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Learning disabilities - Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

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Learning Disabilities - Meaning and Definition, causes, symptoms, types - Dyslexia - Meaning and Definition, characteristics, causes, teaching strategies - Dyscalculia - Meaning and Definition, characteristics, causes, teaching strategies

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Learning disabilities - Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

  1. 1. Dr.S.Govindaraj, Assistant Professor, Adhiparasakthi College of Education, Kalavai @GovindarajSPh.D Learning Disabilities – Dyslexia and Dyscalculia
  2. 2. @GovindarajS Ph.D
  3. 3. Learning Disabilities – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajS Ph.D Reduced Ability to understand new or complex information Reduced Ability to learn new skills (impaired intelligence) Reduced Ability to cope independently (impaired social functioning)
  4. 4. Learning Disabilities – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajSPh.D Disorders that affect the ability to understand or use Written Language Mathematical Calculations Coordinate Movements Direct Attention
  5. 5. Learning Disabilities – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajS Ph.D Input (auditory and visual perception) Disorders involve difficulty in or more basic psychological process Integration Memory Output (Expressive Language) Motor (fine and gross-motor)
  6. 6. Learning Disabilities – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajS Ph.D Processing information by visual and auditory Difficulty Prioritizing, organising, doing Mathematics and following instructions Storing or retrieving information Using spoken language Clumsiness or difficulty with handwriting
  7. 7. Learning Disabilities – Causes @GovindarajSPh.D Neglect and lack of mental stimulation An inherited condition Physical disabilities and sensory impairments Contact with damaging material Foetal Alcohol Syndrome Premature birth Complications during birth Chromosome Abnormalities Mothers’ illness during pregnancy Illness or injury in early childhood
  8. 8. Learning Disabilities – Symptoms @GovindarajSPh.D
  9. 9. Learning Disabilities – Symptoms @GovindarajSPh.D  Poor decoding skills  Poor reading fluency  Slow reading rate  Lack of self- monitoring reading skills  Poor retention  Difficulty in building ideas  Difficulty in understanding ideas  Difficulty in controlling eye movements
  10. 10. Learning Disabilities – Symptoms @GovindarajSPh.D  Difficulty in organizing written information  Poor handwriting  Poor alignment  Difficulty in articulating thoughts  Difficulty in pronouncing words  Inability to blend sounds
  11. 11. Learning Disabilities – Symptoms @GovindarajSPh.D  Frequent spelling errors  Difficulty with homomyms  Inadequate understanding of phonics
  12. 12. Learning Disabilities – Symptoms @GovindarajSPh.D Difficulty in memorizing Poor calculation skills
  13. 13. Learning Disabilities – Types 1. Dyslexia 2. Dyscalculia 3. Dysgraphia 4. Dyspraxia @GovindarajSPh.D
  14. 14. Learning Disabilities – Types @GovindarajSPh.D
  15. 15. Dyslexia – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajSPh.D  Characterized by problems in reading, spelling, writing, speaking, or listening.  Inability to process graphic symbols.
  16. 16. Dyslexia – Characteristics @GovindarajSPh.D Problems with ∏ Identifying single words ∏ Understanding sounds in words, sound order, or rhymes ∏ Spelling ∏ Transposing letters in words ∏ Reading comprehension ∏ The spoken language ∏ Understanding directions ∏ Understanding opposites, such as up/down or early/late ∏ Handwriting
  17. 17. Dyslexia – Causes @GovindarajSPh.D • Possible family history of learning disorders • Difficulty learning to recognize written words • Difficulty rhyming • Difficulty determining the meaning (idea content) of a single sentence • Writing or arithmetic learning problems
  18. 18. Dyslexia – Teaching Strategies @GovindarajS Ph.D 1. Boost Self-confidence 2. Read aloud 3. Offer positive energies 4. Provide numbered steps 5. Enhanced reading, writing or listening 6. Allow time for reading, listening and understanding 7. Help with grammar and punctuation 8. Demonstrate their understanding with a spoken answer
