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Understanding Disability - Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorders - Meaning and Definition - Symptoms - Causes - Treatments - Teaching Strategies

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Understanding Disability - Psychological Disorders

  1. 1. Creating an Inclusive School Unit 1 – Understanding Disability Psychological Disorders Dr.S.Govindaraj, Assistant Professor Adhiparasakthi College of Education Kalavai@GovindarajS Ph.D
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  3. 3. Types of Disabilities Psychological Disorders @GovindarajS Ph.D
  4. 4. Psychological Disorders – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajSPh.D  Abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors  Psychopathology is the study of psychological disorders, including their symptoms, etiology (i.e., their causes), and treatment  The term psychopathology can also refer to the manifestation of a psychological disorder.
  5. 5. @GovindarajS Ph.D Psychological Disorders – American Psychological Association (APA) Definition  in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors  reflect some kind of biological, psychological, or developmental dysfunction  lead to significant distress or disability in one’s life  do not reflect expected or culturally approved responses to certain events Disturbances
  6. 6. Psychological Disorders – Symptoms @GovindarajS Ph.D Aggression Anxiety Alteration in energy levels Irritability Erratic behavior (unusual in conduct or behavior) Social Withdrawal
  7. 7. Psychological Disorders – Symptoms @GovindarajS Ph.D Persistent or abrupt mood changes Perception Thought process Problem denial Sleep disturbances Weight and appetite changes
  8. 8. Psychological Disorders – Symptoms @GovindarajS Ph.D Withdrawal from friends, family and peers Avoiding pleasure activities Feeling hopelessness Negative emotions Confused Unable to complete daily activities
  9. 9. Psychological Disorders – Causes @GovindarajS Ph.D Chemical imbalance in brain Genes or Heredity Illness/Disease Prenatal problems/during Pregnancy Stress/Tension Childhood experiences
  10. 10. Psychological Disorders – Treatments @GovindarajSPh.D  Antidepressant Medication - to improve moods  Antipsychotic Medication – to alter perception and thought patterns  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy – thought pattern and behavior  Family therapy – develop support and understanding
  11. 11. Psychological Disorders – Treatments @GovindarajSPh.D  Group therapy  Individual therapy  Mood stabilizing medications  Psychodynamic therapy – discovering and understanding past issues  Talk therapy
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  16. 16. Mentally Retarded – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajSPh.D Ө Significant delays/lacks in adaptive skills Ө IQ – 70 to 75 Ө Substantial limitations of present functioning
  17. 17. Mentally Retarded – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajSPh.D Ө Two or more limitations in adaptive skill areas # Communication # Self-care # Home living # Social skills # Community use
  18. 18. Mentally Retarded – Meaning and Definition @GovindarajSPh.D Ө Two or more limitations in adaptive skill areas # Health and safety # Functional academics # Leisure # Work # Self-direction
  19. 19. 5 categories of Mentally Retarded Ө Mild Mentally Retarded - IQ (50- 55) to 70 Ө Moderate Mentally Retarded – IQ (35- 40) to (50-55) Ө Severe Mentally Retarded – IQ (20- 25) to (35-40) Ө Profound Mentally Retarded – IQ below (20-25)
  20. 20. Causes for Mentally Retarded Ө Fetal alcohol syndrome Ө Brain damage Ө Brain injury Ө Disease Ө Genetic disorders Ө Problems during childhood Ө Problems during pregnancy Ө Illness/injury
  21. 21. Symptoms of Mentally Retarded Ө Difficulty with problem solving or logical thinking Ө Problems in behavior Ө Inability of connecting actions with consequences Ө Difficulty in remembering @GovindarajSPh.D
  22. 22. Symptoms of Mentally Retarded Ө Rolling over, sitting up, crawling or late walking Ө Trouble with talking Ө Slow in doing activities @GovindarajSPh.D
  23. 23. Symptoms of Mentally Retarded Ө Difficulty in paying Ө Trouble in understanding social rules @GovindarajSPh.D
  24. 24. Teaching Strategies for Mentally Retarded @GovindarajSPh.D Ө Encourage child’s independence Ө Provide opportunities in group activities Ө Reinforce the child
  25. 25. Teaching Strategies for Mentally Retarded @GovindarajS Ph.D Ө Concentrate on the activity or task Ө Teaching with functional actitivities Ө Repetition of concepts Ө Additional support and Guidance
  26. 26. Teaching Strategies for Mentally Retarded @GovindarajS Ph.D Ө Alternate physical and sitting down activities Ө Provide accomodation Ө Demonstration Ө Provide hands- on-materials Ө Break information into small steps
  27. 27. Teaching Strategies for Mentally Retarded @GovindarajS Ph.D Ө Multiple opportunities to practice Ө Providing feedback Ө Help them to learn life skills Ө Opportunity to learn social skills
  28. 28. Teaching Strategies for Mentally Retarded @GovindarajS Ph.D Ө Enhance interaction Ө Involve in social activities Ө Introduce new ideas in Physical, hands-on- approach
  29. 29. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wsu-sandbox/chapter/what-are- psychological- disorders/#:~:text=A%20psychological%20disorder%20is%20a,manifestation %20of%20a%20psychological%20disorder. https://www.healthgrades.com/right-care/mental-health-and- behavior/psychological-disorders https://www.healthgrades.com/right-care/mental-health-and- behavior/psychological-disorders https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154543#treatment https://www.quizalize.com/blog/2018/02/23/teaching-strategies/ https://teachmag.com/archives/7220 https://www.pediatrics.emory.edu/centers/pehsu/health/mental.html#:~:text=Me ntal%20retardation%20(MR)%20refers%20to,communication @GovindarajS Ph.D
  30. 30. @GovindarajS Ph.D https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=20174 https://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/intellectual-disability-mental- retardation#3 https://therapytravelers.com/strategies-teaching-students-intellectual- disabilities/ Google images Unsplash.com

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