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An	
  Ontology	
  Engineering	
  Approach	
  to	
  
Gamify	
  Collabora7ve	
  Learning	
  Scenarios	
  
Geiser	
  Chalco1,...
•  Introduc@on:	
  
– Concept	
  of	
  Gamifica@on	
  
– Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
•  Approach:	
...
Games	
  are	
  part	
  of	
  our	
  life	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
 ...
Games	
  are	
  part	
  of	
  our	
  life	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
 ...
Games	
  are	
  part	
  of	
  our	
  life	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
 ...
Why	
  does	
  everyone	
  enjoy	
  playing	
  games?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  ...
Why	
  does	
  everyone	
  enjoy	
  playing	
  games?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  ...
Why	
  does	
  everyone	
  enjoy	
  playing	
  games?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  ...
Why	
  does	
  everyone	
  enjoy	
  playing	
  games?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  ...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   10	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   11	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   12	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   13	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   14	
  
What	
  is	
  Gamifica@on?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   15	
  
The	
  ...
What	
  is	
  Gamifica@on?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   16	
  
The	
  ...
What	
  is	
  Gamifica@on?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   17	
  
The	
  ...
What	
  is	
  Gamifica@on?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   18	
  
The	
  ...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   19...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   20...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   21...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   22...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   23...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   24...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   25...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   26...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   27...
Does	
  Gamifica@on	
  really	
  work?	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   28...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Problem:	
  Gamifica@on	
  in	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenar...
Approach:	
  Ontological	
  Engineering	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   ...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
47	
  Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
  
Modeling
of Learner's
Developm...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
48	
  Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
  
Modeling
of Learner's
Developm...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
LA LB
Mo@va@on	
  and	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
...
I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Individual	
  mo@va@onal	
  goal	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  S...
I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Individual	
  mo@va@onal	
  goal	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  S...
I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Individual	
  mo@va@onal	
  goal	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  S...
Player	
  Role:	
  Playing	
  style	
  	
  (Ind.	
  Pers.	
  Trait)	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Ga...
Player	
  Role:	
  Playing	
  style	
  	
  (Ind.	
  Pers.	
  Trait)	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Ga...
Player	
  Role:	
  Playing	
  style	
  	
  (Ind.	
  Pers.	
  Trait)	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Ga...
Player	
  Role:	
  Models	
  of	
  player	
  types	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Sce...
Y<=I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Mo@va@onal	
  strategy	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenario...
Y<=I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Mo@va@onal	
  strategy	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenario...
Y<=I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Mo@va@onal	
  strategy	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenario...
Y<=I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Mo@va@onal	
  strategy	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenario...
Y<=I-­‐mot	
  goal:	
  Mo@va@onal	
  strategy	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenario...
I-­‐gameplay:	
  Gameplay	
  Strategy	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   70...
I-­‐gameplay:	
  Gameplay	
  Strategy	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   71...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
From	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  To	
  Gamified	
  CL	
  Scenario	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   76	
  
Applica@on	
  of	
  Ontological	
  St...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   77	
  
Player	
  Role	
  
Mo@va@on	
  stage	...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   78	
  
Player	
  Role	
  
Mo@va@on	
  stage	...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   79	
  
Applica@on	
  
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  ...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
  Gamify	
  CL	
  Scenarios	
   80	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Applica@on	
  
N1:	
  ...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
  
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
  
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
  
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
  
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I...
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
  
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I...
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I2:	
  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on...
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I2:	
  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on...
N1:	
  mastery	
  	
  
N2:	
  relatedness	
  
N3:	
  autonomy	
  
I1:	
  system-­‐orienta@on	
  
I2:	
  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on...
Conclusions	
  and	
  Future	
  Research	
  
Sept.	
  9,	
  2014	
   An	
  Ontology	
  to	
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  G.	
  C.,	
  Moreira,	
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  Isotani,	
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•  Mizoguchi,	
  R.,	
  Sunagawa,	
  E.,	
  Kozaki,	
  K.,	
  and	
  	
  Kitamura,	
  Y.	
  (2007).	
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An Ontology Engineering Approach to Gamify Collaborative Learning Scenarios

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An Ontology Engineering Approach to Gamify Collaborative Learning Scenarios

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An Ontology Engineering Approach to Gamify Collaborative Learning Scenarios

