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Economic importance and Phenological description of maize

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Phenology is the qualitative and quantitative description of a plant’s life cycle from seed to seed.

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Economic importance and Phenological description of maize

  1. 1. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND PHENOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) Malik Ghulam Asghar Department of Agronomy Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. Introduction Scientific name : Zea mays L. Family : Poaceae (Gramineae) Zea is an ancient Greek word which means “sustaining life” Mays is a word from Taino language meaning “life giver” (Kumar & Jhariya, 2013)
  4. 4. Introduction Chemical composition of maize kernel Moisture contents 12.2% Carbohydrate 75.9% Ash (Minerals) 1.2% Protein 5.8% Crude fibre 0.8% Ether 4.1% (Shah, et al., 2015; Cortez et al., 1972)
  5. 5. Maize status in Pakistan 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Wheat Rice Cotton Sugarcane Maize Area(000ha) Crops Cultivated area of Pakistan (GOP, 2018)
  6. 6. Maize status in World 5702 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 Production(000Tonnes) Countries Maize production in world (USDA, 2018; Anon, 2018)
  7. 7. Maize status in World 4640 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Yield(kgha-1) Countries Maize yield in world (kg ha-1) (USDA, 2018; Anon, 2018)
  8. 8. Economic Importance Maize is a good source of: • Carbohydrates • Vitamins • Minerals • Dietary fiber (Rouf, et al., 2016) Maize is cultivated for fodder and grain purposes.
  9. 9. Economic Importance Maize fodder Green plants are chopped and feed to animals as fresh or silage. (Indriani, et al., 2015)
  10. 10. Economic Importance Maize grain 1. Corn syrup (cosmetics, edible products) 2. Corn starch (thickener, bio-degradable plastic) 3. Corn oil (used in cooking, margarine) 4. Glue (used in industries) 5. Ethanol (used as solvent in varnish and paints) (Gwirtz, et al., 2014)
  11. 11. Phenology “Phenology is the qualitative and quantitative description of a plant’s life cycle from seed to seed.”
  12. 12. Qualitative description Development ▪ It includes division of plant life cycle into distinct stages, such as, –Emergence –Seedling development –Tasseling –Silking –Maturity Quantitative description Growth ▪ It includes rate of dry matter accumulation, it can be assessed by: –LAI –LAD –TDM –CGR –NAR Phenology Phenology of plant can be described in two aspects.
  13. 13. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  14. 14. To study phenological development and growth analysis of maize (Zea mays L.) an experiment was conducted at Research area of Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Materials and Methods
  15. 15. Field Preparation Field was ploughed three times with cultivator followed by planking. Materials and Methods
  16. 16. Field Preparation Materials and Methods
  17. 17. Field Preparation Materials and Methods
  18. 18. Field Preparation Materials and Methods
  19. 19. Sowing P X P = 9.0 inches 0.75 feet 22.5 cm R X R = 30 inches 2.50 feet 75.0 cm Materials and Methods
  20. 20. Development parameters (Qualitative) Observation of following phenological stages according to calendar days: 1) Emergence 2) Tasseling 3) Silking 4) Maturity Parameters studied
  21. 21. Growth Parameters (Quantitative) 1) Leaf area index (LAI) 2) Leaf area duration (days) 3) Total dry matter (g m-2) 4) Crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1) 5) Net assimilation rate (g m-2 day-1) Parameters studied
  22. 22. Allometric Parameters 1) Plant height (cm) 2) Root length (cm) 3) Number of leaves 4) Shoot fresh weight (g) 5) Shoot dry weight (g) 6) Root fresh weight (g) 7) Root dry weight (g) Parameters studied
  23. 23. Leaf area index (LAI) ▪ Leaf area was measured manually with interval of 15 days. ▪ One plant was harvested, all leaf were removed from plant. ▪ Weight of one leaf was taken, then its length was recorded, width was taken from top, mid and bottom then averaged. Leaf area = Length ✕ mean width (cm2) Leaf area index was calculated by the following formula: Leaf area index = Leaf area Land area Procedure to record parameters (Hunt, 1978)
  24. 24. Leaf area duration (days) Leaf area was calculated by the formula given below: LAD = LAI1 + LAI2 2 ✕ (T2 – T1) where, LAI1 = leaf area index at T1 LAI2 = leaf area index at T2 T1 = time of first observation T2 = time of second observation Procedure to record parameters (Hunt, 1978)
  25. 25. Crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1) Crop growth rate is dry weight accumulated per unit land area per unit time. CGR = W2 − W1 T2 − T1 (g m-2 day-1) where, W2 = total dry weight at T2 W1 = total dry weight at T1 T1 = time of first observation T2 = time of second observation Procedure to record parameters (Hunt, 1978)
