The Govt. of India setup the secondary education
commission by Resolution dated 23rd September
1952, under the chairmanship of Dr. A.
Lakshmanswami Mudaliar, the vice chancellor of
Madras University. Therefore, this commission is
also known as Mudaliar Commission. The
commission submitted its report on 29th August,
1953 consisted 240 pages including 15 headings.
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE COMMISSION
To enquire into and report on the present position of
secondary Education in India in all its aspects.
To suggest measurers for its re-organization and
improvement with special reference to:
- The aims, organization and content of secondary
- Its relationship to primary, basic and higher education
- The inter-relation of secondary schools of different
- To study the other related problems so that a sound
and reasonable uniform system of secondary
education suited to our needs and resources may be
provided throughout the whole country.
4. RECOMMENDATIONS BY SECONDARY EDUCATION
COMMISSION (MUDALIAR), 1952
During British period the main focus of Secondary
education was on English language to fit Indians to
college only and almost unfit for everything else. In
the report of Secondary Education Commission
(1952-53) some recommendations were given to
improve the quality of education. The report
presented the defects in present education system
as well as the suggestions for a better education
system in India.
5. 1. DEFECTS IN EXISTING EDUCATION SYSTEM:
Curriculum is not according to the present needs and
interests of the students.
Teaching methods are traditional and inappropriate.
Curriculum is narrow and one sided and fails to train the
whole personality of the student.
Defective and stressful Examination system.
Only bookish knowledge is given, no practical
knowledge is being served.
No mutual relationship between teacher and the
Inappropriate books make the education pointless.
Improper Teacher and student Ration, Big size of the
6. 2. AIMS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION:
(A)Development of Democratic Citizenship:
For a successful democracy it is necessary that every citizen
should have democratic outlook and they should be trained for
the citizenship which involves much intellectual social and moral
qualities. To develop these qualities education must aim at the
development of the following qualities:
-Clear Thinking: For democratic citizenship the citizen
has to develop a scientific attitude of mind to think
objectively and should not think confusedly.
-Clearance in speech and Writing: Clarity of thought
should be accompanied by clearness in speech and in
writing. Education should develop intellectual awakening
and free thinking in children.
7. -Training in art of living: Individuals has to be
trained in the art of living efficiently in the
community which can not be learnt without suitable
education and experience. Education should
develop the virtues like discipline, cooperation,
social sensitiveness and tolerance. Progress of the
society is possible only with the help of these
-Sense of true patriotism: Education should
enable the individuals to appreciate the social and
culture achievement of their country. The education
has to foster the sense of true patriotism in the
citizens of the country.
8. -Sense of world citizenship: With the help of
education, the students ought to be taught that they
are not only the citizens of their country but also of
one world. Development of one’s country cannot
take place without the help of others, The students
should be prefaced to discharged their
responsibilities to the world also.
(B) Development of Vocational Efficiency:
Education should aims at providing vocational
training to every citizen of the country. Each subject
should be given proper place in the curriculum so
tat each child may be able to choose the vocation
of his interest and ability.
9. (C) Development of Personality: Education should
aim at not only the development of one factor of
personality but that of the whole personality. For
this education should provide such type of
environment in which the child will be able to do
creative and constructive activities so that he is
able to develop his literary, artistic and cultural
interests. The development of these interest will
enrich the life of the children.
(D) Education for leadership: Success of
democracy depends upon able leaders who must
possess virtues like tolerance, wisdom,
understanding, discipline and justice. Education
should inculcate these values among the citizens of
t he society.
10. 3. REORGANIZATION OF SECONDARY
The stage of Secondary education is most
important for the students in their preparation for
life. For the development of the standards of
secondary school education the commission
proposed the following organizational pattern:
Duration: The duration should include middle,
junior, Secondary or senior Basic education of 3
years and 4 years' education at senior secondary
level. And the child should be of 11-17 years of age.
3- year Degree Course: The commission
abolished the intermediate level education and
instead suggested 11 years of Higher Secondary
and 3 years of Degree course.
11. Different Curriculum: The commission suggested
a number of courses so that the students can
choose subjects according to their interests, These
courses would begin from the very first year of
Internal Evaluation: The commission gave an
important place to the school records in the process
Technical Education: The commission suggested
the establishment of multipurpose schools but
these schools could not fulfill the needs of the
12. 4. OTHER KINDS OF SCHOOLS: The
commissioned recommended to increase the
number of schools, to open residential schools, to
provide financial assistance to bright students by
the centre or the states and special schools should
5. CO-EDUCATION: Regarding co-education the
commission recommended that no distinction
should be there between boys and girls. Proper
conditions should be created in mixed or co-
educational schools. Wherever needed and
possible, there should be separate schools for girls.