  1. 1. An  Ontology  Engineering  Approach  to   Gamify  Collabora7ve  Learning  Scenarios   Geiser  Chalco1,  Dilvan  A.  Moreira1,  Riichiro  Mizoguchi2,   and  Seiji  Isotani1   20th  Interna@onal  Conference  on  Collabora@on  and  Technology,  2014   1University  of  São  Paulo,  Brazil.   geiser@usp.br, {dilvan, sisotani}@icmc.usp.br 2Japan  Advanced  Ins@tute  of  Science  and  Technology,  Japan.   mizo@jaist.ac.jp
  2. 2. •  Introduc@on:   – Concept  of  Gamifica@on   – Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   •  Approach:  Ontological  Engineering   – Ontological  Structure  to  Describe  Gamified  CL   Scenarios   •  Applica@on  of  Ontological  Structure   •  Conclusions  and  Future  Research   Outline   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   2  
  3. 3. Games  are  part  of  our  life   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   3  
  4. 4. Games  are  part  of  our  life   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   4   Source:  Entertainment  SoUware  Associa@on's  (2014)  &  Huffingtonpost  (2014)  
  5. 5. Games  are  part  of  our  life   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   5   Source:  Entertainment  SoUware  Associa@on's  (2014)  &  Huffingtonpost  (2014)  
  6. 6. Why  does  everyone  enjoy  playing  games?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   6   Engagement   Sa@sfac@on  of   psychological  needs   Solve   problems    
  7. 7. Why  does  everyone  enjoy  playing  games?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   7   Engagement   Sa@sfac@on  of   psychological  needs   Solve   problems     Games  are  problem-­‐solving  ac7vi7es   (finding  a  way  to  destroy  the  other)   (feeling  successful)  
  8. 8. Why  does  everyone  enjoy  playing  games?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   8   Engagement   Sa@sfac@on  of   psychological  needs   Solve   problems     Games  are  problem-­‐solving  ac7vi7es   (finding  a  way  to  destroy  the  other)   (feeling  successful)   Games  are  problem-­‐solving  ac7vi7es   approached  with  a  playful  a@tude  (voluntary)     Game   Elements   (endogenous)  
  9. 9. Why  does  everyone  enjoy  playing  games?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   9   Engagement   Sa@sfac@on  of   psychological  needs   Solve   problems     Games  are  problem-­‐solving  ac7vi7es   (finding  a  way  to  destroy  the  other)   (feeling  successful)   Games  are  problem-­‐solving  ac7vi7es   approached  with  a  playful  a@tude  (voluntary)     Game   Elements   (endogenous)   must  probably  solve   more  problems  to  gain   points  and  to  feel  more   successful   Leaderboards  
  10. 10. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   10  
  11. 11. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   11  
  12. 12. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   12  
  13. 13. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   13  
  14. 14. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   14  
  15. 15. What  is  Gamifica@on?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   15   The  use  of  game  design  elements  in  non-­‐game  contexts  (Deterding  et   al.  2011)   Playful  Design  Pervasive  Games   Serious  Games   Gamifica@on  
  16. 16. What  is  Gamifica@on?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   16   The  use  of  game  design  elements  in  non-­‐game  contexts  (Deterding  et   al.  2011)   Playful  Design  Pervasive  Games   Serious  Games   Gamifica@on   Gaming   Playing  -­‐  Playfulness   Rule-­‐base  systems   that  are  design  to   be  playful  
  17. 17. What  is  Gamifica@on?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   17   The  use  of  game  design  elements  in  non-­‐game  contexts  (Deterding  et   al.  2011)   Playful  Design  Pervasive  Games   Serious  Games   Gamifica@on   Gaming   Playing  -­‐  Playfulness   Rule-­‐base  systems   that  are  design  to   be  playful   Elements  Whole   How  to  use  game   elements  in  non-­‐ game  applica@on  
  18. 18. What  is  Gamifica@on?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   18   The  use  of  game  design  elements  in  non-­‐game  contexts  (Deterding  et   al.  2011)   Playful  Design  Pervasive  Games   Serious  Games   Gamifica@on   Gaming   Playing  -­‐  Playfulness   Rule-­‐base  systems   that  are  design  to   be  playful   Elements  Whole   How  to  use  game   elements  in  non-­‐ game  applica@on   Design  of:   •  Game  interface   •  Game  mechanics   •  …  
  19. 19. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   19  
  20. 20. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   20  
  21. 21. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   21   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)  
  22. 22. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   22   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)   Reason:  misconcep@on  about  what  mo7vates  a   person  to  con@nue  using  a  gamified  applica@on  
  23. 23. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   23   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)   Reason:  misconcep@on  about  what  mo@vates  a  person  to  con@nue   using  a  game  or  gamified  applica@on  
