Typology of Cyber Crime

Advocate en Surat District and Sessions Court
31 de Mar de 2017

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Typology of Cyber Crime

  1. Typology of Cyber Crimes
  2.  1: a doctrine of theological types; especially : one holding that things in Christian belief are prefigured or symbolized by things in the OldTestament  2: study of or analysis or classification based on types or categories.
  3.  Cybercrime is defined as a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime (hacking, phishing, spamming) or is used as a tool to commit an offense (child pornography, hate crimes).  Cybercriminals may use computer technology to access personal information, business trade secrets, or use the Internet for exploitive or malicious purposes. Criminals can also use computers for communication and document or data storage.  Criminals who perform these illegal activities are often referred to as hackers.  Cybercrime may also be referred to as computer crime.
  4. Types of Cyber Crimes Can be Classified into the Categories which we will see further.
  5. Cyber crimes are broadly categorized into three categories, namely crime against 1. Individual 2. Property 3. Government
  6.  This type of cyber crime can be in the form of: 1. Cyber stalking, 2. Distributing pornography, 3. Trafficking and Grooming. Today, law enforcement agencies are taking this category of cyber crime very seriously and are joining forces internationally to reach and arrest the perpetrators.
  7.  Just like in the real world where a criminal can steal and rob, even in the cyber world criminals resort to stealing and robbing.  In this case, they can steal a person’s bank details and siphon off money; misuse the credit card to make numerous purchases online; run a scam to get naïve people to part with their hard earned money; use malicious software to gain access to an organization’s website or disrupt the systems of the organization.  The malicious software can also damage software and hardware, just like vandals damage property in the offline world.
  8.  Although not as common as the other two categories, crimes against a government are referred to as cyber terrorism. If successful, this category can wreak havoc and cause panic amongst the civilian population.  In this category, criminals hack government websites, military websites or circulate propaganda.  The perpetrators can be terrorist outfits or unfriendly governments of other nations.
  9.  It is important to note that a computer, Internet or computer technology has to be involved, and when the use of any of the following techniques or activities is made to carry out a crime or illegal activity – only then can it be classified as a Cybercrime.
  10.  This is a type of crime wherein a person’s computer is broken into so that his personal or sensitive information can be accessed.  In the United States, hacking is classified as a felony and punishable as such. This is different from ethical hacking, which many organizations use to check their Internet security protection.  In hacking, the criminal uses a variety of software to enter a person’s computer and the person may not be aware that his computer is being accessed from a remote location.
  11.  This crime occurs when a person violates copyrights and downloads music, movies, games and software. There are even peer sharing websites which encourage software piracy and many of these websites are now being targeted by the FBI. Today, the justice system is addressing this cyber crime and there are laws that prevent people from illegal downloading.
  12. A 44YEAR OLD PUBLISHING EXECUTIVE NAMED CLAIRE MILLER WAS HARASSED BY STRANGERS WHO WERE RESPONDING TOVERGING-ON- PORNOGRAPHIC PROMISES SOMEONE HAD MADE IN HER NAME ONLINE.THESE POSTINGS INCLUDED HER HOME ADDRESS ANDTELEPHONE NUMBER  This is a kind of online harassment wherein the victim is subjected to a barrage of online messages and emails.  Typically, these stalkers know their victims and instead of resorting to offline stalking, they use the Internet to stalk.  However, if they notice that cyber stalking is not having the desired effect, they begin offline stalking along with cyber stalking to make the victims’ lives more miserable.
  13.  This has become a major problem with people using the Internet for cash transactions and banking services. In this cyber crime, a criminal accesses data about a person’s bank account, credit cards, Social Security, debit card and other sensitive information to siphon money or to buy things online in the victim’s name. It can result in major financial losses for the victim and even spoil the victim’s credit history.
  14.  These are Internet-based software or programs that are used to disrupt a network. The software is used to gain access to a system to steal sensitive information or data or causing damage to software present in the system.
  15.  This is also a type of cyber crime wherein criminals solicit minors via chat rooms for the purpose of child pornography. The FBI has been spending a lot of time monitoring chat rooms frequented by children with the hopes of reducing and preventing child abuse and soliciting.
  16.  This is one of the detestable malware-based attacks. Ransomware enters your computer network and encrypts your files using public- key encryption, and unlike other malware this encryption key remains on the hacker’s server. Attacked users are then asked to pay huge ransoms to receive this private key.
  17.  DDoS attacks are used to make an online service unavailable and bring it down, by bombarding or overwhelming it with traffic from multiple locations and sources.  Large networks of infected computers, called Botnets are developed by planting malware on the victim computers.  The idea is normally to draw attention to the DDOS attack, and allow the hacker to hack into a system.  Extortion and blackmail could be the other motivations.
  18.  Botnets are networks of compromised computers, controlled by remote attackers in order to perform such illicit tasks as sending spam or attacking other computers.  Computer Bots can also be used act like malware and carry out malicious tasks. Then can be used to assemble a network of computers and then compromise them.
  19.  Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire sensitive information like usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy source.  Phishing is carried out through emails or by luring the users to enter personal information through fake websites.  Criminals often use websites that have a look and feel of some popular website, which makes the users feel safe to enter their details there.  Attacks are increasing, with financial services accounting for over 93% of impersonated or hijacked brands through bogus websites and emails. Almost all of the UK’s high street banks have been affected by phishing.
  20.  Vishing is the criminal practice of using social engineering andVoice over IP (VoIP) to gain access to private personal and financial information from the public for the purpose of financial reward.  The term is a combination of “Voice" and phishing.  Vishing exploits the publics trust in landline telephone services.  Vishing is typically used to steal credit card numbers or other information used in identity theft schemes fromMonday, September 24, 2012 individuals.
  21. VIRUS  Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a computer or a file.  They then circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on a network. WORMS  Worms, unlike viruses do not need the host to attach themselves to.  They merely make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available space on a computer's memory.
  22.  These attacks occur when a person or a group of people try to prevent a internet site from functioning effectively either temporarily or on a long term basis.
  23.  Apart from inculcating safe browsing habits, maintain good system hygiene. Avoid leaving Digital Footprints.  You must secure your Windows system with a fully updated operating system and installed software, and ensure that you install a good Internet Security Software to protect your Windows computer.  Using the Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit on Windows is a great way to protect your system against zero-day attacks.
  24.  Although it will not be possible to eliminate all the Cyber crime from the world, because new crimes keep cropping up every day, it is possible to keep a check on them.  History is the witness that no government has succeeded in totally eliminating crime from the globe.  The only possible step is to make people aware of their rights and duties, and further making the application of the laws more stringent to check crime
  25. Stay safe … it’s a bad world out there! …Advocate Gaurav M Patel