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The psychological basis of behavior. Psychodynamic factors of (3).pptx

  1. Overview The psychological basis of behavior. Psychodynamic factors of behavior. Learning theory. Psychological assessment of patients with behavioral symptoms. Psychological therapies.
  2. The psychological basis of behavior. Psychoanalytic theory – Freud`s concept : topographic theory of the mind
  3. The Case of Anna O Anna O. suffered from hysteria She had developed a fear of drinking when a dog she hated drank from her glass. Her other symptoms originated when caring for her sick father. In Studies in Hysteria (1895) Freud proposed that physical symptoms are often the surface manifestations of deeply repressed conflicts.
  4. The Case of Anna O Freud was not just advancing an explanation of a particular illness. Implicitly he was proposing a revolutionary new theory of the human psyche itself. This theory emerged “bit by bit” as a result of Freud’s clinical investigations, and it led him to propose that there were at least three levels of the mind.
  5. The psychological basis of behavior. Mind contains 3 levels: Unconscious Preconscious conscious
  6. structural model of the mind comprising the entities:  Id  Ego  Superego
  7. Thanatos or death instinct, is viewed as a set of destructive forces present in all human beings. When this energy is directed outward onto others, it is expressed as aggression and violence. Eros, or life instinct, helps the individual to survive; it directs life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating, and sex. The energy created by the life instincts is known as libido. Freud believed that Eros is stronger than Thanatos, thus enabling people to survive rather than self-destruct.
  8. The ego develops from the id during infancy. The ego's goal is to satisfy the demands of the id in a safe a socially acceptable way. In contrast to the id, the ego follows the reality principle as it operates in both the conscious and unconscious mind. The superego develops during early childhood (when the child identifies with the same sex parent) and is responsible for ensuring moral standards are followed. The superego operates on the morality principle and motivates us to behave in a socially responsible and acceptable manner.
  9.  The ego can deploy various defense mechanisms to prevent it from becoming overwhelmed by anxiety.  Unconscious mind  Decrease anxiety  Maintain sense of safety, equilibrium, self-esteem Defense mechanisms
  10.  Immature – baby-like… disturbed behavior…  Mature – humor, sublimation  Repression – punishing emotions info unconscious Defense mechanisms repression, in psychoanalytic theory, the exclusion of distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings from the conscious mind. Often involving sexual or aggressive urges or painful childhood memories, these unwanted mental contents are pushed into the unconscious mind.
  11.  Denial is a type of defense mechanism that involves ignoring the reality of a situation to avoid anxiety.  Defense mechanisms are strategies that people use to cope with distressing feelings.  In the case of denial, it can involve not acknowledging reality or denying the consequences of that reality. Defense mechanisms
  12.  Unconscious mental attitude based on important past personal relationships: Positive – confidence. Negative – anger  Countertransference – feelings about someone (doctor to patient) - interfere medical judgment. Transference reactions:
  13.  Acquisition of new behavior  Learning methods are the basis of behavioral treatment techniques
  14.  Habituation – desensitization: Habituation is a form of non- associative learning in which an innate (non-reinforced) response to a stimulus decreases after repeated or prolonged presentations of that stimulus. For example, organisms may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences. 
  15.  Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.  Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated. Example: snake
  16.  Classical conditioning: Classical conditioning is a process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one.  The classical conditioning process involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus
  17.  Classical conditioning= associative learning  Classical conditioning is a process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one.  The classical conditioning process involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus
  18. Classical conditioning  Stimulus automatically produce a response  Response = reflexive behavior  Response after learning  Conditional response = conditioned stimulus + unconditioned stimulus
  19. Classical conditioning: aversive conditioning: Unwanted behavior is paired with a painful stimulus  In movies: Classical conditioning: imprinting
  20. Operant conditioning:  Operant conditioning, sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning, is a method of learning that employs rewards and punishments for behavior.  Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence (whether negative or positive) for that behavior.
  21. Operant conditioning:  Punishment: introduction of an aversive stimulus  Reinforcement: positive, negative (removal of an aversive stumulus)
  22. Psychological test:  Assessment: intelligence, achievement, personality, psychopathology  Intelligence: ability to understand abstract concepts; reason; assimilate, recall, analyze and organize information.  the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
  23. Intelligence test:  Mental age: a person`s level of intellectual functioning  Chronological age: actual age in years  IQ = MA/CA X 100  Cultural background, emotion  Stable throughout life  IQ=100, if MA =CA
  24. Intelligence test:  Classifications of intellectual disability (the overlap or gap in categories is related to differences in testing instruments) are: a. Mild (IQ 50–70). b. Moderate (IQ 35–55). c. Severe (IQ 20–40). d. Profound (IQ <20). 71 - 84 borderline intellectual functioning. IQ >130 - superior intelligence.
  25. Intelligence test:  The Wechsler intelligence tests and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales  The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in index scores:  Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)  Working Memory Index (WMI)  Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)  Processing Speed Index (PSI).
  26. Intelligence test: Achievement tests:  In specific subject area  Evaluation and career counseling  Specific achievement tests: Scholastic Aptitude test, Medical college administration test…
  27. Psychiatric evaluation of patient with emotional symptoms  Psychiatric history: part of medical history: mental illness, drug, alcohol…. Source of stress  Mental status examination:  Appearance  Behavior  Attitude toward the interviewer  Cognition: orientation, memory, attencenrion, sparial and abstraction avilities, speech  Mood and affect, emtions  Thought  Perception: illusion, hallutination  Judgment, insight..
  28. Psychoanalysis:  Psychoanalysis is defined as a set of psychological theories and therapeutic techniques that have their origin in the work and theories of Sigmund Freud.  The core of psychoanalysis is the belief that all people possess unconscious thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories.  method of analyzing psychic phenomena and treating emotional disorders that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams.
  29. Free association: a practice in psychoanalytic therapy. In this practice, a therapist asks a person in therapy to freely share thoughts, words, and anything else that comes to mind. The thoughts need not be coherent. In traditional free association, a person in therapy is encouraged to verbalize or write all thoughts that come to mind. Free association is not a linear thought pattern. Rather, a person might produce an incoherent stream of words, such as dog, red, mother, and scoot
  30. Behavioral therapy:  symptoms are relieved by unlearning maladaptive behavior patterns and altering negative thinking patterns.  the person’s history and unconscious conflicts are irrelevant and thus are not examined  Use:  management of phobias  aversive conditioning  manage mild to moderate depression  somatic symptom disorders  eating disorders …
  31. Group therapy:  Groups of up to about eight people with a common problem or negative life experience  usually meet weekly or 1–2 hours;  Members of the group provide the opportunity to express feelings as well as feedback, support, and friendship to each other.  The therapist has little input (observation)
  32. Family therapy  Children with behavioral problems  Families in conflict  People with eating or substance use disorders  Specific techniques are used in family therapy.  Mutual accommodation is encouraged.  This is a process in which family members work toward meeting each other’s needs.  Normalizing boundaries between subsystems and reducing the likelihood o triangles is encouraged.