  24. 24. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   24   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)   Reason:  misconcep@on  about  what  mo@vates  a  person  to  con@nue   using  a  game  or  gamified  applica@on  
  25. 25. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   25   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)   Reason:  misconcep@on  about  what  mo@vates  a  person  to  con@nue   using  a  game  or  gamified  applica@on   (Hamari,  et  al.  2014)   Results   Nro   Studies   All  tests  posi@ve   2   Posi7ve  results  in   part  of  the  tests   13   Only  descrip@ve   7  
  26. 26. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   26   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)   Reason:  misconcep@on  about  what  mo@vates  a  person  to  con@nue   using  a  game  or  gamified  applica@on   (Hamari,  et  al.  2014)   Results   Nro   Studies   All  tests  posi@ve   2   Posi7ve  results  in   part  of  the  tests   13   Only  descrip@ve   7   Context  is   an  essencial  
  27. 27. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   27   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)   Reason:  misconcep@on  about  what  mo@vates  a  person  to  con@nue   using  a  game  or  gamified  applica@on   (Hamari,  et  al.  2014)   Results   Nro   Studies   All  tests  posi@ve   2   Posi7ve  results  in   part  of  the  tests   13   Only  descrip@ve   7   Context  is   an  essencial  
  28. 28. Does  Gamifica@on  really  work?   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   28   Many  uses  of  gamifica@on  are  incorrect  or  poorly  designed  (Webb,  2013)   Reason:  misconcep@on  about  what  mo@vates  a  person  to  con@nue   using  a  game  or  gamified  applica@on   (Hamari,  et  al.  2014)   Results   Nro   Studies   All  tests  posi@ve   2   Posi7ve  results  in   part  of  the  tests   13   Only  descrip@ve   7   Context  is   an  essencial  
  29. 29. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   29  
  30. 30. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   30  
  31. 31. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   31  
  32. 32. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   32  
  33. 33. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   33  
  34. 34. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   34  
  35. 35. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   Make  social   connec@on   35  
  36. 36. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   Make  social   connec@on   Explore  new   challenges   36  
  37. 37. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   Make  social   connec@on   Explore  new   challenges   WIN!   37  
  38. 38. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   Make  social   connec@on   Explore  new   challenges   WIN!   38  
  39. 39. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   Make  social   connec@on   Explore  new   challenges   WIN!   Tests   39  
  40. 40. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   Make  social   connec@on   Explore  new   challenges   WIN!   Tests   40  
  41. 41. Problem:  Gamifica@on  in  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Instruc@onal   Designer   CSCL  Script   (IMS-­‐LD)   CL  Ac@vi@es  (interac@ons)         CL  Scenario   LA   LB   LC   nega@ve  aitudes   degrade  dynamics   nega7ve  learning  outcomes   +  demo7va7on   •  Neglect  his  personal  skills  to  complete  a  task  as  it  was  requested   •  Sense  of  obliga@on  imposes  by  the  script   Efficient+   Beneficial  +   I  don’t  want  to  game   points…  I  want  to   Make  social   connec@on   Explore  new   challenges   WIN!   Tests   Context  and  needs   of  learners  change   41  
  42. 42. Approach:  Ontological  Engineering   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   42   Ontologies   (Structures)   Knowledge   Bases   (Models)   Best  Prac7ces  and   Theories  of  Gamifica7on     Describe  informa@on   Support  for  the   development  of   Instr.  designer/   teacher/researcher   Ø design  gamified  CL  scenarios   Ø evaluate  the  prac@ces  and  theories   Ø es@mate  and  calculate  the  benefits   Ontology-­‐aware  systems    
  43. 43. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   43   Gamifed  CL  Scenario   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐role   Learner   You-­‐role   I-­‐goal   CL  process   *   G W(L)-­‐goal   Common  goal   *   Interact  Parern   Teaching-­‐learning  process   *  
  44. 44. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   44   Gamifed  CL  Scenario   Modeling of Learner's Development Learner  Growth  Model   (Isotani  &  Mizoguchi,  2007)   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐role   Learner   You-­‐role   I-­‐goal   CL  process   *   G W(L)-­‐goal   Common  goal   *   Interact  Parern   Teaching-­‐learning  process   *  
  45. 45. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   45   Gamifed  CL  Scenario   Modeling of Learner's Development Learner  Growth  Model   (Isotani  &  Mizoguchi,  2007)   Formation of Effective Groups Learners   Effec@ve  Groups   (Isotani  et  al.,  2009)   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐role   Learner   You-­‐role   I-­‐goal   CL  process   *   G W(L)-­‐goal   Common  goal   *   Interact  Parern   Teaching-­‐learning  process   *  