  26. 26. Net assimilation rate (g m-2 day-1) Net assimilation rate was determined by the formula given below: NAR = TDM LAD (g m-2 day-1) where, TDM = total dry matter LAD = leaf area duration Procedure to record parameters (Hunt, 1978)
  27. 27. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  28. 28. Phenological description Germination ▪ Maize seeds are monocotyledons. ▪ Mode of germination was hypogeal.
  29. 29. Phenological description Leaf structure and orientation ▪ Maize leaves are long with parallel leaf venation. ▪ Number of leaves vary from 8 to 20.
  30. 30. Phenological description
  31. 31. Phenological description Root system ▪ Maize has profusely branched, fine root system. ▪ Root can go deeper up to 1.5 meters.
  32. 32. Phenological description Emergence phase ▪ Emergence of maize completed in 7 DAS.
  33. 33. Phenological description Vegetative development phase ▪ 3rd leaf stage 15 DAS ▪ 6th leaf stage 28 DAS ▪ 8th leaf stage 39 DAS
  34. 34. Phenological description Tasseling Tassel is male inflorescence, present on top of plant. Tassel emerged 62 – 67 DAS.
  35. 35. Phenological description Silking Ear is female inflorescence, present in between of leaves. Silking occurred 65 – 72 DAS.
  36. 36. Phenological description Milking phase It occurred 90 DAS. Dough phase It occurred 100 DAS. Dent phase It occurred 110 DAS.
  37. 37. Results and discussion 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 Plantheight(cm) Days after sowing (DAS) Plant height of maize (cm)
  38. 38. Results and discussion 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 Leafcount Days after sowing (DAS) Leaf score of maize (cm)
  39. 39. Results and discussion 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 gm-2 Days after sowing (DAS) Shoot FW and DW of maize (g m-2) Shoot FW Shoot DW
  40. 40. Results and discussion 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 LAI Days after sowing (DAS) Leaf area index of maize (LAI)
  41. 41. Results and discussion 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 15-30 30-45 45-60 60-75 75-90 90-105 LAD(days) Days after sowing (DAS) Leaf area duration of maize (days)
  42. 42. Results and discussion 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 15-30 30-45 45-60 60-75 75-90 90-105 CGR(gm-2day-1) Days after sowing (DAS) Crop growth rate of maize (g m-2 day-1)
  43. 43. Results and discussion 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 15-30 30-45 45-60 60-75 75-90 90-105 NAR(gm-2day-1) Days after sowing (DAS) Net assimilation rate of maize (g m-2 day-1)
  44. 44. Dry sample of maize stem Dry sample of maize leaves Results and discussion
  45. 45. References Anonymous, 2018. www.indexmundi.com [Accessed: 10 July, 2018] CortÚz, A., Wild-Altamirano, CB, Braham, JE and BÚhar, M., 1972. Contribution to the technology of corn flour. Nutritional improvement of corn . Institute of Nutrition of Centro AmÚrica y Panamá, Guatemala (Guatemala) AID, Washington (USA) GOP, 2018. Economic survey of Pakistan. Economic Advisor’s Wing, Finance Division, Islamabad. Gwirtz, J.A. and Garcia‐Casal, M.N., 2014. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1312(1), pp.66-75. Han, J.J., Jackson, D. and Martienssen, R., 2012. Pod corn is caused by rearrangement at the Tunicate1 locus. The Plant Cell, pp.tpc-112. Hunt, R., 1978. Growth analysis of individual plants. Plant Growth Analysis. Indriani, N. P.; Yuwariah, Y.; Rochana, A.; Djuned, H., 2015. Effect of intercropping between corn (Zea mays) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) with arbuscular mycorrhizal (amf) on the yield and forage mineral content. Pak. J. Nutr., 14 (6): 362-365
  46. 46. References Kumar, D. and Jhariya, A.N., 2013. Nutritional, medicinal and economical importance of corn: A mini review. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ISSN, 2319 (2), pp. 7-8. Linda Campbell Franklin, "Corn," in Andrew F. Smith (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013 (pp. 551–558), p. 553. Rouf Shah, T., Prasad, K. and Kumar, P., 2016. Maize—A potential source of human nutrition and health: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1), p.1166995. Shah, T.R., Prasad, K. and Kumar, P., 2015. Studies on physicochemical and functional characteristics of asparagus bean flour and maize flour. In Conceptual frame work & innovations in agroecology and food sciences (pp. 103-105). New Delhi: Krishi Sanskriti Publications. [Accessed: 10 July, 2018] USDA, F., 2018. World agricultural production. United States Department of Agriculture. [Accessed: 10 July, 2018]
  47. 47. Thank you ! Any Question ..?

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