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first language, second and additional language.pptx

  1. FIRST LANGUAGE, SECOND AND ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE Albertus ronny Frida widiyaningrum
  2. 01 First language
  3. Language acquisition  The process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate.  This capacity involves the picking up of diverse capacities including syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary.  It is a key aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms.  A range of theories has been created to explain this: innatism, as opposed to the other theories in which language is simply learned.
  4. First Language  The language that an individual receives the most is considered to be their "first language." In most situations, a student's native language is the language that they hear and learn after birth.  Developmental stages or 'milestones' are used to describe the progress that children have made in their process of learning to speak. Lust (2006) provides a detailed summary of various developmental milestones both in perception and production and in different domains of language such as phonology, syntax, and semantics.
  5. Theoretical Approaches  Behavioristic approach B.F. Skinner is a behaviorist who speculated that children are conditioned by their environment to respond to certain stimuli with language.  Nativist approach Noam Chomsky claims that children are born with a hard-wired Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in their brains. Universal grammar says that all languages have the same basic structure, and that specific languages have rules that transform these structures into the specific patterns found in given languages
  6.  Cognitive approach Piaget described whole development as a result of children’s interaction with their environment.
  7. Noam Chomsky and his followers argues that • The generative paradigm explains the language faculty through the so-called Universal Grammar (UG), which contains a set of universal principles that underlie the structure of all human languages and a finite set of parameters to account for cross-linguistic variations. In essence, UG restricts the set of grammar that are compatible with • Input is necessary, but not sufficient, for language development.
  8. The Acquisition Stages 1. Pre-speech and babbling: ‘goo-goo-gaa-gaa 2. First words: ‘ma-ma’ for ‘mum’, ‘lu_’ for ‘look 3. First sentences/combining words: ‘daddy car’, ‘dog gone’ 4. Complex sentences and increased vocabulary size: ‘please may I have some more? 5. Conversational skills
  9. the Facts and Problems of First Language Acquisition Speed and ultimate success: children do not produce adult-like utterances from the very beginning, but they master the skills of understanding and production by the age of four or five. • Individual differences: there are individual differences in the speed and manner of acquisition, but the outcome of first language acquisition is the same. • Resourcefulness: they can communicate a wide range of meanings and make their intentions known with a ‘limited’ size of vocabulary by extending word meanings or using a mixture of words, gestures, facial expressions, vocalizations, and so on
  10. Child-directed speech (CDS) CDS is a complex process of negotiation between caregivers and children, where adults adjust or fine- tune their speech based on a child's responses. Fine- tuning changes with the child's age and language ability, with prosodic fine-tuning being most evident at the pre-linguistic stage and phonetic and phonological ne-tuning most frequent at the first word stage
  11. A Trigger/Catapult or a Source of Opportunities for Incremental Learning Language acquisition requires input, but its role is uncertain. Input might be seen as a trigger or catapult or as a source of progressive learning. Firstly, individual differences in CDS can account for variations in the child’s development to some extent, but no firm cause-and-effect relationship has been established so far. Secondly, other types of input, which differ from CDS in features, help with children’s development too. Thirdly, input is not equivalent to intake
  12. the Special Features of Bilingual and Multilingual First Language Acquisition (BAMFLA) BAMFLA is similar to monolingual first language acquisition, with an initial babbling stage followed by first words, a multi-word stage, and complex utterances. Bilingual and multilingual children use code-switching, which is highly structured and grammatically constrained, suggesting added capacity to coordinate their two languages online. Bilingual or multilingual children have more input in one language than the other, leading to variations in comprehension and/or production due to an imbalance in language input. Bilingual and multilingual first language acquisition is a complex and dynamic process, constrained by a set of universals that interact with a variety of factors.
  13. Language Socialization Impact on Language Acquisition and Learning Language socialization is the process of learning to speak a language in a way appropriate to the community and adapting to the beliefs and norms associated with it. Broadly speaking, language socialization takes place in four different ways: • Explicit instruction and learning on what to say and how to say it. • Inexplicit instruction and learning on what to say and how to say it • Explicit instruction and learning of norms, beliefs and values. • Inexplicit influence.
  14. second and additional language
  15. second and additional language  Hoque (2017) explain that second language acquisition is the process of acquiring other language in addition to mother language or native language.  According to Krashen (1981) language acquisition is quite similar with the process of children use in acquiring first and second language and this is require meaningful interaction in the natural communication of the target language - where speakers do not concern about the form of their speech but with the message being conveyed and understood.  The statement above also stated by Saville – Troike (2006), Second Language Acquisition (SLA) refers to the study of individual and groups of people who learn a language subsequent to learn first one as young children and to the process of learning the language.
  16.  Stefansson (2013) stated Second Language Acquisitions (SLA) is the study of how the language learners acquire a second language (L2) as additional language to their first language (L1). Then, SLA is also referring to the any language after first language, it can be referred to whether it is second, third, or fourth language.
  17. Makes Somebody a ‘Good Language Learner 1. Multicompetence 2. Motivation 3. Motivation as a Dynamic System 4. Epistemological Choices
  18. Age Effects and the Critical Period Hypothesis The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) suggests that between the ages of 6 and 17, learners lose the mental equipment required for the implicit induction of abstract patterns underlying a human language, but counter-evidence suggests otherwise.
  19. Possible Neurobiological Causes for Age Effects Paradis (2004) suggests that age effects are caused by the decline of procedural memory for late L2 learners, which forces them to rely on explicit learning.
  20. CPH and Learning Context Muñoz (2008) argues that the amount and quality of the input have a significant bearing on the effects that AoA has on foreign language learning. A large-scale project of AoA in formal foreign language teaching in Catalonia revealed that earlier exposure (ages eight to nine) to English L3 in a classroom did not result in better performance, but that longer exposure to English had a positive effect on performance. Older learners who started English at age 11 and a third group who started at age 14 were found to progress more quickly than early learners.
  21. Previously Learned Languages  Stepping Stones  Non-Linguistic Effects  Washback Effects  Cross-linguistic Influences
  22. Instructional Environments and Authentic Use 1. Types of Instructional Environment 2. The Nature of Learners’ Linguistic Knowledge 3. The Transition From L2 Learner to L2 User
  23. First language acquisition study investigates the situation where children learn to speak their mother tongue, as opposed to second and additional language learning in which children learn to speak another language in addition to their mother tongue(. Summary