  46. 46. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   46   Gamifed  CL  Scenario   Modeling of Learner's Development Learner  Growth  Model   (Isotani  &  Mizoguchi,  2007)   Formation of Effective Groups Learners   Effec@ve  Groups   (Isotani  et  al.,  2009)   Design of CL Scenarios LA LB Tutor Tutee ü Learning  Strategies   ü Learning  Goals   ü Group  Goals   ü Roles   (Isotani  et  al.,  2013)   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐role   Learner   You-­‐role   I-­‐goal   CL  process   *   G W(L)-­‐goal   Common  goal   *   Interact  Parern   Teaching-­‐learning  process   *  
  47. 47. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   47  Sept.  9,  2014   Modeling of Learner's Development Formation of Effective Groups Design of CL Scenarios Apply Gamification CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐role   Learner   You-­‐role   I-­‐goal   CL  process   *   G W(L)-­‐goal   Common  goal   *   Interact  Parern   Teaching-­‐learning  process   *   LA LB Tutor Tutee “the  use  of  game  design   elements  in  non-­‐game  …”     Gamifed  CL  Scenario   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Unlockable   System   Point   System   Badge   System  
  48. 48. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   48  Sept.  9,  2014   Modeling of Learner's Development Formation of Effective Groups Design of CL Scenarios Apply Gamification CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐role   Learner   You-­‐role   I-­‐goal   CL  process   *   G W(L)-­‐goal   Common  goal   *   Interact  Parern   Teaching-­‐learning  process   *   LA LB Tutor Tutee “the  use  of  game  design   elements  in  non-­‐game  …”     •  What  game  mechanics  must  be   used  to  mo7vate  the  learners?   Gamifed  CL  Scenario   Only:  design  of  game  mechanics   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   Unlockable   System   Point   System   Badge   System  
  49. 49. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   49   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction
  50. 50. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   50   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements
  51. 51. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   51   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements change  or  intensify   his  needs  
  52. 52. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   52   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements change  or  intensify   his  needs   The  proper  combina@on  of  different  game  elements   provides  an  adequate  environment  for  all  learners.  
  53. 53. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   53   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements change  or  intensify   his  needs   The  proper  combina@on  of  different  game  elements   provides  an  adequate  environment  for  all  learners.   •  Game  mechanics(GM):  inputs  (CL  scenario)  -­‐>  output  (gaming)   Game mechanics
  54. 54. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   54   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements change  or  intensify   his  needs   The  proper  combina@on  of  different  game  elements   provides  an  adequate  environment  for  all  learners.   •  Game  mechanics(GM):  inputs  (CL  scenario)  -­‐>  output  (gaming)   Game mechanics Point  System  
  55. 55. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   55   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements change  or  intensify   his  needs   The  proper  combina@on  of  different  game  elements   provides  an  adequate  environment  for  all  learners.   •  Game  mechanics(GM):  inputs  (CL  scenario)  -­‐>  output  (gaming)   Game mechanics Point  System   Social  Connec@on  
  56. 56. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   56   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements change  or  intensify   his  needs   The  proper  combina@on  of  different  game  elements   provides  an  adequate  environment  for  all  learners.   •  Game  mechanics(GM):  inputs  (CL  scenario)  -­‐>  output  (gaming)   Game mechanics Point  System   Social  Connec@on   demonstrate  mastery   relatedness  
  57. 57. LA LB Mo@va@on  and  Game  Mechanics   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   57   Mo@va@on  is  the  process  used  to  allocate  energy  to  maximize  the   sa7sfac7on  of  needs  (Pritchard  &  Ashwood,  2008).   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements change  or  intensify   his  needs   The  proper  combina@on  of  different  game  elements   provides  an  adequate  environment  for  all  learners.   •  Game  mechanics(GM):  inputs  (CL  scenario)  -­‐>  output  (gaming)   Game mechanics Point  System   Social  Connec@on   demonstrate  mastery   relatedness   Every  GM  is  Customized  (ind.needs)   -­‐>  Increase  his  liking  for  CL  Ac@vi@es   Internaliza@on   of  mo@va@on  
  58. 58. I-­‐mot  goal:  Individual  mo@va@onal  goal   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   58   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Ind. motivational goal Internaliza@on  of  mo@va@on     Sa@sfac@on  of  needs   *   An  individual  mo7va7onal  goal  represents  the  expected  changes  on   the  mind  of  a  learner  using  game  mechanics.       Game mechanics
