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Strategies for designing and evaluating
effective learning activities
Gráinne Conole
National
Teaching
Fellow 2012 Ascilit...
Outline
• The importance of e-learning
• E-learning timeline and
emergent technologies
• E-Pedagogies
• Social media
• Wha...
Education 2020
E-Learning timeline
Multimediaresources
80s
TheWeb
93
LearningManagementSystems
95
OpenEducationalResources
01
Mobiledevic...
Barriers to adoption
• Lack of digital literacy skills
• No reward for teaching
• Competition from other
providers
• Scali...
The importance of e-learning
• For learning
– Potential to support interaction, communication
and collaboration
– Developi...
Digital landscapes
Open
Social
Distributed
Participatory Mass scale
Networked
Complex Dynamic
Facilitating learning
• Guidance and support
• Content and activities
• Communication and
collaboration
• Reflection and
d...
Formal
Informal
Individual Social
Blended courses
DL+ social media
Trad. campus courses
DL courses
OER
xMOOCs
OER + Social...
A
Constructivist
Building on prior
knowledge
Task-orientated
Situative
Learning through
social interaction
Learning in con...
https://tinyurl.com/hotelproject
Pedagogical approaches Social media tools and approaches
Personalised learning The ability to adapt, customised and
person...
Pedagogical approaches Social media tools and approaches
Reflective and dialogic learning, peer
learning
Tools for fosteri...
Activity: What’s your digital network?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/factoryjoe/195492568/
My network
Useful sites
• You might like to explore the
following sites
– The EDUCAUSE 7 Things you
should know about… (pick on
techn...
Outline
• An overview of Learning Design
• Activities
– A1: How to ruin a course
– A2: Course Features
– A3: Resource audi...
The promise and the reality
New forms of interaction,
communication and
collaboration. Lots of free
resources
Not fully ex...
What is learning design? (1)
Guidance
https://www.flickr.com/photos/anonymouscollective/1899303123
What is learning design? (2)
https://www.flickr.com/photos/frawemedia/5187769740
What is learning design? (3)
https://www.flickr.com/photos/10075621@N06/3810402230
Sharing
Learning Design
Shift from belief-based, implicit
approaches to design-based,
explicit approaches
Encourages reflective, s...
http://www.larnacadeclaration.org/
• What is Learning Design?
• Teachers need help with making effective design
decisions ...
The 7Cs of Learning Design
Conceptualise
Vision
CommunicateCreate ConsiderCollaborate
Activities
Combine
Synthesis
Consoli...
Conceptualise
• Vision for the course,
including:
– Why, who and what you want to
design
– The key principles and
pedagogi...
Course features
• Pedagogical approaches
• Principles
• Guidance and support
• Content and activities
• Reflection and dem...
Principles
Theory based Practice based Cultural
Aesthetics
Political
International Serendipitous Community based
Sustainab...
Pedagogical
approaches
Inquiry based Problem based Case based
Dialogic
Situative
Vicarious Didactic Authentic
Constructivi...
Guidance &
Support
Learning pathway Mentoring Peer support
Scaffolded
Study skills
Tutor directed Help desk Remedial suppo...
Content &
Activities
Brainstorming Concept mapping Annotation
Assimilative
Jigsaw
Aggregating
resources
Learner generated
...
Reflection &
Demonstration
Diagnostic E-Assessment E-Portfolio
Formative
Summative
Peer feedback Vicarious Presentation
Re...
Communication &
Collaboration
Structured debate Flash debate Group project
Group
aggregation
Group
presentation
Pair debat...
Capture
• Finding and creating
interactive materials
– Undertaking a resource audit of
existing OER
– Planning for creatio...
Communicate
• Designing activities that foster
communication, such as:
– Looking at the affordances of
the use of differen...
Collaborate
• Designing activities that foster
collaboration, such as:
– Looking at the affordances of
the use of differen...
Consider
• Designing activities that foster
reflection
• Mapping Learning Outcomes
(LOs) to assessment
• Designing assessm...
Combine
• Combining the learning activities
into the following:
– Course View which provides a
holistic overview of the na...
Consolidate
• Putting the completed design
into practice
– Implementation: in the classroom,
through a VLE or using a
spec...
The broader context:
The Larnaca Declaration
http://larnacadeclaration.org
The broader context: Integrated
Learning Design Environment (ILDE)
http://ilde.upf.edu/
Summary
• 7Cs – a new learning design framework.
– involves a range of conceptual representations of
courses
– evaluation ...
A1: How to ruin a course
• List the ten ways in which technologies can
ruin a course
• Consider strategies to avoid these ...
A2: Course Features
E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/CRpc5
Purpose: To consider the features you want to include in your
mod...
