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Individual Differences- Age.pdf

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Individual Differences- Age.pdf

  1. 1. Instructor: Pho Phuong Dung, PhD Group 4: Phạm Phúc Khánh Minh Võ Thị Thanh Thư Đỗ Thị Bạch Vân AGE DIFFERENCES HCMC University of Social Sciences and Humanities Faculty of English Linguistics and Literature
  2. 2. OUTLINE Summary An article review Applications
  3. 3. SUMMARY 1. Critical Period Hypothesis vs. Sensitive Period Hypothesis 2. Age differences in language learning 2.1. Learning speed vs. Learning attainment 2.2. Linguistic abilities 3. Explanations for adults’ learning incapability
  4. 4. Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH)  A limited developmental period during which it is possible to acquire L1 or L2 to native-like levels.  After this period  learning decline Birdsong (1999)
  5. 5. Sensitive Period Hypothesis (SPH)  A gradual period of declining  Allowance for greater variation in attainment Long (1990)
  6. 6. CPH: discontinuity – a dramatic drop-off SPH: sensitivity – a gradual decline in learning
  7. 7.  Larsen-Freeman and Long (1991): adults do quite well on most tests measuring language learning speed. => Learning speed: adults > children Age differences in language learning
  8. 8.  Snow and Hoefnagle-Hohle (1978): adolescents outperformed children on tests given after three months of residence in Netherlands, but after ten months the children had caught of on most measures. => Learning attainment: children > adults Age differences in language learning
  9. 9. Age differences in language learning  Flege (1999, 2000, 2001) and other researchers: a foreign accent can occur even when exposure begins at age 6 or earlier. => Phonology: children > adults
  10. 10.  Johnson and Newport (1991): learners’ capabilities for acquiring the syntax of a second language decline with age. => Syntax: children > adults  Bialystock (1997): age of onset of learning does not have significant effects. => Syntax: children >< adults Age differences in language learning
  11. 11. Children Adults Speed - + Attainment + - Phonology + - Syntax +/- +/-
  12. 12.  Social psychology  not wanting to give up their accent  being unwilling to lower their ego  Cognitive factors  being too sensible when learning L2  Neurological changes  losing plasticity or flexibility  Language input  not being exposed to L2 input as well as children Possible explanations for adults’ learning incapability
  13. 13. No single explanations can account for age differences in L2 learning.
  14. 14. AN ARTICLE REVIEW 1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Findings
  15. 15. Online Supplement to Proceedings of the 33rd Boston University Conference on Language Development Sep2011, Vol. 54 Issue 3, p38 AGE EFFECT ON THE ACQUISITION OF SECOND LANGUAGE PROSODY Becky H. Huang & Sun-Ah Jun University of California, Los Angeles
  16. 16. Aims:  to explore the effect of age on the acquisition of L2 prosody among Mandarin speaking immigrants Prosody is the rhythmic and intonational aspect of language. Introduction
  17. 17.  Is there an age effect on the ultimate outcome of various aspects of second language prosody?  If so, which prosodic features are impacted by the age effect? Research questions
  18. 18. Participants 10 native speakers (NS) of American English (control group) 30 non-native speakers who:  spoke Mandarin (L1).  varied in their Age of Arrival (AoA, Range=5-27).  had received either none or only English instruction in a regular foreign language classroom prior to their arrival.  held a college degree or were current college students.  have never been diagnosed with hearing problems, language disorders, or learning disabilities.
  19. 19. Participants LEARNER GROUPS Child Arrival AoA=5-9 Adolescent Arrival AoA=12-17 Adult Arrival AoA=20-26
  20. 20. Procedure 1. Ask the participants to read aloud a paragraph (69 words, 77 syllables, 4 sentences) twice at their natural pace. 2. Record
  21. 21. The significant influence of age on the acquisition of various aspects of L2 prosody:  Speech rate: Adults < NS Adults < Children Adults = Adolescents  Filtered speech rating: Adult < NS Adolescents < NS Adult < Child  Prosodic groupings: Adult < NS  Pitch accents: Adult < NS Findings
  22. 22. APPLICATIONS 1. For teaching children 2. For teaching adults
  23. 23. Pronunciation Vocabulary For teaching children
  24. 24. from L2 different speakers songs, stories, games, etc. imitating the sounds Pronunciation to like
  25. 25. Vocabulary needs to be taught in context meaning of the words should be clear The context given through: 1. Pictures and flashcards 2. Stories 3. Games 4. Songs
  26. 26. For teaching adults generate interests give sensible tasks and activities assist the short-term goals
  27. 27. For teaching adults Making the English Classroom a Supportive Language Environment Encouragement Trustworthiness A variety of materials and models Comprehensible and contextualized language
  28. 28.  Becky, H. H., & Sun-Ah, J.(2011). Age Effect on the Acquisition of Second Language Prosody. Retrieved Dec 22, 2013, from : http://www.bu.edu/bucld/files/2011/05/33-Huang.pdf Cac thim cho them ref nhe!!! REFERENCES

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