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UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Management of World Heritage Sites in Egypt
Urban Regeneration Project for Historic Cairo
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The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this report, and for the
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This report presents the main outcomes of activities undertaken by the Urban Regeneration of Historic Cairo (URHC)
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  1. 1. UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Management of World Heritage Sites in Egypt Urban Regeneration Project for Historic Cairo FIRST REPORT OF ACTIVITIES July 2010-June 2012
  2. 2. The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this report, and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organisation. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
  3. 3. This report presents the main outcomes of activities undertaken by the Urban Regeneration of Historic Cairo (URHC) project between July 2010 and June 2012. It was prepared by the URHC project team, with contributions from the external consultants involved in the project thus far. We would like to express our gratitude to the many individuals and organisations that have supported the project to date and made this report possible. In particular, the team would like to thank the following Egyptian authorities for their considerable time and support: - The Ministry of Antiquities, in charge of the management of Egypt’s cultural World Heritage properties and the official counterpart of the UNESCO URHC project - The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) which provided maps and censuses on the study-area (Protocol of Cooperation signed on 8/09/2011) - The National Organisation for Urban Harmony, with whom an operational collaboration for the project has been launched (Protocol of Cooperation signed on 23/05/2012) The URHC Project Team Franca MIGLIOLI, Project Manager, UNESCO-WHC Daniele PINI, Scientific Coordinator, UNESCO consultant Local team of consultants: - Federica FELISATTI, Architect, UNESCO Cairo - Mariam el KORACHY, Architect, UNESCO Cairo - Ahmed MANSOUR, Architect, UNESCO Cairo - Ingy WAKED, Architect, UNESCO Cairo Project assistants: - Agne BARTKUTE, UNESCO-WHC - Radwa el WAKIL, UNESCO Cairo External consultants for the sector studies: - Kareem IBRAHIM, Architect, Cairo. Studies on housing stock within Historic Cairo - Tarek el-MURRI, Architect, Cairo. Study on selected conservation projects in Historic Cairo - Chiara RONCHINI, Architect, Edinburgh. Best practices in management and communication: The new and old town of Edinburgh, World Heritage property - Dina SHEHAYEB, Architect, Cairo. Community-oriented activity patterns - Abbas el ZAFARANY, Architect, Cairo. Environmental hazards affecting the site - Sherine ZAGHOW, Sociologist, Cairo. Socio-economic study For this publication: - Amr KHAIRY, Translator and editor of the Arabic version - Sunita RAPPAI, Editor of the English version Images: © UNESCO, URHC Team (unless otherwise indicated) Graphic design: URHC Team Cairo Map, 2006: © CAPMAS
  4. 4. REPORT OF THE ACTIVITIES for the period July 2010-June 2012 List of Acronyms and abbreviations ADAA - Al Darb Al Ahmar AFESD - Arab Fund for Social and Economic Development AKDN - Aga Khan Development Network AKTC - Aga Khan Trust for Culture APUR - Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme ARCE - American Research Centre in Egypt AUC - American University in Cairo CAPMAS - Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics CIERA - Italian-Egyptian Centre for Restoration and Archaeology COM - World Heritage Committee CSDHC - Centre for Studies and Development of Historic Cairo DAI - Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut ESA - Egyptian Survey Authority FWP - Framework Plan GIS - Geographical Information System GOPP - General Organization for Physical Planning HC - Historic Cairo
  5. 5. HCRP - Historic Cairo Rehabilitation Project (operated By the Ministry of Culture, through the Supreme Council of Antiquities in the years 1999-2002) HUL - Historic Urban Landscape IAURIF - Institut d’Aménagement et d’Urbanisme de la Région Île-de-France ICOMOS - International Council of Monuments and Sites IFAO - Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale MoA - Ministry of Antiquities, Egypt MoC - Ministry of Culture, Egypt MoH - Ministry of Housing, Egypt MoT - Ministry of Tourism, Egypt NOUH - National Organization for Urban Harmony OUV - Outstanding Universal Value SCA - Supreme Council of Antiquities SOUV - Statement of Outstanding Universal Value UNDP - United Nations Development Program UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation URHC - Urban Regeneration of Historic Cairo WH - World Heritage WHC - World Heritage Centre
  6. 6. REPORT OF THE ACTIVITIES for the period July 2010-June 2012 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter I THE DELIMITATION OF HISTORIC CAIRO’S WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 11 20 Chapter II THE ASSESSMENT OF URBAN HERITAGE VALUES IN THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY, 2011 33 1_HISTORIC CAIRO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 2_INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO CONSERVATION IN HISTORIC CAIRO 2.1 URHC Map of architectural and urban conservation projects 2.2 Urban conservation projects in Historic Cairo A. UNESCO, The conservation of the old city of Cairo, 1980 B. Al-Darb Al-Asfar Alley Rehabilitation, 1994-2001 C. UNDP, Rehabilitation of Historic Cairo, 1997 D. Historic Cairo Restoration Project (HCRP) E. The Old Cairo Rehabilitation Project, 1999-2002 F. Al-Darb Al-Ahmar Revitalisation Project (AKDN) G. Al Sayeda Zeinab Revitalisation Project 3_URBAN REGENERATION FOR HISTORIC CAIRO 3.1 Background, objectives, tasks and progress 4_CONTENT OF THE PUBLICATION I.1_APPROACH TO HISTORIC CAIRO’S DELIMITATION I.2_METHODOLOGY AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA I.3_COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL MAPS I.4_THE EVOLUTION OF HISTORIC CAIRO I.4.1 Cairo in 1807 I.4.2 The evolution of the city 1807-1888 I.4.3 The evolution of the city 1888-1948 I.4.4 The evolution of the city 1948-2006 I.4.5 Persistence and change in Historic Cairo’s urban fabric 1807-2006 I.5_HISTORIC CAIRO’S WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY AND BUFFER ZONE AS IDENTIFIED BY THE STUDY I.6_COMPARISON WITH OFFICIAL PERIMETERS PROPOS- ALS FOR HISTORIC CAIRO I.6.1 SCA delimitation for Historic Cairo I.6.2 NOUH Perimeters I.7_URHC PROPOSAL FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE PROP- ERTY AND ITS BUFFER ZONE II.1_THE FIELD SURVEY: Approach and implementation II.2_THE FIELD SURVEY: Assessment criteria II.2.1 Criteria (A): Architectural heritage II.2.2 Criteria (B): Persistence of historical street align- ments II.2.3Criteria(C):Persistenceoftraditionallandsubdivi- sion patterns II.2.4 Criteria (D): Continuity and compactness of the urban fabric II.2.5 Criteria (E): Activities and uses of the urban space II.3_OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF URBAN HERITAGE VALUES IN HISTORIC CAIRO
  7. 7. Chapter III THE PROPOSAL OF PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY Chapter IV PRELIMINARY SECTOR STUDIES ON THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 55 79 Chapter V PROMOTING THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY: PROPOSAL FOR AN AWARENESS CAMPAIGN 98 III.1_CONSERVATION ZONES AND SUB-ZONES IN THE PROPERTY AREA III.2_GENERAL PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY III.3_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR URBAN AREAS III.3.1_Zone1: Pre-modern protected urban areas • Sub-zone 1A: Pre-modern urban areas of higher heritage value • Sub-zone 1B: Pre-modern urban areas of rel- evant heritage value III.3.2_Zone 2 : Transitional modern urban areas • Sub-zone 2A: Transitional modern urban ar- eas of higher heritage value • Sub-zone 2B: Transitional urban areas of rel- evant heritage value III.4_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE MONUMENTAL CEMETERIES • Sub-zone 3A: Monumental cemeteries with mixed burial–residential areas • Sub-zone 3B: Monumental cemeteries with prevailing burial areas III.5_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE ARCHAEOLOGI- CAL AREAS III.6_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE PARKS AND LANDSCAPE PROTECTION AREAS III.7_THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE PROPOSED PROTEC- TION MEASURES IV.1_SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF HISTORIC CAIRO IV.2_COMMUNITY-ORIENTED ACTIVITY PATTERNS IV.3_HOUSING REHABILITATION IV.4_ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS V.1_ OBJECTIVES V.2_ TARGET GROUPS V.2.1_ Community V.2.2_ Stakeholders V.2.3_ The tourist industry V.2.4_ Media V.2.5_ Students and education professionals V.2.6_ Professionals V.3_ TOOLS V.3.1_Strategic tools • Public Relations/Multi-media • Logo and branding • Education • Interactive events V.3.2_ Supplementary tools • Maps • Brochures, leaflets and booklets • Banners, signs and emblems • Memorabilia V.3.3_ Long-term sustainability
  8. 8. Annexes Annex (I): UNESCO Missions to Cairo, concerning the Historic Cairo World Heritage Property, 1997-2010 Annex (II): World Heritage Commitee decisions concerning Historic Cairo, 1979-2011 Annex (III): Recommendations of the International Symposium on the Conservation and Restoration of Islamic Cairo, Cairo, 16-20 February 2002 Annex (IV): Egyptian Laws and Decrees concerned with Historic Cairo Annex (V): Supreme Council of Antiquities, List of Restored Listed Monuments Annex (VI): Extract from the URHC project work plan Annex (VII): Draft Proposal, Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (SOUV) for Historic Cairo Annex (VIII): Evaluation of the Advisory Bodies on the Nomination File, 1979 Chapter VI NEXT STEPS TOWARDS THE DEFINITION OF A MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR HISTORIC CAIRO 108 A report on the progress of the URHC mandate accord- ing to the initial work plan, and its next steps
  9. 9. Cairo skyline, from the roof of Zeinab Khatoun House toward Al-Azhar, April 2011
  10. 10. Darb el Hosr, Khalifa, April 2011
  11. 11. 11 Introduction 1_HISTORIC CAIRO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 2_INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO CONSERVA- TION IN HISTORIC CAIRO 2.1 URHC Map of architectural and urban conserva- tion projects 2.2 Urban conservation projects in Historic Cairo A. UNESCO, The Conservation of the Old City of Cairo, 1980 B. Al-Darb Al-Asfar Alley Rehabilitation, 1994- 2001 C. UNDP, Rehabilitation of Historic Cairo, 1997 D. Historic Cairo Restoration Project (HCRP) E. The Old Cairo Rehabilitation Project, 1999- 2002 F.Al-Darb Al-Ahmar Revitalisation Project (AKDN) G. Al-Sayeda Zeinab Revitalisation Project 3_URBAN REGENERATION FOR HISTORIC CAIRO 4_CONTENT OF THE PUBLICATION 1_HISTORIC CAIRO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY Cairo is home to a number of historical districts and significant monuments that demonstrate the architec- tural wealth of the city, not only as a capital of the Is- lamicWorld but as a wonder of the human urban expe- rience. As such, it was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1979 under the title of “Islamic Cairo”, recogniz- ing its absolutely unquestionable historical, archaeologi- cal and urbanistic importance.1 On the recommenda- tion of the International Council for Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), its inscription was based on criteria I), V) andVI of theWorld Heritage Operational Guidelines, including the following justifications: I) Several of the great monuments of Cairo are incon- testable masterpieces. 1 ICOMOS Review Sheet on the Nomination of the Historical Center of Cairo on the World Heritage List, April 10, 1979. V) The centre of Cairo groups numerous streets and old dwellings and thus maintains, in the heart of the traditional urban fabric, forms of human settlement which go back to the Middle Ages. VI) The historic centre of Cairo constitutes an impres- sivematerialwitnesstotheinternationalimportance, on the political, strategic, intellectual and commer- cial level, of the city during the medieval period.2 In the nomination file, Cairo’s historic city was cited as covering an area of around 32 square kilometres on the eastern bank of the River Nile and surrounded by the modern quarters of Greater Cairo. The site was de- scribed as an historic fabric where vast areas are still in- tact and where the following focal points emerge (from south to north): a. Al-Fustat, including the mosque of Amr Ibn al-As (founded in 641), the Roman fortress Qasr ash- Sham, Babylon with the Coptic churches, ruins and excavation area of the settlement; b. The mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun (founded in 876), and the surrounding area of as-Saliba and al-Kabsh with several major Mamluk monu- ments; c. The Citadel area, with the surrounding Mamluk palaces and the mosque of Sultan Hasan (1356- 1359), and Darb al-Ahmar with the thorough- fares Suq as-Silah and Khatt at-Tabbana lined with Mamluk and Ottoman monuments; d. The Fatimid nucleus of Cairo from Bab Zuwaila totheNorthWallwiththecitygatesBabal-Futuh and Bab an-Nasr, and with the concentration of major Ayyubid and Mamluk monuments on the main street (Shari al-A’zam); e. The necropolis from al-Fustat to the northern limits of Fatimid Cairo, including a large number of mausoleums and funerary complexes of all periods.3 However, a clear geographical definition of Islamic Cairo, as well as legal and administrative protection measures were insufficiently detailed in the nomina- 2 See annex VIII. 3 See nomination file for Islamic Cairo dated October 26, 1979.
