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Realistic alternatives

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Realistic alternatives

  1. 1. Realistic Alternatives to L iquid Fuels
  2. 2. Nonrealistic Alternatives <ul><li>Nuclear, Wind, Hydroelectric, Geothermal, Solar </li><ul><li>None of these directly address the liquid fuel crisis or global oil dependance
  3. 3. No technology to convert them economically </li></ul><li>Hydrogen Fuel Cells </li><ul><li>Extremely inefficient (energy + cost)
  4. 4. No easily available unoxidized hydrogen
  5. 5. </li></ul></ul>CH4 + 2H2O => CO2 + 4H2 ΔH = +59 kcal/mole Steam reformation of natural gas* CH4 + 2O2 => CO2 + 2H2O ΔH = 205 kcal/mole Methane combustion
  6. 6. Less Realistic Alternatives <ul><li>Mass Transit (USA) </li><ul><li>Large initial cost, upkeep (very difficult to find investors)
  7. 7. Mass transit production largely oil dependent
  8. 8. Not as flexible on a landmass with scattered urban centers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Most Realistic Alternatives <ul><li>Electric cars </li><ul><li>No harmful emissions
  10. 10. Recent interest by Honda Automotive*
  11. 11. Can be coupled with other fuel-intake systems
  12. 12. Cons:
  13. 13. Very expensive mainframe (for individuals and groups)
  14. 14. Range Inefficiency, range anxiety
  15. 15. Large production change required, “auto overhaul” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Most Realistic Alternatives <ul><li>Alcohol Fuels </li><ul><li>By far the cheapest overall auto-revamp option
  17. 17. Flex-Fueled Vehicles (FFVs) becoming very popular with major automotive producers
  18. 18. Derived from assorted biological masses
  19. 19. Somewhat self sustaining
  20. 20. Almost no fuel infrastructure change required </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Alcohol as fuel <ul>Toxic Emissions <ul><li>Gasoline: Particulate matter, carbon oxides, nitrous oxides, methane
  22. 22. Ethanol/Methanol: Particulate matter (<gasoline), formaldehyde, nitrous oxides, methane, Carbon oxides Efficiency (est. after production cost)
  23. 23. Gasoline (Petroleum) 100%
  24. 24. Ethanol (Biomass) ~73%
  25. 25. Methanol (Biomass) ~51%
  26. 26. *Hydrogen (Petroleum) ~33% </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Alcohol as Fuel <ul><li>Largely used in Brazil and the US
  28. 28. Engineered by automotive companies
  29. 29. Has found wide use in competitive racing </li></ul>
  30. 30. Problems with Alcohol <ul><li>A whole host of problems (comparable to oil) </li><ul><li>Oil dependent for pesticides and insecticides
  31. 31. Less genetic diversity in plants
  32. 32. Food prices increase
  33. 33. Little to no extra farming room (deforestation)
  34. 34. Potential foreign policy conflict
  35. 35. Would require an average of a $400-$800 fuel intake and storage upgrade in cars* </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The Future of Fuel <ul><li>Multifaceted solution
  37. 37. Could be coupled with a large effort in globalization </li><ul><li>Less local food diversity
  38. 38. Breakdown of economic barriers in food equality </li></ul><li>Would require sustainable and local practice </li><ul><li>Replenishment of soil </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The Future of Fuel <ul><li>If we venture into an Alcohol Economy... </li><ul><li>Massive subsidies will need to support a lack of food diversity, trading with developing nations for food will have to flourish </li><ul><li>Hydroponics in urban centers (solar power innovation) </li></ul></ul></ul>