  59. 59. I-­‐mot  goal:  Individual  mo@va@onal  goal   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   59   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Ind. motivational goal Internaliza@on  of  mo@va@on     Sa@sfac@on  of  needs   *   An  individual  mo7va7onal  goal  represents  the  expected  changes  on   the  mind  of  a  learner  using  game  mechanics.       •  Amo@va@on  -­‐>  External  Reg.   •  (External  Mot.  -­‐>  Intrinsic  Mot.)   •  External  Reg.  -­‐>  Introjected  Reg.   •  Introjected  Reg.  -­‐>  Iden@fied  Reg.   •  Iden@fied  Reg.  -­‐>  Integrated  Reg.   •  Integrated  Reg.  -­‐>  Intrinsic  Reg.   Self-­‐determina@on  Theory   (Deci  &  Ryan,  2010)   Game mechanics
  60. 60. I-­‐mot  goal:  Individual  mo@va@onal  goal   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   60   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Ind. motivational goal Internaliza@on  of  mo@va@on     Sa@sfac@on  of  needs   *   An  individual  mo7va7onal  goal  represents  the  expected  changes  on   the  mind  of  a  learner  using  game  mechanics.       •  Sa@sfac@on  of  Autonomy   •  Sa@sfac@on  of  Relatedness   •  Sa@sfac@on  of  Competence   •  Sa@sfac@on  of  Purpose   •  Sa@sfac@on  of  Mastery   •  Amo@va@on  -­‐>  External  Reg.   •  (External  Mot.  -­‐>  Intrinsic  Mot.)   •  External  Reg.  -­‐>  Introjected  Reg.   •  Introjected  Reg.  -­‐>  Iden@fied  Reg.   •  Iden@fied  Reg.  -­‐>  Integrated  Reg.   •  Integrated  Reg.  -­‐>  Intrinsic  Reg.   Self-­‐determina@on  Theory   (Deci  &  Ryan,  2010)   Self-­‐determina@on  Theory   (Deci  &  Ryan,  2010)   Pink  Dan  (2011)   Competence  Relatedness  Autonomy   Purpose   Autonomy  Mastery   Game mechanics
  61. 61. Player  Role:  Playing  style    (Ind.  Pers.  Trait)   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   61   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) Models  of:   •  7  Player  Types  (Laws,  2002)   •  4  Player  Types  (Bartle,  2004)   •  8  Player  Types  (Marczewski,  2013)   …  
  62. 62. Player  Role:  Playing  style    (Ind.  Pers.  Trait)   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   62   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) Models  of:   •  7  Player  Types  (Laws,  2002)   •  4  Player  Types  (Bartle,  2004)   •  8  Player  Types  (Marczewski,  2013)   …   The  playing  styles  are  individual  personality  traits  that  define  the   preferences  of  a  person  when  he/she  is  playing  a  game.  
  63. 63. Player  Role:  Playing  style    (Ind.  Pers.  Trait)   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   63   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) Models  of:   •  7  Player  Types  (Laws,  2002)   •  4  Player  Types  (Bartle,  2004)   •  8  Player  Types  (Marczewski,  2013)   …   The  playing  styles  are  individual  personality  traits  that  define  the   preferences  of  a  person  when  he/she  is  playing  a  game.   user-­‐orienta5on   (interac5ng  with  others)   system-­‐orienta5on   (exploring  the  game)   Interac5on-­‐orienta5on   (interac5ng  inside)   act-­‐orienta5on   (having  influence  outside)   (Socializer)   (Explorer)   (Achiever)   (Killer)   (Bartle,  2004)   4  Player  Types  
  64. 64. Player  Role:  Models  of  player  types   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   64   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) LA LB Player  Role   Mo@va@on  stage   Necessary  condi@on   *   Psychological  need   Necessary  condi@on   *   Playing  style   Desired  condi@on   *   Player Role A  Player  Role  defines  the  necessary  and  desired  condi7ons  that  a   learner  must  have  to  play  a  player  type.    
  65. 65. Y<=I-­‐mot  goal:  Mo@va@onal  strategy   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   65   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) LA LB Player Role The  Y<=I-­‐mot  goal  is  the  mo7va7onal  strategy  that  will  be  used  by   game  elements  to  enhance  the  learning  strategy  employed  by  a   learner  in  focus.   Motivational Strategy Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Enhance   (learning  strategy)  
  66. 66. Y<=I-­‐mot  goal:  Mo@va@onal  strategy   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   66   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) LA LB Player Role The  Y<=I-­‐mot  goal  is  the  mo7va7onal  strategy  that  will  be  used  by   game  elements  to  enhance  the  learning  strategy  employed  by  a   learner  in  focus.   Motivational Strategy Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Enhance   (learning  strategy)   influence  the  design  of  
  67. 67. Y<=I-­‐mot  goal:  Mo@va@onal  strategy   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   67   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) LA LB Player Role The  Y<=I-­‐mot  goal  is  the  mo7va7onal  strategy  that  will  be  used  by   game  elements  to  enhance  the  learning  strategy  employed  by  a   learner  in  focus.   Motivational Strategy Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Enhance   (learning  strategy)   Learner   I-­‐player  role   influence  the  design  of  