  12. 12. 12 tion, despite the fact that its rich architectural heritage and historical fabric were suffering from accumulated problems. These included socio-economic pressures, poor infrastructure, illegal occupations, and traffic and transportation issues. Following the inscription of Islamic Cairo, UNESCO and the World Heritage Centre (WHC), in cooperation with the Egyptian government, international institutions and experts,4 carried out regular missions to evaluate the state of conservation in the site. On several occa- sions, the World Heritage Committee encouraged the government to formalize the limits of the historic city and pointed out the need to strengthen coordination among the institutions involved in its protection, while taking into account the special character and complex- ity of the site. According to the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Article 5), a State Party is required to put in place legislative and regula- tory measures to safeguard its World Heritage proper- ties.5 The Egyptian government has issued several de- crees and laws concerned with the protection of the historic city.6 To safeguard Islamic Cairo, and in response to an ICO- MOS monitoring mission concerned about the urban and architectural heritage of the city after the 1992 earthquake, an International Symposium on the Conser- vation and Restoration of Islamic Cairo was organized in Cairo by the Ministry of Culture (MoC), in collaboration with the WHC, in February 2002. Attended by conser- vation experts, the conference provided a forum for public debate on the problems involved in the pres- ervation of cultural heritage in Islamic Cairo as a living city. It included site visits, thematic sessions on the conservation of the World Heritage property and tech- nical workshops on projects partially implemented by the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA). The conclu- sions of the symposium were discussed by the World Heritage Committee at its 28th session (Suzhou, 2004), and the Government was asked to implement its rec- ommendations.7 In 2007, in response to aWorld Heritage Committee re- quest to identify the boundaries of the property (Deci- sion 29 COM 7B.42, 2005), four maps were submitted by the Egyptian government, together with a request 4 See UNESCO Mission Reports on the historic city of Cairo. 5 Final report on the functioning of the Islamic Cairo Project, May 2001, CULTNAT and WHC-UNESCO. 6 See annex concerning Egyptian laws and decrees for His- toric Cairo. 7 See annex II. The study area of the Historic Cairo Project launched by the Ministry of Culture in 2002 Preliminary plan showing the borders of the World Herit- age property submitted by the Egyptian Government to the World Heritage Commitee in 2006 Introduction
  13. 13. 13 to modify the name of the property to “Historic Cairo”. The maps incorporated five zones including the Fatim- id city, parts of the northern and southern necropolis, and the al-Fustat area.8 These maps are the only of- ficial documents providing the delimitation of the site. However, they proposed an unclear definition of the “property area”and the“buffer zone”and did not corre- spond to the elements included in the nomination nile, while the perimeters identified were also not related to either protection measures or an official decree. In 2008, a UNESCO mission recommended the prepa- ration of a management and conservation plan for the World Heritage property as a compulsory measure to stop the decay of Cairo’s historic fabric. The mission 8 See chapter 1. suggested the formation of a dedicated technical unit, including the expertise of concerned Egyptian institu- tions, to carry out this task. A comprehensive perim- eters definition was suggested as a preliminary action, while control of building activities was urgently rec- ommended, to be established on the basis of the exist- ing Building Law, 119/2008. In 2009, Egyptian authorities and the WHC agreed to develop joint activities aimed at protecting and re- vitalising the urban heritage of Historic Cairo, in the framework of a larger UNESCO program of technical assistance to the Egyptian Government entitled “Safe- guarding of Cultural Heritage in Egypt”. The perimeters of “Historic Cairo” as defined in 2007 (in brown, the “core zone,” in green the “buffer zone”). The original thickness of the lines has been enhanced and the concerned areas have been coloured to make the perimeters clearer Introduction
  14. 14. 14 Introduction
  15. 15. 15 2_INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO CONSERVA- TION IN HISTORIC CAIRO 2.1 URHC Map of architectural and urban conserva- tion projects As recognized by the UNESCO mission of 2008, nu- merous conservation studies and actions have been undertaken in recent years, including the restoration of monuments and clusters of urban significance. Among a conspicuous list of interventions and stud- ies, the following should be taken into account due to their importance and impact on the historic city. 2.2 Urban conservation projects in Historic Cairo A. UNESCO Study, 1980: “The Conservation of the Old City of Cairo” An early study of Islamic Cairo9 was carried out by UNESCO consultants between February and August 1980. It identified the complexity of the problems fac- ing the historic city, including poor infrastructure, high land prices, low residential rents, new market dynam- ics and transportation issues.Taking into consideration the scale and density of the listed area, the study sug- gested focusing conservation efforts on six key clusters comprising significant monuments or architectural en- sembles. The study also considered social, economic and environmental aspects important to improving the quality of life in the property. B. Al-Darb Al-Asfar Alley Rehabilitation Project, 1994-2001 Al-Darb al-Asfar Alley is located off al-Mu’izz Street in al-Gamaleya district in the northern part of the Fatimid city. In 1994, the MoC and SCA began the documenta- tion and establishment of a conservation strategy for the area, which had become a neglected backwater of decaying buildings and services. In 1996, the res- toration process of historical buildings (such as bayt al-Suhaymi, bayt Mustafa Ja’far, bayt al-Khorazati and sabil-kuttab Qitas) located in the alley began. This was 9 Early studies include those of the Arab Bureau: Revitaliza- tion of Fatimid Cairo, 1980, and Rehabilitation and Upgrad- ing of the Gamalia Quarter, 1984. Also, the General Organiza- tion for Physical Planning (GOPP)/ Institut d’Amènagement et d’Urbanism de la Région d’île-de-France (IAURIF) studies: North Gamalia – Darb al Asfar and Public Spaces Rehabilitation Plan, 1988 and Old Islamic Town Structural Plan, 1989. financed by the Kuwait-based Arab Fund for Social and Economic Development (AFSED). Through the project, an interdisciplinary approach to urban conservation was introduced, since it combined restoration with ur- ban rehabilitation, community participation and the upgrading of the quality of life in the area. C. UNDP Report, 1997: “Rehabilitation of Historic Cairo” A substantial effort was undertaken by the United Na- tions Development Program (UNDP) and the SCA in 1997 to define a consistent strategy of urban conser- vation for Historic Cairo. The analysis of the site was based on various sources of information structured into four sections: • Statistical data concerning socio‐economic, demographic and physical conditions. A multi‐ criteria analysis was carried out to identify shyakhas10 with unfavourable socio‐economic and physical conditions that needed urgent interventions. • An appraisal of the spatial components of the living environment, including cultural heri- tage, urban fabric, distribution of activities, traffic and infrastructure issues. • Urban markets: tourism, housing, and labour. • The impact on the built environment, show- ing that poverty, unemployment and illiteracy were reasons for the critical situation of the site. For an integrated approach to urban rehabilitation, the following components were highlighted: • The community, targeting poverty alleviation. • The physical environment, targeting cultural heritage, urban fabric, infrastructure, and transportation. • The urban management system, focusing on multi-sector policies and guidelines to rein- force the implementation of the previous two components. 10 Political election zones and smallest municipal division used to collect statistical data. Introduction
  16. 16. 16 sary to implement decisions, and the establishment of coordination mechanisms between authorities for the development of Historic Cairo, limited within the fol- lowing borders: • Northern border: The northern Ayyubid wall and its two gates. • Southern border: Bab Zuwaila and Ahmad Mahir Street. • Eastern border: Salah Salim Street. • Western border: Port Said Street. The CSDHC also laid down an implementation plan to safeguard monuments in the area, as part of the na- tional project for Historic Cairo. The basic objectives of the plan were to: 1. Save listed monuments from deterioration. 2. Apply a holistic concept of conservation rather than the restoration of single buildings.14 3. Divide the work into phases according to sta- tus and needs. E. The Old Cairo Rehabilitation Project: Mugamma’ al Adyan, 1999-2002 Mugamma’ al Adyan was a conservation project in the al-Fustat area of Old Cairo, financed by the Min- istry of Tourism (MoT) and carried out in cooperation with the Cairo Governorate. It included the renova- tion of around 350 buildings (houses and shops), the improvement of public services,15 and the upgrading of open spaces in the surrounding streets and on the boundaries of the Coptic quarter. Community partici- pation was emphasized through different approaches, with residents participating in the renovation process of their houses and expressing their needs in the reha- bilitation process. The revitalization of Old Cairo’s traditional arts and crafts was one of the main objectives of the project; therefore, a new centre for traditional crafts (suq al- Fustat), using traditional materials, was constructed between the mosque of Amr ibn al-As and the Coptic 14 This approach was applied by SCA in the rehabilitation projects of al-Mu’izz and al-Gamaleya historic streets. 15 Including a fire station, a bus station, the police station and the metro station entrance in al-Fustat. The UNDP report proposed a Framework Plan (FWP) that highlighted the interrelation between activities, transport and infrastructure as important factors influ- encing the image of the World Heritage property. The proposed FWP was based on a rehabilitation strategy articulated in five urban areas: heritage corridor, insti- tutional corridor, 19th century corridor, transformation zone,andcommunityzone.Urbanpolicieswouldguar- antee a feasible implementation of rehabilitation strat- egies, while community participation was identified as another tool for protecting Historic Cairo’s outstanding value. The report provided an important reference for large-scale urban rehabilitation actions in Cairo.11 D. Historic Cairo Restoration Project (HCRP) The Egyptian government showed great interest in the outcomes of the UNDP Study on Historic Cairo and subsequently agreed with UNESCO to regularly update it, in light of the rapid environmental, demographic, urban and cultural changes affecting the World Heri- tage property. To establish the“Historic Cairo Restoration Project”, the MoC submitted a special paper to the Government. This highlighted the importance of conducting com- prehensive surveys on the site in collaboration with relevant authorities. As a result, in 1998, a decree12 was issued by the Prime Minister to form a working group at the ministerial level, with representatives from the following ministries: Endowments, Housing, Planning, Local Government, Interior Affairs and Transportation, as well as the Cairo Governorate. A plan of action was defined according to the recommendations of the MoC, as the authority entrusted with the major part of the work in the area. The plan included the restoration of 147 listed and 48 unlisted historic monuments in eight years, from 1998 to 2006.13 Additionally, the“Centre for Studies and Development of Historic Cairo (CSDHC)”, affiliated to the MoC, was established. This was charged with studying and coor- dinating development works carried out at the site, the creation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) on historical buildings, the formulation of policies neces- 11 i.e. “Historic Cairo Project” implemented by (SCA) and “al- Darbal-AhmarProject”,anAgaKhanTrustforCultureinitiative. 12 Decree 1352/1998 , see Annex IV. ��Attached is list of monuments restored by SCA in the World Heritage property. Introduction
