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UNIT 1 concept-of-health-and-disease-.pptx

  2. 2. Introduction Health is very important for every individual for living on this earth. In the society , its not only issue of doctors, nurses, social services and hospitals, its also an issue of justice. A most common aspect in every culture is health. As per the advancement of technology people came to know that health is fundamental human right & is essential for the satisfaction of basic human needs and improvement of life.
  3. 3. Concept of Health • Biomedical concept • Ecological concept • Psychosocial concept • Holistic concept
  4. 4. Biomedical concept • Health is ''absence of disease'' ie, if one is free from disease than he is considered healthy. • Based on germ theory of disease. • But its not merely as absence of disease, but good health status of individual. • Question - malnutrition, chronic disease, accidents, drug abuse, mental illness , environmental pollution etc which lead to ecological concept
  5. 5. Microorganism Human body Illness / Disease Example:
  6. 6. Ecological concept • Ecologists - health is dynamic equilibrium between man and his environment, and disease is maladjustment of the human organism to his environment. • ''Health implies the relative absence of pain and discomfort and a continuous adaptation and adjustment to the environment to ensure optimal function''
  7. 7. Ecological concept • Raised two questions - Imperfect man - Imperfect environment • History shows that improvement in human adaptation to natural environment can lead to longer and better quality of life- even with the absence of modern health delivery servi• ces.
  8. 8. Psychological concept  Development in social science - Health is not only a biomedical phenomenon, but it is influenced by • Social, • Psychological, • Cultural, • Economic and • Political factors of the people concerned, • ''Health is both a biological and social phenomenon''
  9. 9. Holistic concept • Synthesis of all the above concepts. • It recognizes the strength of social, economic, political and environmental influences on health. • Then came a many definitions of health.
  10. 10. Definitions of Health • ''The condition of being sound body, mind or spirit, especially freedom from physical disease or pain'' (webster) • ''Soundness of body or mind; that condition in which its functions are duly and efficiently discharged'' ( oxford) • '' A condition or quality of the human organism expressing the adequate functioning of the organism in given conditions, genetic and environmental'' ( operational def by WHO)
  11. 11. Health Definition In 1948, WHO define, • ''Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease and /or infirmity''
  12. 12. Characteristics of WHO definition of health •A concern for individual as a whole system. •A view of health that identifies internal and external environment . •An acknowledgement of the importance of an individual’s role in life.
  13. 13. Negative Aspect •Complete well being for all is unattainable goal. •Some of us are born with severe physical and mental limitations.
  14. 14. Dimensions of Health As health is concerned with all those factors that influence the health. Hence we consider it as multidimensional. Specific dimensions of health as per WHO are as follows:-
  15. 15. Physical dimension • The state of physical health implies the notion of ''perfect functioning'' of the body. It conceptualizes health biologically as a state in which every cell and every organ is functioning at optimum capacity and in perfect harmony with the rest of the body.
  16. 16. Mental Dimension hnp://cnts.mumbaimirror.convportallilcsn/3/20071O/lmagc/Mcmal%20Heahhjpg '-" " " " " • Mental health is not mere absence of · mental illness. • Good mental health is ability to respond to the many varied experience of life with flexibility and sense of purpose.
  17. 17. • ''A state of balance between the individual and the surrounding world, a state of harmony between oneself and others, a coexistence between the realities of the self and that of other people and that of the environment''
  18. 18. Social dimension • Social well-being implies harmony and integration within the individual, between each individual and other members of society and between individuals and the world in which they live. • ''Quantity and quality of an individual's interpersonal ties and the extent of involvement with the community.''
  19. 19. Environmental dimension •It’s the ability to recognize our own responsibility for the quality of the air , the water and the land that surrounds us. •The ability to make a positive impact on the quality of our environment be it our homes, our communities or our planet contributes to our environmental wellness.
  20. 20. Intellectual dimension •It’s the ability to open our minds to new ideas and experiences that can be applied to personal decisions, group interaction and community betterment. •The desire to learn new concepts, improve skills and seek challenges in pursuit of life long learning contributes to our intellectual wellness.
