POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.

WELCOME
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING
PRESENTATION ON POPULATION GROWTH,
VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS,
POPULATION EXPLOSION
PRESENTED BY,
GOWTHAM.S - 15BME110
INTRODUCTION :
 About 250 years ago, humanity existed relatively small
numbers with limited technologies.
 Any environmental disturbances caused by people were
local and usually well with in the environments
capacity to absorb them.
 In the last two centuries, developments have occurred
that have created environmental problems beyond
nature’s assimilative capacity.
 Explosive growth of population creates environmental
pressure because of the sheer number of people on
earth.
POPULATION :
 A Population is defined as a group of individuals
belonging to the same species which line in a given
area at a given time.
 The study of population change is known as
“population dynamics”.
POPULATION DENSITY :
 It is expressed as the number of individuals of the
population per unit area or per unit volume.
 This varies in response to changes in the
environment and introduction with other living
organism.
PARAMETERS AFFECTING
POPULATION SIZE :
 BIRTH RATE OR NATALITY : Number of live birth per
1000 people in a population in a given year.
 DEATH RATE OR MORTALITY : Number of death per 1000
people in a population in a given year.
 IMMIGRATION : Arrival of individuals from
neighbouring population.
 EMIGRATION : Dispersal of individuals from the
original population to new areas.
POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.
POPULATION GROWTH :
The rapid growth of the global’s population for the
past 100 years results from the difference between the
rate of birth and death.
CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION
GROWTH:
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH :
Population growth shows the dramatic increase in
global population in the past 160 years.
DOUBLING TIME :
It is the time required for a population to double its size
at a constant annual rate.
Td = Doubling time = 70/r
Where, r = annual growth rate
(e.g.) if a nation has 2% annual growth, its population will
double in next 35 years.
INFANT MORTALITY RATE :
It is the percentage of infants, died out of those born in
one year.
Even through this rate has decreased in the last 50
years the pattern differs widely in developing and developed
countries.
TOTAL FERTILITY RATES (TFR) :
It is the average number of children delivered by
women in her life time.
The TFR values vary from 2 in developed countries
to 47 in developing countries.
REPLACEMENT LEVEL :
Two parents bearing two children will be replaced
by their off spring.
Due to infant mortality this replacement level is
changed.
MALE – FEMALE RATIO :
The ratio of girls and boys should be fairly
balanced in a society to flourish.
But the ratio has been upset in many countries
including china and India.
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION :
Population growth is generally related to economic
development.
The death rates and birth rates fall due to improved
conditions.
POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.
VARIATION OF POPULATION
AMONG NATIONS :
 Different regions of the world find themselves at different
stages of demographic transition from high to low mortality
and fertility.
 Their growth path also differ considerably, resulting in
significant shifts in the geographical distribution of the
world’s population.
 At present the world’s population has crossed 7 billions.
 This existing population is also not evenly distributed.
 Less developed countries have 80% population while the
developed countries have only 20%.
POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.
VARIATION OF POPULATION
BASED ON AGE STRUCTURE :
Their classification are…
Pre – productive population (0 – 14 years )
Re – productive population (15 – 44 years )
post re-productive population (above 45 years )
PYRAMID SHAPED VARIATION OF
POPULATION ( INCREASE ) : The large number
of young age people will soon enter into reproductive age
group population ( 15 – 44 years), which increases the
population growth. But the less number of old age
people indicates less loss of population due to death.
(e.g.) India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia – Nigeria etc…
BELL SHAPED VARIATION OF POPULATION
(STABLE) : (e.g.) France, UK, Canada etc…
The pre – productive age group and reproductive
age group population are more or less equal.
So the people entering into reproductive age group
will not change the population and thus the population
growth is stable.
URN SHAPED VARIATION OF POPULATION
(DECREASE) : (e.g.) Germany, Italy, Sweden, etc…
The pre – productive age group is smaller than the
reproductive age group population.
In the next 10 years, the number of people in the
reproductive age group is less than the before, resulting
in a decrease of population growth.
POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.
POPULATION EXPLOSION :
DEFINITION :
The enormous increase in population, due to low
death rate (mortality) and high birth rate (Natality) is
termed as population explosion.
The human population is not increasing at a
uniform rate in all parts of the world.
Among the countries, the most developed country
like USA has a slow growth rate, whereas the other
developing countries have exorbitant growth rates.
Birth rate of developing country=45 per 1000 population
Birth rate of developed country=12.7 per 1000 population
POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.
DOUBLING TIME :
 Doubling time can be defined as “number of years
needed for a population to double in size”.
 In many non – industrialized, poor developed countries
like Asia, Africa and South America shows higher
growth rate.
 In contrast the population of industrialized, developed
countries like USA, UK, France and Italy shows lower
growth rate.
CAUSES (OR) REASONS FOR
POPULATION EXPLOSION :
 Reduced death rate and increased birth rate by the
invention of modern medical facility, which leads to
population explosion.
 Increase of life expectancy.
 Ex: In 1950, the average life expectancy of human
being was 50 years but now it is 61 years.
 Illiteracy.
EFFECT OF POPULATION
EXPLOSION :
 Infant mortality is one of the most tragic indicators of
poverty. There are still 34 developing countries, where
more than 10 children die before he or she reaches the
age of five.
 Population explosion leads to environmental
degradation.