  17. 17. 17 Cairo complex. Al-Fustat was once renowned for its excellent pot- tery workshops, but many had been forced to move out of the area due to the city’s expansion. The MoT proposed to preserve this traditional Egyptian craft through the creation of a new pottery village in the area. The project was continued in 2003 with a fund from the Italian-Egyptian Debt for Development Swap Program and completed in 2006. F. Al-Darb Al-Ahmar Revitalisation Project Since 2000, and with reference to the UNDP Report on Historic Cairo in 1997, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) and its partner funding agencies, with support from the Cairo Governorate, the SCA and the com- munity, has developed a series of projects combining social and economic initiatives with the physical im- provement of the al-Darb al-Ahmar area, on the east- ern edge of the World Heritage property. In spite of the architectural significance of the area and its active community of traditional craftsmen, living conditions have worsened here due to the accumulat- ed problems affecting the historic city over the years. To improve quality of life and enhance the image and perception of the area, the Al-Darb Al-Ahmar Revitali- sation Project, represented by Al-Darb Al-Ahmar Com- munity Development Company, focused on the fol- lowing aspects: • Micro-credit for business development • Housing rehabilitation • Employment-generation • Monument restoration • Adaptive reuse of historical buildings • Infrastructure and open spaces improvement projects The project has concentrated its efforts on three action areas, each with its own special character, needs and opportunities.16 Currently, the financial support for development proj- ects in the al-Darb al-Ahmar area has decreased.There- 16 See Report of Aga Khan Trust for Culture – Historic Cities Support Programme on Cairo: Urban Regeneration in the Darb al-Ahmar District – a Framework for Investment. fore, the Al-Darb Al-Ahmar Community Development Company is focusing on handing over several compo- nents of its activities to civil society organizations in the area that have been trained and have cooperated with the project since its inception. G. Al-Sayeda Zeinab Revitalization Project As part of a project to improve urban areas around monuments along the religious path of the Prophet Mohammed’s descendants, Aal al-Bayt, the Egyptian MoT, in cooperation with the Cairo Governorate, car- ried out studies and documentation for an urban con- servation project in al-Sayeda Zeinab area, located to the south of the World Heritage property, in 1998. The project consisted of five phases, of which the fol- lowing two were implemented between 2002 and 2004: • Phase (1): from the Citadel square to the sabil of Umm Abbas. • Phase (2): from the Sayeda Nafisa square to the Sayeda Ruquia Mosque. The project was concerned with the upgrading of the infrastructure, as well as the renovation of residential houses, shops and open spaces in the area. Commu- nity participation was considered a vital part of the re- habilitation process. Around the same time, in 2002, the Governor of Cairo became interested in a participatory rehabilitation ap- proach being carried out by the City of Paris (Mairie de Paris) to protect its historic city from socio-economic pressures. As a result, the two capitals launched a joint technical collaboration on the rehabilitation of al-Sayeda Zeinab district. The pilot project aimed to develop tools with residents for the protection of the area, which comprises several architectural master- pieces and interesting remnants from the French pres- ence in Cairo. The City of Paris worked with Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme (APUR), with the support of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in a decentralized program to carry out urban studies and detailed conservation projects for selected streets such as Abdel Meguid al- Labban and al-Khoderi. A bilingual publication pres- Introduction
  18. 18. 18 measures, with strong coordination among the rel- evant local authorities. For that reason, “conservation” has to be associated with“rehabilitation”, favouring in- terventions that aim to improve the quality of life and sustain, or initiate, compatible activities in the historic city. The project tasks were identified as follows: 1. Definition of the World Heritage property and its buffer zone. 2. Creation of a shared information system. 3. A strategic planning and management system. 4. Conservation and development planning. 5. Consultations with the relevant administrations. 6. Raising awareness amongst the public. To implement the project tasks and perform its ac- tivities systematically, overlapping phases were set up over a period of 24 months.17 However, due to the political unrest in Egypt after the revolution of January 2011, the initial work-plan has been delayed and the project duration expanded to 42 months (until Decem- ber 2013, including the months of delayed activities). The implementation of some activities has also had to be delayed because of the difficulties in setting up a permanent office for the project. It was first hosted by the Nubian Trust Fund office in Downtown Cairo and currently has a temporary location in the historic dis- trict of al-Sayeda Zeinab. At the moment, the project team is preparing to move to a permanent location at UNESCO’s Cairo headquarters in the area of Garden City. Nevertheless, in the first 24 months of the project the following progress has been achieved: • Nucleus of the URHC team created. • Documentation on the historic city of Cairo collected and organised. • Transformation of Cairo’s historical urban fab- ric (1807-2006) synthesized. • Field survey to evaluate the urban fabric of the 17 See Annex VI. ents the proposals developed within the framework of this cooperation, demonstrating how the redevel- opment of roads and the renovation of buildings can revitalize an historic neighbourhood. 3_ URBAN REGENERATION PROJECT FOR HISTORIC CAI- RO (URHC) In July 2010, the WHC launched the project “Urban Regeneration project for Historic Cairo (URHC)” after obtaining approval for a detailed proposal on techni- cal assistance from the Egyptian Government, funded through a UNESCO Special Account dedicated to safe- guarding Egypt’s cultural heritage. The URHC’s aim is to prepare the management tools necessary for the conservation of the heritage values, socio-economic revitalisation and environmental up- grading of the inscribed World Heritage property. The project also intends to foster a subsequent urban con- servation policy whose prerequisites are: (a) the defi- nition of clear concepts on conservation to be imple- mented through new urban planning tools, special projects and building regulations; (b) the creation of adequate institutional capacities and technical skills; and (c) an increasing and wide awareness of heritage issues amongst the relevant authorities and the larger public. With this in mind, the URHC project is focusing on the following interrelated objectives: • The preparation of a conservation plan for the property and its buffer zone, including the management plan required by the Operation- al Guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. • The formation of an institutional framework to undertake a sustainable urban conservation policy, promoting collaboration amongst the various institutions managing the site. • The creation of an appropriate and shared in- formation platform for urban conservation. The aim is for the World Heritage property of Historic Cairo to be recognized and protected through an ef- ficient management system and adequate protection Introduction
  19. 19. 19 historic city completed (2011). • Photographic documentation of the streets of Historic Cairo completed (2011). • Sector studies on socio-economic conditions, housing issues, community-oriented activities, and environmental risks facing the World Heri- tage property undertaken. • Delimitation proposal and first zoning of the World Heritage property completed. • Proposal for an awareness campaign to recog- nize and protect Historic Cairo prepared. • Consultation with concerned local administra- tions and institutions launched. • Protocol of agreement with Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) and the National Organization for Urban Har- mony (NOUH), affiliated to the MoC, estab- lished. • Protocols of agreement with the Governorate of Cairo and the General Organization for Phys- ical Planning (GOPP) affiliated to the Ministry of Housing (MoH) under discussion. 4_ CONTENT OF THE PUBLICATION This report is available in English and Arabic to explain the activities and achievements of the URHC project to date, since its beginning in July 2010, to project part- ners, professionals, students and the larger public. It is based on the monthly reports of the project team and the reports of the scientific project coordina- tor and sector-studies consultants. The introduction includes information contained in UNESCO Mission Reports on the historic city of Cairo and publications from the MoC, as well as in the publications of various institutions that have worked on the rehabilitation of Historic Cairo such as the UNDP, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the APUR. The publication includes an album that describes the urban fabric of Historic Cairo in 2011, based on evalua- tion from field visits and photographic documentation carried out by the URHC team.The album contains one page on each shyakha identified in the World Heritage property. This includes a grading according to specific assessment criteria, a map explaining its location, and selected pictures that help verify the heritage values of selected streets. Field visits, photographic documentation: Darb al Labana, Khalifa, 2011 Introduction