  19. 19. Dyslexia – Teaching Strategies @GovindarajSPh.D 9. Multi-sensory instruction in decoding skills 10. Repetition and review of skills 11. Intensity of intervention 12. Small group or individual instruction 13. Teaching decoding skills 14. Drilling sight words
  20. 20. Learning Disabilities – Types @GovindarajSPh.D
  21. 21. @GovindarajSPh.D Dyscalculia – Meaning and Definition α Inability to acquire arithmetical skills α Difficulty in understanding simple number concepts α Lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and α Have problems learning number facts and procedures
  22. 22. @GovindarajSPh.D Dyscalculia – Meaning and Definition α Inability to acquire arithmetical skills α Difficulty in understanding simple number concepts α Lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and α Have problems learning number facts and procedures
  23. 23. Dyscalculia – Characteristics @GovindarajSPh.D Trouble in counting Struggle to recognize patterns Difficulty in learning basic mathematical concepts Poor understanding of Mathematical symbols Struggles in calculation
  24. 24. Dyscalculia – Characteristics @GovindarajSPh.D Trouble with face value May not understand Maths language Difficulty in understanding Maths Phrases Difficulty in understanding Numbers Struggles in graphs and charts
  25. 25. Dyscalculia – Characteristics @GovindarajSPh.D Struggles in reasoning methods Trouble in measuring items Difficulty in understanding speed, distance and direction Difficulty in counting backwards Weak arithmetic skills
  26. 26. Dyscalculia – Characteristics @GovindarajSPh.D Poor sense of numbers Poor sense of estimation High level of Mathematical Anxiety Hard to remember facts and formulae Trouble in time
  27. 27. @GovindarajSPh.D Dyscalculia – Types - Difficultyin Verbal Dyscalculia – naming specific moments Graphical Dyscalculia – writing mathematica l symbols Operational Dyscalculia – performing arithmetic and mathematical calculations Practognostic Dyscalculia – manipulating objects mathematically Lexical Dyscalculia – reading mathematical symbols Ideognostical Dyscalculia – understanding mathematical and arithmetic concepts and relationships
  28. 28. Dyscalculia – Causes @GovindarajS Ph.D Genes and Heredity Brain development Neurological maturation failures Psychomotor alterations Environmental factors Premature birth
  29. 29. Dyslexia – Teaching Strategies @GovindarajS Ph.D • Review what they already learnt • Break down the steps •Charts or sketches to draw problem •Use graph paper to help line up numbers and problems • Use coins, block and puzzles • Use concrete examples •Use graphic organizers
  30. 30. Dyslexia – Teaching Strategies @GovindarajS Ph.D • Create separate sheet for word and number problems • Highlight or circle key words •Allow extra time for examination •Use graph paper to help line up numbers and problems • Use visual aids • Use rubric • Use an extra piece of papers • Space to write problems and solutions
  31. 31. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Learning-Disabilities-Information- Page https://ldaamerica.org/advocacy/lda-position-papers/what-are-learning-disabilities/ https://www.msjc.edu/learningskillsprogram/Learning-Disabilities-Characteristics.html http://www.healthofchildren.com/D/Dyslexia.html http://ldapei.ca/types-of-learning-disabilities.html https://www.nessy.com/uk/teachers/essential-teaching-tips-dyslexia/ https://childmind.org/article/understanding-dyslexia/ https://www.dyslexia.uk.net/specific-learning-difficulties/dyscalculia/the-signs-of- dyscalculia/ https://dyscalculiainfo.weebly.com/characteristics.html @GovindarajS Ph.D
  32. 32. https://www.understood.org/en/learning-thinking-differences/child-learning- disabilities/dyscalculia/what-is-dyscalculia https://www.cognifit.com/pathology/dyscalculia https://dopasolution.com/dyscalculia/ https://blog.brainbalancecenters.com/2016/02/5-strategies-for-managing-dyscalculia Google images https://www.pexels.com/search/hd%20background/ Unsplash.com @GovindarajS Ph.D

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