  68. 68. Y<=I-­‐mot  goal:  Mo@va@onal  strategy   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   68   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) LA LB Player Role The  Y<=I-­‐mot  goal  is  the  mo7va7onal  strategy  that  will  be  used  by   game  elements  to  enhance  the  learning  strategy  employed  by  a   learner  in  focus.   Motivational Strategy Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Enhance   (learning  strategy)   Learner   You-­‐player  role   Learner   I-­‐player  role   influence  the  design  of  
  69. 69. Y<=I-­‐mot  goal:  Mo@va@onal  strategy   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   69   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) LA LB Player Role The  Y<=I-­‐mot  goal  is  the  mo7va7onal  strategy  that  will  be  used  by   game  elements  to  enhance  the  learning  strategy  employed  by  a   learner  in  focus.   Motivational Strategy Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Enhance   (learning  strategy)   Learner   You-­‐player  role   Learner   I-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   I-­‐mot  goal   *   influence  the  design  of  
  70. 70. I-­‐gameplay:  Gameplay  Strategy   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   70   Gameplay Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) Player Role Motivational Strategy LA LB The  gameplay  strategy  is  the  ra@onal  arrangement  among  player   roles,  mo7va7onal  strategies  and  game  mechanics.   I-­‐gameplay   P-­‐Player  Role   Primary  focus   1   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   S<=P-­‐mot  goal   1   Game  mechanics   What  use   *  
  71. 71. I-­‐gameplay:  Gameplay  Strategy   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   71   Gameplay Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) Player Role Motivational Strategy LA LB The  gameplay  strategy  is  the  ra@onal  arrangement  among  player   roles,  mo7va7onal  strategies  and  game  mechanics.   I-­‐gameplay   P-­‐Player  Role   Primary  focus   1   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   S<=P-­‐mot  goal   1   Game  mechanics   What  use   *   Models  of   Player  Types   classify   &  decide  
  72. 72. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   72   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   CL  process   *   Y<=I-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Gamified  CL  Scenario   is  a   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Mo@va@onal  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *  
  73. 73. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   73   Enhance   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   CL  process   *   Y<=I-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Gamified  CL  Scenario   is  a   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Mo@va@onal  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *  
  74. 74. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   74   Enhance   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   CL  process   *   Y<=I-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Gamified  CL  Scenario   Player  Role   Mo@va@on  stage   Necessary  condi@on   *   Psychological  need   Necessary  condi@on   *   Playing  style   Desired  condi@on   *   is  a   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Mo@va@onal  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *  
  75. 75. From  CL  Scenario  To  Gamified  CL  Scenario   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   75   Enhance   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   CL  process   *   Y<=I-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Gamified  CL  Scenario   Player  Role   Mo@va@on  stage   Necessary  condi@on   *   Psychological  need   Necessary  condi@on   *   Playing  style   Desired  condi@on   *   is  a   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Mo@va@onal  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *   the  proper  player  types  and  game   mechanics  for  each  learner   Applica@on   LA LB
  76. 76. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   76   Applica@on  of  Ontological  Structure   (Socializer)   (Killer)   (Explorer)   Player  Types   (Bartle,  2004)   (Achiever)  
  77. 77. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   77   Player  Role   Mo@va@on  stage   Necessary  condi@on   *   Psychological  need   Necessary  condi@on   *   Playing  style   Desired  condi@on   *   Enhance   Y<=I-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Gamified  CL  Scenario   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Mo@va@onal  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *              
  78. 78. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   78   Player  Role   Mo@va@on  stage   Necessary  condi@on   *   Psychological  need   Necessary  condi@on   *   Playing  style   Desired  condi@on   *   Enhance   Y<=I-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Gamified  CL  Scenario   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Mo@va@onal  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *              
  79. 79. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   79   Applica@on   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   LA LB psychological  needs   N2  N1   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   (1)  Select  the  scenarios  that  sa@sfy  the   learners’  needs  by  looking  the  ind.  mot.  goal  