  20. 20. 20 Chapter I THE DELIMITATION OF HISTORIC CAIRO’S WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 1_APPROACH TO HISTORIC CAIRO’S DELIMITATION 2_METHODOLOGY AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA 3_COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL MAPS 4_THE EVOLUTION OF HISTORIC CAIRO 4.1 Cairo in 1807 4.2 The evolution of the city 1807-1888 4.3 The evolution of the city 1888-1948 4.4 The evolution of the city 1948-2006 4.5 Persistence and change in Historic Cairo’s urban fabric 1807-2006 5_HISTORIC CAIRO’S WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY AND BUFFER ZONE AS IDENTIFIED BY THE STUDY 6_COMPARISON WITH OFFICIAL PERIMETERS PRO- POSALS FOR HISTORIC CAIRO 6.1 SCA delimitation for Historic Cairo 6.2 NOUH perimeters 7_URHC proposal for the World Heritage property and its buffer zone 1_ APPROACH TO HISTORIC CAIRO’S DELIMITATION Because of the ambiguity surrounding Historic Cairo’s delimitation since its nomination on the World Heri- tage List1 in 1979, the first task of the URHC project team was to define the perimeters of the World Heri- tage property. This would enable the drafting of the necessary protection measures to prevent further de- cay of its historical urban fabric. The project began with a comparative analysis of his- torical maps to verify where historical street patterns were still persisting. At the same time, the Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (SOUV) was revised on the basis of the nomination file to integrate and high- light the heritage values for which Cairo’s historic city was inscribed on the World Heritage list. The analysis was supported by a field survey to evaluate the current state of the urban fabric. The general objectives of this work phase were defined as follows: • To outline the perimeters of the World Heritage property and identify different degrees of pro- 1 See Introduction. tection according to the integrity2 of the urban fabric. • To outline the perimeters of the “buffer zone”, with the possible inclusion of areas protected or to be protected by the national legislation. To achieve these objectives the following activities were carried out: • Collection of all available documents (aerial photos, historical plans, bibliography). • Analysis of the evolution of the historical fabric through studies and field surveys. • Comparison of the proposals presented by dif- ferent institutions for the delimitation of the World Heritage property since its nomination. • Identification of areas protected by existing leg- islation or rehabilitation programmes carried out in the site. • Development of proposals for the definition of theWorld Heritage property and the buffer zone. • Identification of areas to be distinctively pro- tected within the World Heritage property, ac- cording to the integrity of the urban fabric and its attributes as identified by the SOUV. 2_ METHODOLOGY AND OPERATIONAL CRITERIA The delimitation of Historic Cairo had to be consistent with both the inscription criteria and the SOUV. Several elements mentioned in the Nomination highlighted values concerning the urban morphology of the World Heritage property such as: • The presence of numerous monuments, which are not seen as isolated features but as compo- nents of a homogeneous urban context. Their architectural significance and cultural meaning depend on the fact that they are“landmarks”re- lating to the spatial and functional organisation of the historical fabric. 2 The notion of “integrity” refers not only to the state of con- servation, but to the wholeness of the urban fabric and its at- tributes (see point 88 of the UNESCO “Operational Guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention”, No- vember 2011). Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  21. 21. 21 • The morphological, functional, and visual rela- tionship between Historic Cairo and the modern city. Historic Cairo was defined as the“pre-modern city”: an urban entity whose architecture and urban fabric are testament to values that evolved in relationship with the property before the 19th century. The “modern city”, which developed between the Nile and the Mo- qattam Hills as an extension of the site until the mid 20th century,3 was used as the main reference point to establish the limits of the buffer zone protecting the World Heritage property. The identification of urban heritage values developed from an analysis of the city’s evolution to determine what had persisted and what had been transformed during the modernisation process. It was based on the following factors: • The extension of areas that show the persistence of the pre-existing urban fabric and the dynamic relationship between the city and its environ- ment. • The presence of“focal points”that mark the spa- tial and functional structure of the area. • The articulation of the street pattern, from main thoroughfares to smaller lanes that demonstrate the city’s morphology and spatial structure. The persistence of these elements throughout Cairo’s development stages is considered an indicator of the physical integrity of its urban fabric. It was also one of the factors that ensured the preservation of the histor- ic city’s character, according to the Outstanding Uni- versal Value (OUV) which justified its inscription on the World Heritage list. 3_ COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL MAPS Defining the current extent of the “pre-modern city” was a priority for the delimitation of the World Heri- tage property. To determine these boundaries, a com- parative analysis of various maps was carried out, taking the following elements into consideration to recognize the parts of Historic Cairo expressing urban 3 Taking into consideration that parts of the modern city have their own heritage values that deserve protection. heritage values as defined in the Nomination file: • The extension of the historical urban fabric (built-up areas and voids). • Monuments or architectural ensembles identi- fied in the nomination as“focal points”, as well as other significant classified historical buildings. • The street pattern, which is a fundamental com- ponent of the urban morphology. The following maps from different periods were exam- ined to verify the morphology and extent of the “pre- modern city”at significant development stages:4 • Map of the French Expedition to Egypt, “De- scription de l’Egypte”, 1807 • Map “Presse par L. Thuillier; d’apres le plan de Grand-Bey”, 1888 • “Map of Islamic Monuments in Cairo”, Egyptian Survey Authority (ESA), 1948 • “Map of Cairo”, the Central Agency of Public Mo- bilisation and Statistics (CAPMAS), 2006 The comparison was carried out by tracing maps drawn in different periods at the same scale to iden- tify the major elements in theWorld Heritage property. These elements were referred to as “anchors” to allow easy identification of street patterns or areas, and high- light the relationships between monuments and their urban context within the maps. The 1807 map of the French Expedition formed the basis of the urban analysis, since it depicted the city prior to modernisation. Further urban analyses were carried out on a smaller scale for complex study areas such as Bulaq, al-Fustat and al-Azbakeya. However, it was difficult to identify some of the areas mentioned in the nomination (such as the cemeteries and al-Fustat archaeological site) because they were not clearly indi- cated on the available maps. After obtaining the 2006 map of Cairo from CAPMAS, the maps were digitally re-drawn and a final map was produced. This synthesized Historic Cairo’s urban fab- 4 These were the only available maps that featured a level of detail and reliability of comparison. Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  22. 22. 22 ric with the major transformation that the city under- went between 1807 and 2006. 4_ THE EVOLUTION OF HISTORIC CAIRO 4.1 Cairo in 1807 The city of Cairo developed at the foot of the Moqat- tam Hills, far from the Nile stream which moved slowly to the west over time, thus providing land for urban development. The map of the French Expedition is the first analysed cartographic document describing the city’s morphology in the year 1807. The following el- ements were highlighted for comparison with maps from the subsequent periods: • Major spines in the street network, such as al- Mu’izz street. • Significant monuments such as the city gates (Bab al-Futuh, Bab al-Nasr and Bab Zuwaila), mosques (al-Hakim, al-Azhar, al-Aqmar, Ibn Tu- lun), the Citadel, the Aqueduct and the Nilom- eter on the southern tip of al-Rhoda Island. The urban fabric shown in the French Expedition map is bordered to the north and east by the city fortifica- tions and the Citadel, beyond which extend the large cemeteries. The western part is characterised by the presence of canals and lakes that show the relationship of the city to the Nile.5 Detached from the continuous urban area but closely related to the Nile, al-Fustat6 set- tlement to the south-west and the harbour of Bulaq to the north-west of the site complete the “pre-modern” structure of the city. 4.2 The evolution of the city: 1807 – 1888 The map of Cairo drawn by L. Thuillier7 in 1888 rep- resents the development stage of the city during the Khedivial period, with its impressive efforts at moderni- sation and cosmopolitanism. The introduction of west- ern urban models is best expressed in the Downtown development, which boasted new landmarks reflect- 5 Such as the Khalij canal parallel to al-Mu’izz Street and Birkat al-Azbakeya and Al Ratli between the main spines. 6 The early settlement includes the mosque of Amr Ibn al-As, the Coptic churches and the archaeological site. 7Historic map of Cairo, made by L. Thuillier. Original: “Le Caire, Itinerare de l’Orient, Egypt, Dresse par L. Thuillier, Paris Ha- chette, 1888”. ing the importance of new institutions and economic structures to the city, as well as social changes. This process introduced new thoroughfares and a diffused process of building renovation into the pre-modern fabric. However, it did not change the structure of the historic city.8 Based on an analysis of the 1888 map, the following aspects were highlighted with reference to the persis- tence of the pre-modern urban morphology, and the character of the modern city which had developed to- wards the Nile banks: • New “focal points” reflecting European urban models (such as al-Azbakeya Square, Abdin Pal- ace, the Opera) created at the edge of the his- toric city, to showcase the modern city centre’s development. • Canals and lakes filled creating new thorough- fares and residential quarters. • Roads cutting through the historical urban fab- ric, such as Mohammed Ali Street, which con- nects al-Azbakeya Square to the Citadel. • An urban expansion towards the Nile banks, including the port of Bulaq, the Qasr al-Nil Bar- racks and the Qasr al-Nil Bridge, the first bridge connecting the island of Zamalek to the main- land. • New urban patterns continuing the pre-existing fabric, though featuring a different urban mor- phology based on regular grids and extroverted housing typologies. 4.3 The evolution of the city: 1888 – 1948 The two sheets comprising the “Map of Islamic Monu- ments”by the Egyptian Survey Authority (ESA) in 1948 were assembled and compared to the earlier maps of 1807 and 1888. This comparative map represented the evolution of Cairo during the early and mid 20th cen- tury, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Brit- ish Mandate. Cairo was now developing as the capital city of an independent nation with renewed efforts at modernisation and a cosmopolitan identity, character- 8 The spatial and functional relationships between pre-exist- ing focal points and their urban context remained unaltered. Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  23. 23. 23 Urban expansion of Cairo, URHC team, 2010. Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  24. 24. 24 ised by the strengthening of administrative functions, as well as a population increase. Focal points and land- marks reflected the changing role of the metropolis, with new structures adding to the social and cultural changes affecting the city. Within this new develop- ment framework, the following changes were high- lighted: • The completion of the modern city in the lands between the historic city and the Nile. • The completed street pattern of Downtown Cai- ro with modern focal points and landmarks. • Further urban development between the his- toric city and Khedivial Downtown. • The development of the Garden City quarter, discontinued developments along the banks of the Nile between Bulaq and al-Fustat, and the construction of a second bridge connecting the island of Zamalek to the mainland.9 • An expansion to the north of the historic city, connected to the railway station at Ramses Square and new industrial settlements. • The opening of new streets such as al-Azhar in the pre-modern urban fabric. In this phase, Historic Cairo was linked to the mod- ern city through a continuous urban pattern and new street network, with the historical fabric largely pre- served. 