A3: Resource audit
• E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/C31yv
Purpose: To identify which free resources (Open Educational Reso...
A4: Course Map
E-tivity Rubric:http://goo.gl/Z5eu7
Purpose: To start mapping out your module/course, including your plans ...
A5: Activity Profile
• E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/WMIzu
Purpose: To consider the balance of activity types that will b...
A6: Constructive alignment
Purpose: To consider the balance of activity types that will be
included in your module/course....
Constructive alignment
• Learners construct meaning from what they
do
• The teacher aligns the planned learning
activities...
Assessment
• Key driver for learning
• Four types
– Diagnostic
– Formative (tutor)
– Formative (peer)
– Summative
Viewpoints assessment cards
• Clarify good
performance
• Encourage time and
effort on task
• Deliver high quality
feedback...
Viewpoints assessment cards
• Encourage interaction
and dialogue
• Develop self-assessment
and reflection
• Give assessmen...
E-assessment
• Computer-marked
assessment for
Interactive feedback
• Reflective blogs
• E-portfolios
• Peer dialogue and
c...
A7: Storyboard
E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/z1VON
Purpose: To develop a storyboard for your module/course in which
the l...
Start End
Learning
Outcomes
LO1
LO2
LO3
LO4
Assessment LO1
LO2 LO3 LO4
Week 1
Topic 1
Week 2
Topic 2
Week 3
Topic 3
Week 4...
A8: Rubrics for evaluation
Purpose: To devise a set of criteria for evaluating the success of the
design in a real learnin...
http://www.le.ac.uk/ili
http://www.slideshare.net/GrainneConole
grainne.conole@le.ac.uk
http://e4innovation.com
@gconole
• OULDI website
http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/OULDI/
• Carpe Diem website
http://www.le.ac.uk/carpediem
• 7Cs OER page
http:...
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Conole learning design

  1. 1. Strategies for designing and evaluating effective learning activities Gráinne Conole National Teaching Fellow 2012 Ascilite fellow 2012EDEN fellow 2013
  2. 2. Outline • The importance of e-learning • E-learning timeline and emergent technologies • E-Pedagogies • Social media • What is good learning? • The 7Cs of Learning Design – Designing Courses – Evaluating Courses
  3. 3. Education 2020
  4. 4. E-Learning timeline Multimediaresources 80s TheWeb 93 LearningManagementSystems 95 OpenEducationalResources 01 Mobiledevices 98 Gamingtechnologies 00 Socialandparticipatorymedia04 Virtualworlds 05 E-booksandsmartdevices MassiveOpenOnlineCourses 07 08 LearningDesign 99 Learningobjects 94 LearningAnalytics 10
  5. 5. Barriers to adoption • Lack of digital literacy skills • No reward for teaching • Competition from other providers • Scaling innovation • Democratisation
  6. 6. The importance of e-learning • For learning – Potential to support interaction, communication and collaboration – Developing digital literacy skills – Promoting different pedagogical approaches – Fostering creativity and innovation – Connecting students beyond the formal course • For life – Preparing students for an uncertain future – Improving employability opportunities – Increased importance of technology in society
  7. 7. Digital landscapes Open Social Distributed Participatory Mass scale Networked Complex Dynamic
  8. 8. Facilitating learning • Guidance and support • Content and activities • Communication and collaboration • Reflection and demonstration Learner centred
  9. 9. Formal Informal Individual Social Blended courses DL+ social media Trad. campus courses DL courses OER xMOOCs OER + Social media cMOOCs APEL ePortforlios OERu Badges Formal/informal landscape
  10. 10. A Constructivist Building on prior knowledge Task-orientated Situative Learning through social interaction Learning in context Connectivist Learning in a networked environment E-pedagogies Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Conole 2010 E-training Drill & practice Inquiry learning Collective intelligence Resource-based Experiential, Problem-based Role play Reflective & dialogic learning, Personalised learning Associative Focus on individual Learning through association and reinforcement
  11. 11. https://tinyurl.com/hotelproject
  12. 12. Pedagogical approaches Social media tools and approaches Personalised learning The ability to adapt, customised and personalise. Mix and match of tools, use of RSS feeds and filters Situated learning, experiential learning, problem-based learning, scenario-based learning, role play Use of location-aware functionality, immersive 3D-worlds,connection with peers and experts via social networking tools, scenario-based and authentic tasks in virtual worlds, application of gaming technologies for educational purposes Inquiry-based learning, resource-based learning Tools to support user-generated content and facilitating easy sharing/discussion, media repositories (Flickr, YouTube, and SlideShare), social bookmarking sites (Delicious), digital repositories and tools for content generation, use of search engines, participation in distributed virtual communities, use of folksonomies and social book marking as mechanisms for finding and organising resources