 Many of the natural and renewable resources like
forest, grassland are also under threat.
 Increase in population will increase disease, economic
inequity and communal war.
POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.
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POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS & POPULATION EXPLOSION.

  • 2. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRESENTATION ON POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS, POPULATION EXPLOSION PRESENTED BY, GOWTHAM.S - 15BME110
  • 3. INTRODUCTION :  About 250 years ago, humanity existed relatively small numbers with limited technologies.  Any environmental disturbances caused by people were local and usually well with in the environments capacity to absorb them.  In the last two centuries, developments have occurred that have created environmental problems beyond nature’s assimilative capacity.  Explosive growth of population creates environmental pressure because of the sheer number of people on earth.
  • 4. POPULATION :  A Population is defined as a group of individuals belonging to the same species which line in a given area at a given time.  The study of population change is known as “population dynamics”. POPULATION DENSITY :  It is expressed as the number of individuals of the population per unit area or per unit volume.  This varies in response to changes in the environment and introduction with other living organism.
  • 5. PARAMETERS AFFECTING POPULATION SIZE :  BIRTH RATE OR NATALITY : Number of live birth per 1000 people in a population in a given year.  DEATH RATE OR MORTALITY : Number of death per 1000 people in a population in a given year.  IMMIGRATION : Arrival of individuals from neighbouring population.  EMIGRATION : Dispersal of individuals from the original population to new areas.
  • 7. POPULATION GROWTH : The rapid growth of the global’s population for the past 100 years results from the difference between the rate of birth and death. CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION GROWTH: EXPONENTIAL GROWTH : Population growth shows the dramatic increase in global population in the past 160 years.
  • 8. DOUBLING TIME : It is the time required for a population to double its size at a constant annual rate. Td = Doubling time = 70/r Where, r = annual growth rate (e.g.) if a nation has 2% annual growth, its population will double in next 35 years. INFANT MORTALITY RATE : It is the percentage of infants, died out of those born in one year. Even through this rate has decreased in the last 50 years the pattern differs widely in developing and developed countries.
  • 9. TOTAL FERTILITY RATES (TFR) : It is the average number of children delivered by women in her life time. The TFR values vary from 2 in developed countries to 47 in developing countries. REPLACEMENT LEVEL : Two parents bearing two children will be replaced by their off spring. Due to infant mortality this replacement level is changed.
  • 10. MALE – FEMALE RATIO : The ratio of girls and boys should be fairly balanced in a society to flourish. But the ratio has been upset in many countries including china and India. DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION : Population growth is generally related to economic development. The death rates and birth rates fall due to improved conditions.
  • 12. VARIATION OF POPULATION AMONG NATIONS :  Different regions of the world find themselves at different stages of demographic transition from high to low mortality and fertility.  Their growth path also differ considerably, resulting in significant shifts in the geographical distribution of the world’s population.  At present the world’s population has crossed 7 billions.  This existing population is also not evenly distributed.  Less developed countries have 80% population while the developed countries have only 20%.
  • 14. VARIATION OF POPULATION BASED ON AGE STRUCTURE : Their classification are… Pre – productive population (0 – 14 years ) Re – productive population (15 – 44 years ) post re-productive population (above 45 years ) PYRAMID SHAPED VARIATION OF POPULATION ( INCREASE ) : The large number of young age people will soon enter into reproductive age group population ( 15 – 44 years), which increases the population growth. But the less number of old age people indicates less loss of population due to death. (e.g.) India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia – Nigeria etc…
  • 15. BELL SHAPED VARIATION OF POPULATION (STABLE) : (e.g.) France, UK, Canada etc… The pre – productive age group and reproductive age group population are more or less equal. So the people entering into reproductive age group will not change the population and thus the population growth is stable. URN SHAPED VARIATION OF POPULATION (DECREASE) : (e.g.) Germany, Italy, Sweden, etc… The pre – productive age group is smaller than the reproductive age group population. In the next 10 years, the number of people in the reproductive age group is less than the before, resulting in a decrease of population growth.
  • 17. POPULATION EXPLOSION : DEFINITION : The enormous increase in population, due to low death rate (mortality) and high birth rate (Natality) is termed as population explosion. The human population is not increasing at a uniform rate in all parts of the world. Among the countries, the most developed country like USA has a slow growth rate, whereas the other developing countries have exorbitant growth rates. Birth rate of developing country=45 per 1000 population Birth rate of developed country=12.7 per 1000 population
  • 19. DOUBLING TIME :  Doubling time can be defined as “number of years needed for a population to double in size”.  In many non – industrialized, poor developed countries like Asia, Africa and South America shows higher growth rate.  In contrast the population of industrialized, developed countries like USA, UK, France and Italy shows lower growth rate.
  • 20. CAUSES (OR) REASONS FOR POPULATION EXPLOSION :  Reduced death rate and increased birth rate by the invention of modern medical facility, which leads to population explosion.  Increase of life expectancy.  Ex: In 1950, the average life expectancy of human being was 50 years but now it is 61 years.  Illiteracy.
  • 21. EFFECT OF POPULATION EXPLOSION :  Infant mortality is one of the most tragic indicators of poverty. There are still 34 developing countries, where more than 10 children die before he or she reaches the age of five.  Population explosion leads to environmental degradation.  Many of the natural and renewable resources like forest, grassland are also under threat.  Increase in population will increase disease, economic inequity and communal war.