4.4 The evolution of the city: 1948 – 2006 The Cairo map by CAPMAS in 2006 highlighted the fact that the modernization process has continued in contemporary times. No major changes occurred in the morphology of the pre-modern city; nevertheless, the historical fabric was affected by interventions and reconstructions with inconsistent architectural typolo- gies, while the street pattern was modified by minor and diffused street widening and re-alignment pro- grammes. 9 In 1912, the Abu al-Ela Bridge, with a tramline, was con- structed to connect the island of Zamalek with Bulaq. Comparative Study , Cairo 1807-1888, URHC team, 2010. Comparative Study , Cairo 1807-1948, URHC team, 2010. Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  25. 25. 25 Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  26. 26. 26 which justified the inscription of the property on the World Heritage List, is a precondition for the preser- vation of the OUV. Thus the delimitation of the World Heritage property and its buffer zone as proposed by URHC was based on the following: • A synthesis of the transformation of Historic Cai- ro’s urban fabric (1807-2006). • A comparison with the official perimeters pro- posal submitted by the SCA to UNESCO-WHC in 2007. • The proposed perimeters of “areas of peculiar value” according to Building Law 119/2008, as defined by the National Organization for Urban Harmony (NOUH).12 • A field survey carried out by URHC in 2011 to identify existing heritage values in the World Heritage property.13 The proposed World Heritage“property area”by URHC corresponds to areas that show a high degree of in- tegrity of pre-modern attributes (such as street pat- terns, built-up areas and voids), and where most of the city’s historical components and structures are visible and recognisable. That is: • Monuments are kept as “focal points” in the ur- ban fabric, preserving their visual and spatial re- lationship with the surrounding context. • The morphology of historical settlements indi- cated in the nomination is preserved.14 • The street network reflects traditional threads and relationships between districts and neigh- bourhoods and important structural elements (such as mosques, suqs and khans). • The relationship between built-up structures and open spaces reflects traditional spatial hier- archies designed for pedestrian mobility, creat- 12TheNationalOrganizationforUrbanHarmony(NOUH)was established in 2001 by Presidential Decree Number 37, based in Cairo and affiliated to the Ministry of Culture. 13 The final delimitation for the World Heritage property was drafted after completing the field survey (see chapter II). 14 Including the Fatimid core, the Citadel area, the Ibn Tulun quarter, the cemeteries, al-Fustat and the archaeological site. 4.5 Persistence and change in Historic Cairo’s urban fabric: 1807 – 2006 It is clear that in the 19th century a process began that heavily transformed the structure and image of Historic Cairo, particularly its residential urban fabric. Although numerous monuments were preserved, pal- aces and larger houses were often abandoned or di- vided into smaller plots.10 Courtyard houses were re- placed with rental flats, and changes also occurred in the architectural and typological characters of the city. A partial loss of heritage features affected the World Heritage property. Nevertheless, the main components of Historic Cai- ro’s urban morphology show a remarkable continuity throughout the city’s development stages. Its focal points, compact historical fabric and street organiza- tion lines11 remained intact in many locations; in addi- tion, many streets maintained their original toponymy since pre-modern times, indicating their hierarchy: Darb (pathway), Hara (alley), Atfa (side alley) and Zuqaq (dead-end alley or cul-de-sac). These components also influenced the setting and di- rection of urban expansion in the early development of the modern city. However, certain locations, at the intersection between the modern and pre-modern fabric of Cairo, remained unresolved. To define an ap- propriate conservation policy, both persistence and change elements in the pre-modern city needed to be further assessed through a detailed analysis. 5_ HISTORIC CAIRO’S WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY AND BUFFER ZONE AS IDENTIFIED BY THE STUDY A comparison between the most recent map of Cairo (CAPMAS, 2006) and the map of the French Expedition (Cairo in 1807) revealed that the pre-modern fabric kept its main attributes (focal points, street patterns, built-up areas and voids) throughout development in the 19th century. The persistence of these attributes, ���Such as the elite’s emigration towards the modern city and theimmigrationoflowerincomeclassestowardsHistoricCairo. ��The approved line specifies the border of the road. Such a line separates private properties from public utilities, whether drawn at, inside or outside the property border. (Definition tak- en from executive regulations implementing law on building promulgated by Law 119, 2008). Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  27. 27. 27 ing spaces for community interaction and the proximity of services and uses (such as residen- tial, commercial and crafts). • The texture of the built-up fabric, characterised by the mix of various building typologies, guar- antees the compactness of the historical urban fabric. In this framework, the pre-modern fabric includes buildings with different degrees of authenticity, as well as buildings with no heritage values. Although buildings of architectural significance may have been replaced, this has not affected the compactness and continuity of spatial patterns within the fabric, nor the relationship between built-up areas and voids. Meanwhile, the“buffer zone”includes urban fabric that reflects the different stages of Cairo’s development since the 19th century. It marks the transformation of Cairo into a diversified urban area stretching between the Moqattam Hills and the Nile, comprising areas with special morphological and spatial characteristics, as well as undeveloped areas incorporating landscape values. They were classified according to the following factors: 1. Relationship to new “focal points” and struc- tural elements in the pre-modern city. 2. Location and proximity to the World Heritage property. 3. Relationship to the Nile and its bridges. 4. Texture of the urban fabric as defined by the street patterns. 6_ COMPARISON WITH OFFICIAL PERIMETERS PRO- POSALS FOR HISTORIC CAIRO The perimeters proposed by URHC followed the col- lection and analysis of the following official perimeters recognized by existing laws or previously submitted by local authorities to the World Heritage Centre:15 ��Other proposals for the delimitation of the site were also collected and analysed. However, since they were not submit- ted officially, they could not be taken into consideration. 6.1 SCA Delimitation for Historic Cairo In October 2007, maps were submitted to UNESCO- WHC by the SCA as the only official documents con- cerning Historic Cairo’s delimitation.The boundaries of the World Heritage property, drawn on the 1948 Map of Cairo Islamic Monuments, were presented on three maps, in which five core zones and three buffer zones were indicated in different colours.The SCA perimeters included the following elements in the five proposed core zones: • Zone 1: Al-Fustat area (including the mosque of Amr, the Coptic Complex and the archaeological site) • Zone 2: The Fatimid Nucleus together with the Citadel area and the area around the mosque of Ahmed Ibn Tulun • Zone 3 : Al-Imam ash-Shafi’i Necropolis • Zone 4: As-Sayyeda Nafisa Necropolis • Zone 5: The Qaytbay Necropolis However, the historic harbour of Bulaq was not in- cluded as a protected site in the SCA proposal, despite its mention in the nomination and in official sketches presented to the UNESCO-WHC. The official perimeter outlined by the SCA also varies significantly from the “property area” and “buffer zone” proposed by URHC for Historic Cairo. It includes the urban fabric with the highest concentration of monuments and excludes the following: • The pre-modern urban fabric that developed west of the former al-Khalij canal. • The historical urban area that developed north of the city walls in the Ottoman period • The pre-modern settlements on the Nile banks: Bulaq and al-Fustat The “property area” proposed by URHC includes this pre-modern fabric, in accordance with the criteria in the nomination used to revise the SOUV. Simultane- ously, the “buffer zone” proposed by URHC encom- passes the site occupied throughout the city’s devel- opment between the Moqattam Hills and the Nile, a Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  28. 28. 28 Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  29. 29. 29 Comparison SCA perimeters 2007 with URHC proposed perimiter Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  30. 30. 30 process that led to the shaping of the modern city as an extension of the pre-modern one. The buffer zone of SCA, on the other hand, is limited to areas between the identified core area, excluding parts of the pre-modern fabric and the early-modern city.16 The partial inclusion of the monumental cem- eteries, particularly the southern one, and the al-Fustat archaeological site, further reflect a different identifi- cation of the concerned areas. The SCA perimeters are also inconsistent with the delimitation of “areas of pe- culiar value”identified by NOUH. 6.2 NOUH Perimeters Building Law, 119/2008 empowered NOUH to identify “areas of peculiar value”throughout Egypt.The law and its executive regulations17 also defined planning tools, established rules for the land divisions and empow- ered NOUH to prepare“the bases and requirements for maintaining the areas, buildings and establishments of peculiar value.”18 As part of this framework, the areas comprising Historic Cairo, Khedivial Cairo and Garden City were identified by NOUH as “areas of peculiar value” and later estab- lished by an official decree.19 They cover an urban area extending from the Moqattam Hills to the Nile, includ- ing the pre-modern city and the modern city of Cairo. The map for Historic Cairo associated to the decree di- vided this ‘area of peculiar value’ into three categories according to the level of protection afforded to each: A.Area A comprising the historical fabric of the Fatimid city and “focal areas” mentioned in the Nomination, including the Citadel area at the foot of the Moqattam Hills and the monumental cemeteries. With the exception of the northern cemetery, the perimeter defines a continuous area that includes the intersection between His- toric Cairo and Khedivial Cairo. ��The SCA delimitation includes al-Saliba historical quarter and various historical areas west of al-Mu’izz in the buffer zone. 17 Ministerial Decree No. 144 of the year 2009, published in the Al-Wakaye Al-Maesreya/ Government Bulletin - Issue no. 82 (Supplement A), 8th of April 2009 18 Article 32 - Chapter-2- Areas of peculiar value, in Building Law, 119/2008. 19 Decree No. 04/07/09/8 in 29/7/2009 for the delimitation of Historic Cairo and Khedivial Cairo. B. Area B, the archaeological site of al-Fustat. C. Area C, comprising the early modern fabric surrounding Area A of the historic city, the mon- umental cemeteries and al-Fustat. This mosaic of “areas of peculiar value” identified by NOUH offers an extraordinary modern attempt to de- fine Cairo’s heritage areas, including the development of the city until recent times and incorporating inter- nationally-accepted standards and criteria in urban conservation. The proposed perimeter of Historic Cairo, as identified by URHC, overlaps significantly with the “areas of pe- culiar value” identified by NOUH. Both regard Historic Cairo as an urban entity, rather than simply a concen- tration of monuments, with the identification of areas deserving the“maximum level of protection”based on the persistence of the historical urban fabric through- out the different phases of the city’s development. 