  80. 80. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   80         Applica@on   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   LA LB psychological  needs   N2  N1   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   sa7sfies  
  81. 81. Sept.  9,  2014   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   81   Applica@on   LA LB psychological  needs   N2  N1   (2)  Checking  the  necessary  condi@ons  to  play  a  player   type,  and  seing  the  priority  using  the  desired  condi@ons  
  82. 82. Sept.  9,  2014   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   82   Applica@on   LA LB psychological  needs   N2  N1        ok   more  priority   ok   ok   ind.  pers.  traits   I2  I1               sa7sfies  
  83. 83. Sept.  9,  2014   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   (3)  Seing  the  player  type  if  no  one   constraint  is  violated  in  the  mot.  strategy   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   83   Applica@on   LA LB more  priority        
  84. 84. Sept.  9,  2014   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   84   Applica@on   LA LB more  priority              
  85. 85. Sept.  9,  2014   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   (4)  Seing  the  proper  game  mechanics   using  the  structure  gameplay   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   85   Applica@on   LA LB more  priority        
  86. 86. N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   86   Applica@on   LA LB psychological  needs   N3  N1        
  87. 87. N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   87   Applica@on   LA LB      ok   more  priority   ok   ok               ind.  pers.  traits   I3  I1   psychological  needs   N3  N1  
  88. 88. N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   I1:  system-­‐orienta@on   I2:  ac@ng-­‐orienta@on   I3:  interac@ng-­‐orienta@on   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   88         Applica@on   LA LB more  priority                    
  89. 89. Conclusions  and  Future  Research   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   89   •  We  proposed  an  ontology  engineering  approach  to  overcome  the   difficul@es  to  apply  gamifica@on  in  CL  scenarios;   •  We  made  the  connec@on  among  psychological  needs,  playing  styles   and  game  mechanics  to  define  our  ontology;   •  We  shown  an  example  of  applica@on  using   the  current  version  of  our  approach;   Gameplay Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) Player Role Motivational Strategy
  90. 90. Conclusions  and  Future  Research   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   90   •  We  proposed  an  ontology  engineering  approach  to  overcome  the   difficul@es  to  apply  gamifica@on  in  CL  scenarios;   •  We  made  the  connec@on  among  psychological  needs,  playing  styles   and  game  mechanics  to  define  our  ontology;   •  We  shown  an  example  of  applica@on  using   the  current  version  of  our  approach;   Gameplay Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Playing styles (Ind. traits) Player Role Motivational Strategy Affective states Game dynamics Game interfaces •  Future  works:  We  will  complete   the  modeling  of  Gamified  CL   Scenarios,  including:   •  Design  of  game  dynamics   •  Design  of  game  interfaces   •  Design  of  game  models   •  …  
  91. 91. •  Challco,  G.  C.,  Moreira,  D.,  Mizoguchi,  R.,  &  Isotani,  S.  (2014,  January).  Towards   an  Ontology  for  Gamifying  Collabora@ve  Learning  Scenarios.  In  Intelligent   Tutoring  Systems  (pp.  404-­‐409).  Springer  Interna@onal  Publishing.   •  Schell,  J.  (2008).  The  Art  of  Game  Design:  A  book  of  lenses.  CRC  Press.   •  Deterding,  S.,  Dixon,  D.,  Khaled,  R.,  &  Nacke,  L.  (2011,  September).  From  game   design  elements  to  gamefulness:  defining  gamifica@on.  In  Proceedings  of  the   15th  Interna5onal  Academic  MindTrek  Conference:  Envisioning  Future  Media   Environments  (pp.  9-­‐15).  ACM.   •  Webb,  E.  N.  (2013).  Gamifica@on:  When  It  Works,  When  It  Doesn’t.  In  Design,   User  Experience,  and  Usability.  Health,  Learning,  Playing,  Cultural,  and  Cross-­‐ Cultural  User  Experience  (pp.  608–614).  Springer.   •  Hamari,  J.,  Koivisto,  J.,  &  Sarsa,  H.  (2014,  January).  Does  Gamifica@on  Work?  -­‐  A   Literature  Review  of  Empirical  Studies  on  Gamifica@on.  In  System  Sciences   (HICSS),  2014  47th  Hawaii  Interna5onal  Conference  on  (pp.  3025-­‐3034).  IEEE.   •  Isotani,  S.,  &  Mizoguchi,  R.  (2007).  Deployment  of  ontologies  for  an  effec@ve   design  of  collabora@ve  learning  scenarios.  In  Groupware:  Design,   Implementa@on,  and  Use  (pp.  223–238).  Springer.   References   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   91  
