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6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
6th
International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016
‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug...
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Dynamic factors influencing the post-disaster resettlement success Lessons from the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Venkata Narayanan AEKBOTE

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6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 Integrative Risk Management - Towards Resilient Cities. 28 August - 01 September 2016 in Davos, Switzerland

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Dynamic factors influencing the post-disaster resettlement success Lessons from the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Venkata Narayanan AEKBOTE

  1. 1. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Dynamic factors influencing the post-disaster resettlement success: Lessons from the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Venkata Narayanan AEKBOTE LAKSHMINARAYANAN University of Grenoble Alpes / Technical University of Darmstadt
  2. 2. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Background and research issue • Climate change phenomenon - increasing disasters • Vulnerable population in countries of the South – most adversely affected • African coastal cities are situated in vulnerable region; global assessments and regional assessments have identified East Africa as one of the most threatened coastal regions globally. • They are undergoing rapid and unplanned growth, urbanisation, and coastward migration, and have high population densities and overburdened infrastructure.
  3. 3. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Typical example - Dar es Salaam, Tanzania • Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is identified as one of the largest coastal city in Africa according to UN-HABITAT (2008) • Seventy percent of Dar es Salaam’s population lives in unplanned settlements, which lack adequate infrastructure and services, and are highly prone to adverse impacts of frequent flooding • Poor solid waste disposal and sanitation practices, combined with rainfall, result in contamination of water and spread of disease (Dar es Salaam City Council, 2004) • Majority of urban dwellers are vulnerable because of the conditions in which they live • With increased development in the coastal zone coupled with sea- level increase due to climate change will exacerbate these issues
  4. 4. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Significance of study area – Dar es Salaam Fig: Exposed population in Dar es Salaam in 2005, 2030, 2050, and 2070 to a 1-in- 100-Year flood Source: Kebede and Nicholls (2011) Source: Kebede and Nicholls (2011)
  5. 5. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Preliminary findings • Rapid urbanization and unplanned growth • Infrastructural problems – inefficient drainage system and solid- waste management; houses in low-lying areas and in flood plains • Lack of enforcement of policies - Government actions incoherent with its policies • Lack of political will – issues of political economy • Reactive approach rather than proactive approach
  6. 6. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Research theme Post-disaster recovery and resettlement (Complexities involved) I Particularly when invloving resettlement in urban areas
  7. 7. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Main research question • In the context of Dar es Salaam, post-disaster recovery and resettlement, what are the processes towards ‘new normal’, its characteristics and the opportunities and challenges therein?
  8. 8. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Research Design and methodology • Case-study strategy (Yin) • The ontological position - critical realism which combines elements of both realist and constructivist ontologies. • Mixed methods approach – Questionnaire interviews – In-depth and semi-structured interviews (Open ended) – Focus group discussions – Document analysis – Reconnaissance survey and direct observations – Photos and videos
  9. 9. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Context • Disastrous floods from 20 - 22 December 2011 • Two groups – Group 1: total destruction of the house - Group 2: partial destruction • Group 1 – moved to primary and secondary schools for two weeks, then to three centres for a month and finally given plots and relocated to Mabwepande • Group 2 – moved to relatives and friends – asked by the Government to retrieve their belongings and after about four to six months, given plots and relocated to Mabwepande • Government provided plots as per the then President’s directive, which was based on humanitarian grounds
  10. 10. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Context • However, this relocation was possible only because of an urban planning project – 20000 plots – which was being executed • This initiative was one of its kind – and realising the cost- incurred and the various challenges and controversies surrounding it, the government announced that it will not be repeated in case of future floods • Announcement and instruction to relocate from the river valleys and hazardous areas – not followed • Subsequent action in 2015 December – demolition of houses along the river valleys – opposition and court intervention • Status-quo as of today!
  11. 11. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Source: Google earth (2016) Mabwepande Location of Mabwepande Source: Google earth (2016)
  12. 12. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Source: Google earth (2016) Resettled population extent, Mabwepande Bunju B Bus stop
  13. 13. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Situation during floods Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015 Source: Fieldwork(2015)
  14. 14. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Coping methods Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015) Source: Fieldwork(2015)
  15. 15. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Research context Floods 2011
  16. 16. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Mabwepande Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016)
  17. 17. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Mabwepande Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016) Source: Fieldwork(2016)
  18. 18. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org What the local government said… • Providing free plots cost a lot! – Expectation of gratitude • Did their best at the time of crisis in 2011 • There are many other priorities and needs to be fulfilled • Increasing land values and financial limitations • Scepticism about people’s complaints and anger towards those who sold the plots and returned back and those continuing to stay in the flood-prone areas • Still grappling with the challenges!
  19. 19. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org What the community said… • Livelihood opportunities drastically affected – Distance and cost incurred to Kariakoo (CBD) • Infrastructure issues – roads, transportation, health facilities, markets, electricity, water supply • Social network and relationships affected • Safety and security issues • Glad to be in a safe and planned area with title deeds • Various perceptions and scepticism regarding the local government
  20. 20. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Local authority’s perception - Success!
  21. 21. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Community’s perception - Failure!
  22. 22. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org What is true?
  23. 23. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Factors to be considered – lessons to learn • Livelihood opportunities • Basic infrastructure provision – water supply, electricity, roads and transportation facilities • Education and health facilities • Planning and phased relocation – to have minimal impact on the social structure • Ensuring community’s active participation and involvement in the process and building trust
  24. 24. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Merci beaucoup! Vielen Dank! Thank you! Asante Sana!
  25. 25. 6th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2016 ‘Integrative Risk Management – Towards Resilient Cities‘ • 28 Aug – 1 Sept 2016 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Questions / Comments / Suggestions

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