7_ URHC PROPOSAL FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE PROP- ERTY AND ITS BUFFER ZONE Based on the above, and taking into consideration comments received from experts, relevant adminis- trations and the nomination file, the World Heritage “property area” as proposed by URHC includes the fol- lowing: • The urban area that has persisted since 1807, in- cluding focal points, street patterns, and built-up and undeveloped areas. This includes the histori- cal suburbs north of the city gates of Bab al-Futuh and Bab al-Nasr, as well as the historical harbours of Bulaq and Fustat. • The monumental northern and southern cemeter- ies, as well as the cemeteries adjacent to the north- ern city walls. • The archaeological site of al-Fustat. • The archaeological site of Burg al-Zafar along the north-eastern city wall that is currently being ex- cavated. • The southern tip of al-Rawda Island with the Nilom- Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  31. 31. 31 Comparison NOUH, Decree N.144/2009 with URHC proposed perimiter Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  32. 32. 32 eter, which is cited in the nomination file as one of the monuments that justified the inscription of the property on the World Heritage List.20 The perim- eter includes the pedestrian bridge over the Nile, which provides a connection between al-Rawda Island and the al-Fustat urban area • The landscaped area between the northern cem- etery and the southern Fatimid nucleus, includ- ing al-Azhar Park and the undeveloped areas surrounding the Citadel. This area ensures the vis- ibility of the fortifications, as well as the skyline of the city with its“thousand minarets”– another fea- ture that justified the property’s inscription on the World Heritage List. • Mashad al-Juyushi, located on the Moqattam Hills, a significant monument mentioned in the nomina- tion file.21 • The area that developed through the reclamation of lakes such as Birkat al-Fil in the late 19th century. ���This area is classified as an “area of maximum protection” within the “areas of peculiar value” proposed by NOUH. 21 This mosque was excluded in the perimeters proposed by the SCA in 2007. Although representing a pocket within the site, the area features interesting modern neighbourhoods and building typologies that do not affect the spa- tial consistency of the pre-modern urban fabric. Meanwhile, the “buffer zone” proposed by URHC com- prises the modern city created after 1807 on the lands between the Moqattam Hills and the Nile banks. The analysis of the modern city’s development stages re- veals that the area includes urban textures referring to a variety of morphological and typological models. Therefore, the proposed buffer zone includes: • The slopes of the Moqattam Hills, to prevent high rise developments that harm the skyline of the his- toric city. • The northern tip of al-Rawda Island, including Mo- hamed Ali Palace and its garden, which is classified within the “areas of peculiar value” proposed by NOUH for al-Rawda. Following the identification of the World Heritage property area and the buffer zone, a set of protection measures was proposed by URHC, which will be dis- cussed in further detail in the next chapter. Field visits, photographic documentation: Fustat Archaeological Parc, Misr Qadima, 2010. Photo, Daniele Pini Chapter I The Delimitation of Historic Cairo’s World Heritage Property
  33. 33. 33 Chapter II THE ASSESSMENT OF URBAN HERITAGE VALUES IN THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY, 2011 1_THE FIELD SURVEY: APPROACH AND IMPLEMENTA- TION 2_THE FIELD SURVEY: ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 2.1 Criteria (A): Architectural heritage 2.2 Criteria (B): Persistence of historical street align- ments 2.3 Criteria (C): Persistence of traditional land subdivi- sion patterns 2.4 Criteria (D): Continuity and compactness of the urban fabric 2.5 Criteria (E): Activities and uses of the urban space 3_OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF URBAN HERITAGE VALUES IN HISTORIC CAIRO 1_THE FIELD SURVEY: APPROACH AND IMPLEMENTA- TION In response to the need to carry out a comprehensive and systematic assessment of urban heritage values in Historic Cairo, the URHC project team launched a preliminary field survey in 2011 to outline a conserva- tion zoning plan and related protection measures for the property. The assessment also aimed to confirm or revise the proposed perimeters of the World Heritage property, defined by the comparative analysis of his- toric maps carried out earlier. Five parameters - described below in the assessment criteria - were set to evaluate the physical integrity and intangible values of the historical urban fabric, in compliance with the proposed SOUV,1 and using the administrative subdivision of qisms2 and shyakhas.3 The team initially undertook preliminary field visits to test the grading system for the evaluation.This was fol- lowed by a systematic survey carried out between Sep- 1 See Annex for the revised SOUV. 2 Security jurisdiction. 3 See “Operational Guidelines”, Points 79-89. tember and December 2011 by shyakha or part of shy- akha4 to cover the proposed perimeters of the World Heritage property. At the same time, photographic documentation was completed for a number of streets in Historic Cairo to verify their urban heritage values. Eighty-nine shyakhas belonging to 11 qisms were ini- tially included in the field survey. However, due to the contingent political situation and for security reasons, it was impossible to carry out the visits as planned in some areas, such as Bulaq and the cemeteries.5 The sur- vey was ultimately implemented in 69 shyakhas cover- ing a continuous area between Qism Bab el Sha’ria and the Citadel area, with photographic documentation of around 350 streets in the site. Each shyakha was visited according to a pre-deter- mined path, starting from major spines and proceed- ing into smaller lanes within the residential blocks. An average of four to five streets was chosen for each shy- akha including: • Main streets representing the shyakha’s borders • Streets representing typical urban patterns • Streets presenting peculiar heritage features The survey results were summarized in standardized sheets according to each qism and shyakha. Uniform information was provided for each shyakha includ- ing its location, the surveyed street’s location, photo- graphic documentation, notes on heritage features, a table with the grades assigned to each parameter and a grading based on an average of the street’s records.6 The sum of the grades assigned to the parameters defined the heritage values of each street and its sur- rounding area visited during the survey. The average of these grades defined the overall grading of the shy- akha. 4 In case differences existed in the urban morphology, ���� shy- akhas were divided into parts with different grades. 5The assessment for these areas was based on non-systematic visits and documentation in 2010 by the team consultants, sat- ellite views from Google Earth, and references in other publica- tions. 6 Details are available in the URHC Report: “The Assessment of Urban Heritage of the World Heritage Property”. Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  34. 34. 34 Sample of Qism Introduction, Album Field Survey, 2011 Sample of Shyakha Grading Form, Album Field Survey, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  35. 35. 35 Sample of Qism Introduction, Album Field Survey, 2011 Sample of Shyakha Grading Form, Album Field Survey, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  36. 36. 36 2_THE FIELD SURVEY: ASSESSMENT CRITERIA To evaluate the urban heritage values of the World Heritage property, the following parameters were con- sidered: 1) Architectural heritage 2) Street alignment 3) Land subdivision patterns 4) Continuity and compactness of the built-up fabric 5) Activities and uses of the urban space 2.1_Criteria [A]: Architectural heritage This parameter provided an evaluation of the architec- tural merit of the shyakhas surveyed within the World Heritage property, taking into account their historical and cultural layers7 as stated in the proposed SOUV. It included the presence or absence of buildings consid- ered interesting because of their authenticity, includ- ing pre-modern structures (before the 19th century) and modern ones (after the 19th century), with no reference to specific architectural styles or typologies. The presence of monuments or listed buildings also contributed to the overall architectural score of the shyakhas, since their role as landmarks is an indicator of an existing relationship between focal points and the urban context. This relationship was highlighted both in the nomination file and SOUV as a heritage value that deserved protection. 7 This criterion is consistent with the “Recommendation on Historic Urban Landscapes” adopted by the General Confer- ence at its 36th session, Paris, November 2011. Bulaq, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  37. 37. 37 1-2 2-3 Table, Criteria (A), Grading scale The architectural heritage parameter was graded as described below: Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  38. 38. 38 The outcomes listed below demonstrate that, beyond its preserved monuments and listed buildings, large parts of the site show an ordinary or poor built-up en- vironment that has lost relevant architectural qualities: • Almost one-third of shyakhas were graded at one point or less, indicating a lack of substantial architectural quality. This applied particularly to the shyakhas located in Qism al-Sayeda Zeinab, in the northern part of Qism Bab al-Sha’ria and in Qism al-Gamaleya. • The majority of shyakhas (44 out of 69) were graded at between 1.5 and 2 points. These pre- sented scattered buildings or a few ensembles possessing an architectural quality.8 • Only three shyakhas were graded at between 2.5 and 3 points. These are mainly located along al-Mu’izz and al-Gamaleya streets and in the Cit- adel area, where the urban fabric includes pre- served monuments and modern buildings. The survey, and accompanying photographic docu- mentation, highlighted the results of an indiscriminate renovation process in the historic city over the last few decades, characterised by the systematic replacement of buildings regardless of their architectural qualities. This pattern has increased since the January 25 revo- lution, due to a limited capacity for monitoring the World Heritage property. It is also the result of the in- adequate measures (such as planning tools, building regulations and management tools) strongly needed to protect such a site. The poor architectural quality recorded in a third of the shyakhas indicates the critical state of conserva- tion of much of the historical fabric. It also highlights the inadequacies of a conservation strategy focusing on monuments and listed buildings while neglecting their urban context.9 8 The presence of parts of historical buildings (e.g. surviving historical ground floor façade) was considered an element of architectural interest. 9 Such a policy contrasts with the inscription criteria on the World Heritage List (see nomination file for Islamic Cairo). Al-Mu’izz Street, Katkudah, Beshtak Darb al-Mahruqi, Darb al-Ahmar Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  39. 