  13. 13. Pedagogical approaches Social media tools and approaches Reflective and dialogic learning, peer learning Tools for fostering peer reflection such as blogs and e-portfolios, commenting on other learners’ blog posts, co-creation of learning artefacts in wikis Communities of Practice Use of social networking tools to participate in communities of learning and/or teaching Scholarly practice and the sharing of designs and good practice Use of Web 2.0 technologies to participate in a distributed network of educators and researchers. Use of blogs, Twitter and wikis to co- create knowledge and understanding, to critique practice, and to share professional practice and resources
  14. 14. Activity: What’s your digital network? http://www.flickr.com/photos/factoryjoe/195492568/
  15. 15. My network
  16. 16. Useful sites • You might like to explore the following sites – The EDUCAUSE 7 Things you should know about… (pick on technology and list the main things you like) – The AUTC Learning Design site (pick one design and list the main things you like) – The CommonCraft videos (pick one technology and list the main things you like) http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/8805
  17. 17. Outline • An overview of Learning Design • Activities – A1: How to ruin a course – A2: Course Features – A3: Resource audit – A4: Course Map – A5: Activity Profile – A6 Constructive alignment – A7: Story board – A8: Evaluation Rubric • Evaluation
  18. 18. The promise and the reality New forms of interaction, communication and collaboration. Lots of free resources Not fully exploited Bad pedagogies Teachers don’t have the time or the skills https://www.alt.ac.uk/sites/alt.ac.uk/files/public/ALTsurvey%20for%20ETAG%202014.pdf
  19. 19. What is learning design? (1) Guidance https://www.flickr.com/photos/anonymouscollective/1899303123
  20. 20. What is learning design? (2) https://www.flickr.com/photos/frawemedia/5187769740
  21. 21. What is learning design? (3) https://www.flickr.com/photos/10075621@N06/3810402230 Sharing
  22. 22. Learning Design Shift from belief-based, implicit approaches to design-based, explicit approaches Encourages reflective, scholarly practices Promotes sharing and discussion Learning Design A design-based approach to creation and support of courses http://olds.ac.uk
  23. 23. http://www.larnacadeclaration.org/ • What is Learning Design? • Teachers need help with making effective design decisions that are pedagogically based and make appropriate use of digital technologoies
  24. 24. The 7Cs of Learning Design Conceptualise Vision CommunicateCreate ConsiderCollaborate Activities Combine Synthesis Consolidate Implementation http://www2.le.ac.uk/projects/oer/oers/beyond-distance-research-alliance/7Cs-toolkit
  25. 25. Conceptualise • Vision for the course, including: – Why, who and what you want to design – The key principles and pedagogical approaches – The nature of the learners Conceptualise Course Features Personas
  26. 26. Course features • Pedagogical approaches • Principles • Guidance and support • Content and activities • Reflection and demonstration • Communication and collaboration http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/5950
  27. 27. Principles Theory based Practice based Cultural Aesthetics Political International Serendipitous Community based Sustainable Professional
  28. 28. Pedagogical approaches Inquiry based Problem based Case based Dialogic Situative Vicarious Didactic Authentic Constructivist Collaborative
  29. 29. Guidance & Support Learning pathway Mentoring Peer support Scaffolded Study skills Tutor directed Help desk Remedial support Library support Step by step
  30. 30. Content & Activities Brainstorming Concept mapping Annotation Assimilative Jigsaw Aggregating resources Learner generated content Information handling Pyramid Modeling
  31. 31. Reflection & Demonstration Diagnostic E-Assessment E-Portfolio Formative Summative Peer feedback Vicarious Presentation Reflective Feed forward
  32. 32. Communication & Collaboration Structured debate Flash debate Group project Group aggregation Group presentation Pair debate For/Against debate Question & Answer Group project Peer critique
  33. 33. Capture • Finding and creating interactive materials – Undertaking a resource audit of existing OER – Planning for creation of additional multimedia such as interactive materials, podcasts and videos – Mechanism for enabling learners to create their own content Capture Resource Audit Learner Generate Content
  34. 34. Communicate • Designing activities that foster communication, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote communication – Designing for effective online moderating Communicate Affordances E-moderating
  35. 35. Collaborate • Designing activities that foster collaboration, such as: – Looking at the affordances of the use of different tools to promote collaboration – Using CSCL (collaborative) Pedagogical Patterns such as JIGSAW, Pyramid, etc. Collaborate Affordances CSCL Ped. Patterns
  36. 36. Consider • Designing activities that foster reflection • Mapping Learning Outcomes (LOs) to assessment • Designing assessment activities, including – Diagnostic, formative, summative assessment and peer assessment Collaborate LOs/Assessment Assessment Ped. Patterns
