of skilled health professionals for maternal health care and skilled birth attendance
b. Provision of health care facilities
c. Access to family planning
d. Review of maternal, fetal and infant death
e. Procurement and distribution of family planning supplies
f. Introduction of responsible parenthood and family planning component in anti-poverty programs
g. Provision of PhilHealth benefits for serious and life threatening reproductive health conditions
h. Provision of. mobile health care services
i. Provision of age- and development appropriate-reproductive health education
j. Mandatory presentation of certificate of compliance
k. Capacity building of barangay health workers
l. Provision of pro bono services for indigent women
m. Provision of sexual and reproductive health programs for Persons with Disabilities