39. 39 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  40. 40. 40 2.2_ Criteria [B]: Persistence of historic street align- ments This parameter refers to the persistence or alteration of the front elevations of streets in Historic Cairo, high- lighting interventions related to the streets’ widen- ing or re-alignments, as well as building lines10 within 10 These building lines are set to widen existing roads and open new roads cutting through the old city or along impor- tant monuments. The lines are inherited from previous plans prepared for Historic Cairo dating from the early 1970s. As de- fined by the Executive Regulations implementing the law on building promulgated by Law 119, 2008: “The line on which which building activities are not permitted. It is sig- nificant because it refers to the spatial character that represents the historical features of the streetscape, beyond the architectural quality of individual build- ings. The persistence of historical street alignments is considered crucial to preserving the street pattern and visual approach to landmarks in an urban context. constructions are permitted, whether designated at the border of the road, organisation line or projected from any of the said by a distance to be identified by the appropriate body.” The two sides of Herat Bergwan, on the back of Mu’izz Street in Gamaleya, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  41. 41. 41 Grade Features Pictures 0-1 Historic street fronts systematically modified with set-back of reconstructed buildings preventing the perception of the historic street front alignments Kamel Sedky Kamel Sedky,al-Saban 1-2 Frequent recent setback of reconstructed building with recesses not completely preventing the perception of the historic street fronts Ismail Abou Tabel Haret Borg Ali 2-3 Few or no recent setbacks and recesses and persistence of historic street alignment Al-Mu’izz st, Katkhudah, Beshtak Hamzawy The street alignment was graded according to the following criteria: Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  42. 42. 42 The outcomes show that, in many parts of the urban fabric, historical street fronts (both pre-modern and modern) are still recognisable: • The highest degree of persistence was found in 19 shyakhas set in Qism al-Gamaleya, which includes a concentration of monuments, and in the modern urban fabric generated by the streets and thoroughfares created in the 19th century. • The majority of shyakhas (41) were graded at between 1.5 and 2 points. Here, the urban fab- ric was partially affected by realignments that altered the spatial character. • Nine shyakhas were graded at 1 point or less, indicating the total alteration of historical align- ments. This last outcome partially confirms the loss of archi- tectural values evident in the assessment of Criteria [A]. It is also the result of traffic changes that occurred over the last few decades, for example, to ease the ve- hicular circulation next to Downtown in Qism al-Muski and Qism Bab al-Sha’ria.The impact of the realignment of new buildings in the streets of Cairo also cannot be underestimated. This has had a detrimental effect on the renovation process of the historical urban fabric, combining the loss of architectural values with the al- teration of the urban space. Darb al-Ghazeya, Khalifa, 2011 Haret al-Rum, Darb Al Ahmar, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  43. 43. 43 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  44. 44. 44 2.3_ Criteria [C]: Persistence of traditional land sub- division patterns This parameter refers to the persistence of land subdi- vision patterns with regard to historical plot patterns and their width on street fronts. Plot subdivisions are essential to verify the texture of the urban fabric since they characterize the spatial sequence and consisten- cy of street fronts. Due to the limited scope of the field survey, it was im- possible to systematically assess the transformations that had occurred within every plot in Historic Cairo, or make a comprehensive evaluation on the persistence of historical patterns.11 However, literary and carto- graphic sources documenting changes in land subdivi- sions and functions that occurred in some areas of the historic city were taken into account. The final evaluation of this parameter was simplified as follows to mitigate its influence on the overall shyakha gradings: 11 An accurate historical analysis of buildings and in-depth architectural surveys would be necessary to overcome this lim- ited evaluation. Grade Features Pictures 0 Historical and traditional land subdivision pattern completely altered by inconsistent building redevelopments Azhar St., Hussein-Ghourya Side Port Said-Bab El Nasr Side 1 Historical or traditional land subdivision pattern preserved or partially modified but keeping the same “texture” Darb El Labana Al Kanisa al Murquseya Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  45. 45. 45 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  46. 46. 46 The outcomes of this parameter confirm the evalua- tion of the previous criteria and highlight the variety of textures within the urban fabric of Historic Cairo as follows: • The largest part of the urban fabric (53 shy- akhas) is characterized by a land subdivision pattern that reflects the historical urban texture, because of the plot-by-plot redevelopment pro- cess in the historic city. • Some shyakhas with lower grades correspond to areas affected by the street cuts12 and widen- ings carried out in the 19th and 20th centuries, while some have kept their modern land subdi- vision pattern almost intact. The most harmful ruptures can be observed in the pre-modern fabric where inconsistent structures and large- scale interventions (housing projects and pub- lic buildings) were detected. These occur in al- Ramly shyakha, al-Azhar area, and in western and eastern shyakhas of the site. 12 Such as al-Muski, Clot Bey, Mohammed Ali and Al-Azhar. Abou al-Leaf, Abdin, 2011 Al-Fawatim, Gamaleya, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  47. 47. 47 2.4_ Criteria [D]: Continuity and compactness of the urban fabric The continuity and compactness parameter refers to a vital morphological feature of the historical urban fabric, highlighting the distinctiveness of anchors and landmarks (i.e. monuments), as well as important ur- ban spaces. Grade Features Pictures 0-1 Presence of large vacant areas or ruins Bergwan Khoronfesh 1-2 No relevant presence of vacant areas and ruins Al Gamaleya Al Shamboky Abou al-Leaf, Abdin, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  48. 48. 48 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  49. 49. 49 The assessment of this parameter refers to the pres- ence or absence of vacant plots, which represent a rupture in the urban fabric, particularly along the main spines. The assessment illustrated the following out- comes: • In spite of the alterations that resulted from the widespread renovation of Historic Cairo, the site presents a high degree of spatial continuity and compactness in its urban fabric. • Eleven shyakhas, concentrated in the northern and southern areas, are characterized by rup- tures that correspond to an irreversible altera- tion of the historic city’s morphology. • Almost half of the shyakhas (34) show minor but widespread discontinuities, due to the presence of vacant plots and ruined buildings, which demonstrate a physical and functional decay, as well as a potential environmental risk. Consequently, vacant plots and ruins need to be iden- tified as targets for an urban regeneration policy. They are also a potential way of improving the city’s envi- ronment with new public spaces, green areas, parking plots, and other spaces for public use. Ahmed al-Milki, Gamaleya, 2011 Sayeda Skina, Khalifa, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  50. 50. 50 2.5_ Criteria [E]: Activities and uses of the urban space • This parameter refers to the presence or ab- sence of activities and uses in urban spaces that indicate the socioeconomic vitality and identity of the shyakhas in Historic Cairo. It includes the presence of retail shops, traditional markets, crafts’ workshops and community services, as Grade Features Pictures 0-1 No presence of community- oriented activities Al Sayeda Skina Badr al Din Zanati 1-2 Few scattered community- oriented activities Al Darb al Asfar Al Khalifa 2-3 Community- oriented activities forming well consolidated “spines” or “cores” Gohar al Qa'eyd (Musky) Al Geish , Attaba sq from Hussein Square to El Mueiz St well as permanent or temporary uses of public spaces for cultural and religious events, festivals or other expressions of Cairo’s intangible heri- tage. This is considered a fundamental relevant value according to the proposed SOUV, the nomination file and the Operational Guidelines. The parameter was graded according to the following criteria: Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  51. 51. 51 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  52. 52. 52 Based on visual observations and asector study (Com- munity-oriented Activity Patterns, section 4.2), the as- sessment demonstrated the following outcomes: A large part of the World Heritage property (48 shy- akhas) is characterized by a diffused and well-struc- tured presence of community-oriented activities and uses. • Less than one-third of the shyakhas (21) lack a concentration of activities or uses. These shy- akhas have a residential nature, with few neigh- bourhood activities. • The highest concentration of traditional activi- ties can be found in Qism al-Gamaleya, Qism al- Muski and Shyakhat al-Sorugeya, which reflects the historical spatial distribution of commercial, handicraft and market activities. In spite of the negative impact of some community- oriented activities and uses, their persistence is consid- ered a sign of vitality and an intangible heritage value that deserves to be preserved. However, this criteria shows that the control of land use is a necessary tool for urban conservation. It also demonstrates that the use of urban space can affect living conditions for the community as a whole. 3_ OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF URBAN HERITAGE VAL- UES IN HISTORIC CAIRO The assessment of heritage values in the urban fabric evolved from an evaluation of 69 selected shyakhas within the World Heritage property, using the five pa- rameters detailed above. However, due to the method- ological and operational limitations of the survey, and the empirical nature of the grading system, the final figures obtained should not be construed as indicators of absolute values. Instead, they are useful indicators of relative values to be appreciated on a comparative basis. Although the average grading of the shyakhas stood at around 7 points, the assessment showed that historical attributes of the urban fabric have been lost, with the exception of monuments, listed buildings, and some remaining heritage values in Historic Cairo. This reflects an urban condition characterized by the following features: • Few shyakhas (11) with an average or slightly be- low average grading; the majority (38 shyakhas) have a grading of above average. • Twenty shyakhas with low grades presenting a loss of heritage values, particularly in the qisms of al-Sayeda Zeinab, al-Muski, Bab al-Sha’ria and al-Gamaleya. • The presence of scattered buildings or ensem- bles of architectural interest, set in an urban context dominated by ordinary and inconsis- tent buildings. • Historical street patterns (pre-modern and mod- ern) mainly preserved, although disfigured in various places by re-alignments of the renovat- ed buildings’fronts. • The texture of the historical urban fabric largely preserved, despite large-scale and intrusive re- developments, due to a plot-by-plot renovation process. • A mainly compact and continuous historical ur- ban fabric, despite the widespread presence of empty plots and ruins. Ghourya, Darb al-Ahmar, 2011 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  53. 