  37. 37. Combine • Combining the learning activities into the following: – Course View which provides a holistic overview of the nature of the course – Activity profile showing the amount of time learners are spending on different types of activities – Storyboard: a temporal sequence of activities mapped to resources and tools – Learning pathway: a temporal sequence of the learning designs Combine Course View Activity Profile Storyboard Learning Pathway
  38. 38. Consolidate • Putting the completed design into practice – Implementation: in the classroom, through a VLE or using a specialised Learning Design tool – Evaluation of the effectiveness of the design – Refinement based on the evaluation findings – Sharing with peers through social media and specialised sites like Cloudworks Combine Implementation evaluation Refinement Sharing
  39. 39. The broader context: The Larnaca Declaration http://larnacadeclaration.org
  40. 40. The broader context: Integrated Learning Design Environment (ILDE) http://ilde.upf.edu/
  41. 41. Summary • 7Cs – a new learning design framework. – involves a range of conceptual representations of courses – evaluation indicates that the framework is welcomed and that the conceptual designs enable teachers to rethink their design practice to create more engaging learning interventions for their learners – can also be used with learners, to give them an indication of the nature of the courses they are undertaking
  42. 42. A1: How to ruin a course • List the ten ways in which technologies can ruin a course • Consider strategies to avoid these issues Purpose: To consider the ways in which technologies can ruin a course and creation of strategies to avoid these problems E-tivity Rubric: hhttp://tinyurl.com/m3x32se
  43. 43. A2: Course Features E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/CRpc5 Purpose: To consider the features you want to include in your module/course, which will determine not only the look and feel of the course, but also the nature of the learners’ experience.
  44. 44. A3: Resource audit • E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/C31yv Purpose: To identify which free resources (Open Educational Resources) to include in your course/module, how much they need adapting and which new resources you need to create.
  45. 45. A4: Course Map E-tivity Rubric:http://goo.gl/Z5eu7 Purpose: To start mapping out your module/course, including your plans for guidance and support, content and the learner experience, reflection and demonstration, and communication and collaboration.
  46. 46. A5: Activity Profile • E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/WMIzu Purpose: To consider the balance of activity types that will be included in your module/course. Activity Profile Flash Widget
  47. 47. A6: Constructive alignment Purpose: To consider the balance of activity types that will be included in your module/course. • Three aspects: – Define the learning outcomes – Select learning and teaching activities likely to enable the students to attain the outcomes – Assess the students' outcomes and grade the students learning
  48. 48. Constructive alignment • Learners construct meaning from what they do • The teacher aligns the planned learning activities with the learning outcomes Biggs, 1999
  49. 49. Assessment • Key driver for learning • Four types – Diagnostic – Formative (tutor) – Formative (peer) – Summative
  50. 50. Viewpoints assessment cards • Clarify good performance • Encourage time and effort on task • Deliver high quality feedback • Provide opportunities to act on feedback
  51. 51. Viewpoints assessment cards • Encourage interaction and dialogue • Develop self-assessment and reflection • Give assessment choice • Encourage positive motivational beliefs • Inform and shape your teaching
  52. 52. E-assessment • Computer-marked assessment for Interactive feedback • Reflective blogs • E-portfolios • Peer dialogue and critique • Personalisation of learning Effective practice with e-assessment
  53. 53. A7: Storyboard E-tivity Rubric: http://goo.gl/z1VON Purpose: To develop a storyboard for your module/course in which the learning outcomes are aligned with the assessment events, topics (contents) and e-tivities.
  54. 54. Start End Learning Outcomes LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4 Assessment LO1 LO2 LO3 LO4 Week 1 Topic 1 Week 2 Topic 2 Week 3 Topic 3 Week 4 Topic 4
  55. 55. A8: Rubrics for evaluation Purpose: To devise a set of criteria for evaluating the success of the design in a real learning context • Brainstorming some criteria to evaluate the success of the design in a real learning context • Try and focus on measurable/observable things • Think about what data collection you might use – classroom observation, surveys, interviews • Post its: Things I liked, room for improvement, etc. • Use the LTDI Evaluation Cookbook – http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/ltdi/cookbook/
  56. 56. http://www.le.ac.uk/ili http://www.slideshare.net/GrainneConole grainne.conole@le.ac.uk http://e4innovation.com @gconole
  57. 57. • OULDI website http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/OULDI/ • Carpe Diem website http://www.le.ac.uk/carpediem • 7Cs OER page http://www2.le.ac.uk/projects/oer/oers/beyond- distance-research-alliance/7cs-workshop-resources • Cloudworks http://cloudworks.ac.uk/ Useful sites and resources
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