13. 6. STUDY OF LANGUAGES:
According to the commission the following languages were
Study of Mother Tongue.
Study of Regional Language, If it is not mother- tongue.
Study of Official Language.
Study of one oriental Language.
Study of English Language.
- At the Primary stage, Mother tongue or the regional language
should be the medium of instruction.
- At the middle stage, the students must learn two languages.
- Both Hindi and English should be taught from junior basic
- At the High School stage or the Higher Secondary stage,
students should study two languages, out of which one should
be mother tongue or regional language.
At middle stage, there should be language, general
science, mathematics, Social Studies, Art or music,
Industrial Craft and health education.
At high school or higher secondary level there should be
the following languages with mother tongue and regional
language or oriental language:
-Hindi(For non-Hindi students)/Primary English( who did
not study English at middle stage)/Higher English (who
have already studies English)/Modern Indian
language(in addition to Hindi)/ Modern Foreign
Language(In addition to English)/Oriental Language.
-Other Subjects: (i) Social Sciences for fist two years,(ii)
Any one of the art & craft like Spinning and weaving,
Wood work, Metal Work,
The commission recommended that there should be
high power committee to select the books on the basis
of the quality and utility. There should not only one book
in a particular subject and should not be changed too
often. The standard and definite text books should be
there for the study of language. No such book should
hurt the social and religious feelings of the community.
The High Power Committee should include:
- A High Court Judge
- Member of Public service Commission
- Two educationists
- Education Director
16. 8.FLEXIBLE METHODS OF TEACHING
Modern teaching methods like Experimental
method, Demonstration method, activity or project
based method. The method of teaching should
provide enough opportunities to the students to
develop their thinking, reasoning and expression
abilities and develop values, attitudes, group
responsibilities and leadership qualities.
Character development should be an aim of all
school activities. Such laws or rules should be
framed which prohibit student participation during
election. Group activities and games should be
10.RELIGIOUS AND MORAL EDUCATION:
According to the commission,” There should be
no formal Moral and religious education in
classrooms but it should develop and emerge
out of school environment and teachers’
18. 11.CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES:
Co-Curricular activities should me an integral part
of school curriculum. Govt. should provide aid for
students activities. N.C.C. ,Red cross activities,
Primary medical and Health Services, scouts and
guides training should be included in school
19. 12. GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING:
In secondary schools , Special attention must be
given towards educational guidance in secondary
Trained counselors and career masters should be
appointed in increased numbers.
20. 13.PHYSICAL WELFARE OF THE STUDENTS:
Nutritious and healthy food should be served in
residential schools and hostels.
School environment should be neat and clean
Schools should develop a sense of social service
and dignity of labour.
Record of every student should be kept.
School medical services should be introduced in al
All the students should be medically checked up
once a Year.
21. 14. EVALUATION:
In place of numerical marks, grades should be
Only one public examination should be there at the
end of secondary stage.
Externals Examinations should be reduced.
Subjects with marks should be shown in the
Supplementary examinations should also be held.
22. 15. DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING SKILLS
There should be uniformity in the selection of
The probation period should be of one year.
A proper selection committee should be also there
for the appointment of private school Head master
Posts of teachers should be made more attractive.
Triple benefit schemes should be introduced.
23. 16. PROBLEM OF ADMINISTRATION:
There should be a Board of 25 members chaired by
the Director of Education.
Director of Education would be responsible for
advising and guiding the Education Minister.
Inspecting officers should be highly qualified.
New schools should be given recognition only when
they fulfill all the conditions.
Schools should be opened in villages.
The schools should function in such a way that they
do no create problems for the community.
24. 17. PROVISION OF FINANCE
Industrial Education cess should be imposed.
There should be no property Tax on education
institutions, Their property and playgrounds.
States should provide land for the construction of
The central government should take responsibility
as regards secondary education.
25. 18. SESSION AND LEAVES
The session should be of 200 working days, with 2
months’ summer vacation. There should be 15 day
vacation, twice a year.
26. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Mudaliar /Secondary Education Commission 1952-
53 has special importance in the history of Indian
Education. Like any other commission, this
commission also has its own merits as well as
demerits. This commission provides valuable
suggestions for the reorganization of Indian
27. CHARACTERISTICS OR MERITS OF THE
Appropriate aims of Secondary Education
Practicable plan of establishing multipurpose
Agricultural Education in rural schools
Technical education according to industrial demand
Importance to mother tongue and regional
Improvement in Teaching methods
Examination and Evaluation
Importance of co-curricular activities.
Proper place to teacher and benefit schemes
28. DEMERITS OF THE COMMISSION:
Neglect Women Education
No difference in education for boys and girls.
At the end it can be concluded that most of the
recommendations are helpful, but the government
did not apply them in reality. The Education system
may be improved, if the recommendations were