53. 53 Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  54. 54. 54 • The presence of traditional activities and uses of urban spaces reflecting the intangible heritage values of the site. • A relative concentration of higher grades in shy- akhas along al-Mu’izz Street, due to the pres- ence of protected monuments, listed buildings, and a large rehabilitation project undertaken by the SCA in the last decade. The overall assessment shows that the morphological and spatial relationships between monuments and their surroundings, which justified the inscription of the site on the World Heritage list, has been affected in several parts of Historic Cairo. It demonstrates how, in some areas of al-Gamaleya, al-Darb al-Ahmar or al- Muski, monuments have lost their visibility and role as landmarks; instead, they appear as isolated spots in a distorted urban landscape. It also highlights the fact that, even when monuments in Historic Cairo are protected by law or restored, some are still in danger or at risk of collapse. Due to the lack of a strategy for possible re-use, prevented by the ex- isting legislation, restored monuments are sometimes closed or devoted to sporadic tourist visits, making their integration into a changing urban fabric difficult and resulting in progressive physical decay. It is evident that significant restoration efforts were carried out by SCA, as well as other national and inter- national organizations in the site. However, they have had only a limited impact on the surrounding environ- ment. To summarize, a combination of factors has led to a loss of heritage values in Historic Cairo and the dilapi- dation of its urban fabric, including the following: • The widespread plot-by-plot renovation that occurred over the last decades without appro- priate measures to protect the historical urban fabric. • The enforcement of regulations disregarding spatial, typological and morphological features of the historical urban fabric, particularly de- crees enforcing the demolition of deteriorated buildings13 and the re-alignments of many streets. • The limited control of concerned authorities over diffused illegal interventions, which oc- curred intensively in the historic city after the January 25 revolution. The retrieved results provide an account14 of the critical outcomes of the evaluation on Historic Cairo’s urban heritage values and demonstrate the lack of manage- ment systems and tools necessary for the preservation of the site. A radically different approach is required to address the many, diverse issues of a forward-looking conservation policy, with the involvement of all rel- evant administrations vital to set up and enforce ap- propriate planning and management tools, in line with current international standards.15 13 The Local District issues these administrative decrees to decide - based on a technical investigation - whether an existing building should be rehabilitated, or partially or totally demolished. 14 The report and the photo database detail the heritage attributes in each shyakha (see survey results attached to this report). 15 Reference should be made to the Recommendation on His- toric Urban Landscapes adopted by UNESCO’s General Confer- ence, November 10 2011, which aims to integrate policies and practices of conservation of the built environment into the wid- er goals of urban development, while respecting the inherited values and traditions of different cultural contexts. Chapter II The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in the World Heritage Property, 2011
  55. 55. 55 Chapter III THE PROPOSAL OF PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY III.1_CONSERVATION ZONES AND SUB-ZONES IN THE PROPERTY AREA III.2_GENERAL PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY III.3_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR URBAN AREAS III.3.1_Zone1: Pre-modern protected urban areas • Sub-zone 1A: Pre-modern urban areas of higher heritage value • Sub-zone 1B: Pre-modern urban areas of rel- evant heritage value III.3.2_Zone 2 : Transitional modern urban areas • Sub-zone 2A : Transitional modern urban ar- eas of higher heritage value • Sub-zone 2B : Transitional urban areas of rel- evant heritage value III.4_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE MONUMENTAL CEMETERIES • Sub-zone 3A: Monumental cemeteries with mixed burial–residential areas • Sub-zone 3B: Monumental cemeteries with prevailing burial areas III.5_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE ARCHAEOLOGI- CAL AREAS III.6_PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE PARKS AND LANDSCAPE PROTECTION AREAS III.7_THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE PROPOSED PROTEC- TION MEASURES A comprehensive conservation policy enforcing de- fined, sustainable measures is vital for the preserva- tion of both the tangible and intangible attributes of Historic Cairo’s OUV. Such a conservation policy (to be outlined in the management plan) requires planning tools and detailed action plans, backed up by appro- priate legislation.1 This is an urgent task, requiring coordination between the various administrations in- volved to prevent further damage to the city’s histori- cal urban fabric. URHC’s assessment of urban heritage values demon- strated the presence of variable conditions in the site and highlighted the need for a diverse range of pro- 1 As required by experts’ reports and World Heritage Commit- tee decisions since 2002. tection measures, depending on each shyakha’s grad- ing. It also identified sub-zones requiring higher and lower degrees of protection, as well as“sensitive areas” within the World Heritage property. Based on the urban heritage assessment and with a fo- cus on the specific conservation requirements of the World Heritage property, conservation zoning is pro- posed to integrate and adapt the existing regulatory framework, which comprises the following: • Building Law 119, 2008 and its executive regula- tions, which assume the responsibility of NOUH, GOPPandotheradministrationsintheestablish- ment and implementation of legal documents. • Law 117, 19832 and Law 144, 20063 which pro- vide protection measures for monuments and listed buildings. • Decree which outlines “areas of peculiar value” for Historic and Khedivial Cairo by NOUH.4 Decrees and bylaws conflicting with the measures pro- posed should be suspended until the approval of the conservation plan or other planning tools. III.1. CONSERVATION ZONES AND SUB-ZONES IN THE PROPERTY AREA URHC’s proposed conservation zoning for the World Heritage property is structured as follows: Zone 1: Pre-modern protected urban areas, includ- ing the “pre-modern” urban fabric, where the anchors and street pattern prior to the 19th century have been preserved. Zone 2: Transitional urban areas, including the“mod- ern” fabric created after the 19th century, predomi- nantly by street cuts and the filling of canals and lakes in the“pre-modern”fabric. 2 Law 117, 1983, Protection of Antiquities, amended by Laws 12/1991, 2/2010 and 61/2010. 3 Law 144, 2006, Regulating the Demolition of Non-Dilapidat- edBuildingsandEstablishments,andthePreservationofArchi- tectural Heritage. 4 Decree number 04/07/09/8 approved by the Supreme Council for Urban Planning and Development on July 29, 2009. Chapter III The Proposal of Protection Measures for the World Heritage Property
  56. 56. 56 Zone 3: The monumental cemeteries, including the northern and southern necropolis, which have been partially transformed into consolidated residential areas, as well as other minor burial areas next to the northern city walls. Zone 4: Archaeological areas, including al-Fustat ar- chaeological site, and the excavated parts of the his- toric city walls. Zone 5: Parks and landscape protection areas, in- cluding Al-Azhar Park, other parks in the site, and un- developed areas surrounding the Citadel. The assessment of urban heritage values suggested di- versifying the protection measures, particularly in the “protected” and “transitional” urban areas, with regard to the different assessment parameters used in the survey. Based on the shyakha gradings, it is proposed to further subdivide Zones 1 and 2 into the following subzones: Urban areas of higher heritage value (sub-zones 1A and 2A), including shyakhas with an above-average grading (7.5 points or higher), with a minimum of 2 points for at least two of criteria A, B and E5 . If only one of these criteria is satisfied, the area is classified as a “sensitive area”. This subdivision ensures that all parts of the urban fabric with tangible or intangible heritage values are recognised in a higher protection zone. • Urban areas of relevant heritage value (sub- zones 1B and 2B), including shyakhas with a below-average grading, (less than 7.5 points), in spite of the persistence of anchors and the his- torical street pattern (pre-modern or modern). It is further proposed to subdivide Zone 3, which in- cludes the cemeteries, into the following subzones: • Cemeteries with a historically consolidated resi- dential fabric interacting with burial areas and a high concentration of monuments. • Cemeteries historically consisting of burial areas with scattered monuments, recently affected by residential developments. 5 See Chapter II: The Assessment of Urban Heritage Values in Historic Cairo. For Zones 4 (Archaeological Areas) and 5 (Parks and Landscape Protection Areas), no further subdivisions are needed. III.2. GENERAL PROTECTION MEASURES FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY Protection measures for conservation zones and sub- zones provide a framework for interventions for listed and non-listed buildings, open spaces and urban areas of the World Heritage property, based on a detailed plot-by-plot survey. Implementing planning tools requires a strong admin- istrative base to enforce the effective control and mon- itoring of interventions, and encourage private and public initiatives that contribute to a comprehensive urban rehabilitation policy. Due to the lack of information on Historic Cairo’s exist- ing buildings stock, and based on the urban heritage values assessment carried out by the URHC project, it was only possible to establish protection measures re- lating to non-listed buildings,6 as well as new construc- tions on vacant plots and ruins.These measures should allow concerned administrations to improve the envi- ronment and liveability of the site, while enhancing heritage values. Protection measures must reinforce the framework outlined by the decree on“areas of peculiar value”, tak- ing into account the requirements of the World Heri- tage property. The following general criteria should be applied: • No new street cuts or widening should be un- dertaken to improve vehicular traffic. Only mi- nor interventions such as maintenance, paving and landscaping should be allowed, to improve pedestrian mobility. However, the creation of small parking lots can be allowed on empty plots with no heritage value. To this purpose, existing regulations allowing street lines7 and 6 According to Law 144, 2006, interventions concerning the reconstruction of non-listed buildings should be submitted to NOUH. 7 The approved line specifies the border of the road. Such lines separate private properties from public utilities, whether drawn at, inside, or outside the property border (definition taken from Chapter III The Proposal of Protection Measures for the World Heritage Property
  57. 57. 57 Chapter III The Proposition of Protection Measures for the World Heritage Property

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