  21. 21. Other dimensions of health •Philosophical dimension •Cultural dimension •Socio economic dimension •Educational dimension •Nutritional dimension •Curative dimension •Preventive dimension •Occupational dimension
  22. 22. Health Illness- wellness continuum •Health : It’s a positive state of being that includes physical fitness, mental/ emotional stability; social and spiritual case. •Illness : It’s the feeling of unhealthy and is a personal experience. •Wellness : Its defined as a “subjective perception of ability, harmony and vitality”(Leddy & Pepper, 1993).
  23. 23. Indications of good health •To perform the best of their ability. •To adjust and adapt to varying situations. •Feeling of well-being. •Feeling of harmony and togetherness.
  24. 24. Basic concept of health •Health within illness: According to Jones & Meleis, 1993 Illness is regarded as an event that can expand human potential. •Holistic health : This approach recognizes the interaction of an individual with the society and emphasis on the harmony with oneself , nature and world.
  25. 25. Quadrants of wellness grid Favourable environment Death Wellness Unfavourable environment
  26. 26. Health Illness Continuum According to Neuman (1990) “Health on a continuum is the degree of client wellness that exists at any point in time, ranging from an optimal wellness condition with available energy at its maximum to death, which represents total energy depletion”.
  27. 27. According to health illness continuum model, ‘Health is a dynamic state that continuously alters as a person adapts to changes in the external and internal environment to maintain a state of physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental & spiritual wellbeing .Illness is a process in which the functioning of a person is diminished or impaired in one or more dimensions when compared with the person’s previous condition’.
  28. 28. Optimal wellness Death
  29. 29. Functions of Health care services •Health promotion •Illness prevention •Diagnosis •Treatment •Rehabilitation
  30. 30. Factors influencing Health Internal variables Developmental stage Intellectual background Perception of functioning Emotional factors Spiritual factors External variables Family practices Socio economic factors Cultural background
  31. 31. ILLNESS Illness is not described in the terms of disease condition , it’s the deviation from the normal healthy state and it results in frustration, anxiety, denial, grief and uncertainty. In illness all family members along with the ill person have to adopt towards the different situation.
  32. 32. Definition According to Kozier Illness is a condition characterized by a deviation from a normal healthy state which is manifested by physical and psychological symptoms. According to Potter & Perry Illness is a state in which a persons physical, intellectual, emotional, social or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired in comparison with the previous experience.
  33. 33. Classification/ Types of illness ⁕Acute illness ⁕Chronic illness ⁕Terminal illness ⁕Age related illness
  34. 34. Illness Behavior Illness behavior is a complex process. It involves the ways, person monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms , take remedial measures and use health care services.
  35. 35. Variables affecting illness behavior Internal variables •Perception of symptoms •Nature of illness •Characteristics of person
  36. 36. External variables •Visibility of symptoms •Social group •Culture and values •Economic variables •Accessibility of the health care system
  37. 37. Emotional response to illness Fear Over dependence and feeling of helplessness Anxiety Hope Stress Anger and hostility
  38. 38. Causes & Risk factors for illness Physiological causes Physical injuries Abnormal growth of cells Disease of biotic origin Chemical injury
  39. 39. Causes & Risk factors for illness Psychological causes Genetic factors Neurotic disorders Life experiences Psychotic disorders
  40. 40. Risk factors for developing illness Genetic factors Physiological factors Environment Age Lifestyle Dietary habits
  41. 41. Biological factors Socio economic situations Literacy level Economic status Spiritual factors Immunologic factors
  42. 42. Impact of illness on patient & family Impact of illness on client Impact of illness on client and family Impact on family roles Impact on body image Impact on self concept Impact on family dynamics
  43. 43. Prevention & Protection from illness ⁎Aware public regarding illness, injury or disease. ⁎Nurses should maintain medical / surgical asepsis. ⁎Proper health education. ⁎Nurses can guide the client in effective problem solving and decision making. ⁎Nutritional education.
  44. 44. 0 Q U E S T I O N S