  92. 92. •  Isotani,  S.,  Inaba,  A.,  Ikeda,  M.,  &  Mizoguchi,  R.  (2009).  An  ontology  engineering   approach  to  the  realiza@on  of  theory-­‐driven  group  forma@on.  Interna@onal   Journal  of  Computer-­‐Supported  Collabora@ve  Learning,  4(4),  445–478.     •  Isotani,  S.,  Mizoguchi,  R.,  Isotani,  S.,  Capeli,  O.  M.,  Isotani,  N.,  De  Albuquerque,  A.   R.,  ...  &  Jaques,  P.  (2013).  A  Seman@c  Web-­‐based  authoring  tool  to  facilitate  the   planning  of  collabora@ve  learning  scenarios  compliant  with  learning  theories.   Computers  &  Educa5on,  63,  267-­‐284.   •  Pritchard,  R.,  &  Ashwood,  E.  (2008).  Managing  mo5va5on:  A  manager's  guide  to   diagnosing  and  improving  mo5va5on.  Psychology  Press.   •  Deci,  E.  L.,  &  Ryan,  R.  M.  (2010).  Self-­‐Determina5on.  John  Wiley  &  Sons,  Inc..   •  Pink,  D.  H.  (2011).  Drive:  The  surprising  truth  about  what  mo5vates  us.  Penguin..     •  Laws,  R.  D.  (2002).  Robin's  Laws  of  good  game  mastering.  Steve  Jackson  Games.   •  Bartle,  R.  A.  (2004).  Designing  virtual  worlds.  New  Riders   •  Marczewski,  A.  (2013).  Gamifica5on:  a  simple  introduc5on.  Andrzej  Marczewski.   References   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   92  
  93. 93. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   93   References   Logo  3  
  94. 94. Ontological  Structure  for  CL  Scenarios   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   94   CL  Scenario   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐goal   W(A)-­‐goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐role   Learner   You-­‐role   I-­‐goal   CL  process   *   G W(L)-­‐goal   Common  goal   *   Interact  Parern   Teaching-­‐learning  process   *   I-Role (Role Concept) Learning Strategy (Context) depend on Learner (Potential Player) playing I-Role-1 Geiser (Role-playing thing) Learning by Teaching Tutor (Role-Holder) Tutor-1 The  model  of  roles  (Mizoguchi  et  al.,   2007)  proposes  the  division  of  Role  in:   •  Role  Concept   •  Poten@al  Player   •  Role-­‐playing  thing   •  Role  Holder  
  95. 95. I-­‐mot  goal:  Internaliza@on  of  mo@va@on   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   95   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Self-­‐determina@on  Theory  (Deci  &  Ryan,  2010)  …  from  …  to   LA LB I-­‐mot  goal   Internaliza@on  of  mo@va@on   Ini@al  stage   Goal  stage   Mo@va@on  stage   Mo@va@on  stage   is  a   is  a            Sa@sfac@on  of  need       *  
  96. 96. I-­‐mot  goal:  Sa@sfac@on  of  needs   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   96   Behavior Needs Satisfaction Game elements Game mechanics Ind. motivation goal Self-­‐determina@on  Theory   (Deci  &  Ryan,  2010)   LA LB I-­‐mot  goal   Internaliza@on  of  mo@va@on   is  a   is  a   *   Ini@al  stage   without  need   Psychological  need   Goal  stage            Sa@sfac@on  of  need       Purpose   Autonomy  Mastery   Competence   Relatedness  Autonomy   Pink  Dan  (2011)  
  97. 97. Applica@on  of  Ontological  Structure   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   97   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Mo@va@on  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Applica@on   N1:  mastery     N2:  relatedness   N3:  autonomy   Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *   Enhance   Gamified  CL  Scenario   LA LB (2)  checking  the  necessary  condi@ons  to  play   the  player  roles  and  seing  the  priority  of   scenarios  employing  the  desired  condi@ons   psychological  needs   N2  N1         Can  play   ind.  pers.  traits   I2  I1   Set  priority   I1:  interact-­‐orienta@on   I2:  user-­‐orienta@on   I3:  system-­‐orienta@on   Can  play   Set  priority   psychological  needs   ind.  pers.  traits   I3  I1   N3  N1  
  98. 98. Applica@on  of  Ontological  Structure   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   98   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Mo@va@on  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Applica@on   S1:  Scenario  for  socializa@on   S2:  Scenario  for  achievement   S3:  Scenario  for  explora@on   Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *   Enhance   Gamified  CL  Scenario   LA LB (3)  checking  the  constraint  for  all  learners,  and  seing     the  player  type  if  no  one  constraint  is  violated  in  the     selected  scenarios         Can  play   Set  player  role   S1  à  S2   S3  à  S2   priority  stack  for  LA   priority  stack  for  LB   Selected  scenarios  
  99. 99. Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   99                           more  priority   less  priority  more  priority   less  priority   ok   ok   ok   ok  ok   ok   ok   ok   ok   L(A)   L(A)  L(B)   L(B)   L(B)  can’t  play  the   socializer  role              
  100. 100. Applica@on  of  Ontological  Structure   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   100   Y<=I-­‐goal   I-­‐mot  goal   Y<=I-­‐mot  goal   Learning  Strategy   *   Mo@va@on  Strategy   *   Learner   I-­‐player  role   Learner   You-­‐player  role   I-­‐mot  goal   *   G Applica@on   S1:  Scenario  for  socializa@on   S2:  Scenario  for  achievement   S3:  Scenario  for  explora@on   Gameplay  strategy   I-­‐gameplay  *   Game  mechanics   What  use   *   Enhance   Gamified  CL  Scenario   LA LB S1  à  S2   S3  à  S2   priority  stack  for  LA   priority  stack  for  LB   achiever   explorer   Se@ng               (4)  seing  the  proper  game  mechanics  for  all  learners   using  the  selected  scenarios  and  player  types  
  101. 101. •  Mizoguchi,  R.,  Sunagawa,  E.,  Kozaki,  K.,  and    Kitamura,  Y.  (2007).  The  model  of   roles  within  an  ontology  development  tool:  Hozo.  Applied  Ontology,  2(2):159–   179.     References   Sept.  9,  2014   An  Ontology  to  Gamify  CL  Scenarios   101  

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