Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.

Child Trafficking and Permanency Planning

Child Trafficking and Permanency Planning

HAQ: Center for Child Rights
B1/2, Ground Floor,
Malviya Nagar
New Delhi - 110017
Tel: +91-26677412,26673599
Fax: +91-26674688
Website: www.haqcrc.org
FaceBook Page: https://www.facebook.com/HaqCentreForChildRights

  • Inicia sesión para ver los comentarios

Child Trafficking and Permanency Planning

  1. 1. Child Trafficking and Permanency Planning Presentation by Bharti AliPresentation by Bharti Ali HAQ: Centre for Child Rights 208 Shahpurjat, New Delhi – 110049 Tel: +91-11-26490136 Telefax: +91-11-26492551 E-mail: haqcrc@vsnl.net Website: www.haqcrc.org
  2. 2. Crimes Against ChildrenCrimes Against ChildrenCrimes Against ChildrenCrimes Against Children –––– IndiaIndiaIndiaIndia
  3. 3. Kidnapping/Abduction of Children (below 18Kidnapping/Abduction of Children (below 18Kidnapping/Abduction of Children (below 18Kidnapping/Abduction of Children (below 18 years) that qualify as Child Traffickingyears) that qualify as Child Traffickingyears) that qualify as Child Traffickingyears) that qualify as Child Trafficking
  4. 4. Every year, on an average, 22,480 women and 44,476 children are reported missing in India. Out of these, an average of 5,452 women and 11,008 children remain untraced. The National Human Rights Commission’s Action Research on Trafficking in Women and Children in India (2002-2003) indicates that many of the missing persons are not really missing but arethe missing persons are not really missing but are instead trafficked. _________________________________________________ Source: http://www.indiatogether.org/2004/oct/hrt-traffic.htm [A Report on Trafficking in Women and Children 2002-2003, Volume 1, Chapter 14 pp 203-217. NHRC, UNIFEM and ISS Project and Malvika Kaul, Young flesh in the trade, October 2004, New Delhi (WFS)]
  5. 5. Most victims of trafficking in human beings are children and young persons below the age of 18 years Both girls and boys are trafficked depending upon the purpose of trafficking It goes without saying that girls are more vulnerable than boys Often the purpose of trafficking also determines the age- specific demand for children
  6. 6. Often, the same child is prone to malnutrition and illness, deprived of early stimulation, is out of school and morestimulation, is out of school and more likely to be abused and exploited
  7. 7. As a nation we love our children, yet children continue to suffer There are several efforts being made by governments and NGOs alike, yet childrengovernments and NGOs alike, yet children continue to suffer… in fact the numbers only seem to be increasing!
  8. 8. Why Are Children Trafficked?Why Are Children Trafficked?Why Are Children Trafficked?Why Are Children Trafficked? Globalisation and Liberalisation leading to: Increased Poverty Greater Food Insecurity Disintegration of the rural communities Forced and Illegal Migration Consumerism Unchecked growth of tourism industry Unchecked growth in the information technology sectorUnchecked growth in the information technology sector Displacement/forced evictions due to development initiatives Anti-people and anti-child policies Failure of traditional coping systems Lack of essential services and chronic imbalances in access to services and opportunities Rights abuses Natural Calamities, Ethnic and Communal Strife leading to: Refugee Status or Statelesssness Homelessness
  9. 9. Cultural norms, traditions, beliefs and attitudes leading to: Gender bias Illiteracy and ignorance Obscure beliefs like ‘sex with virgin’ will cure STDs and sexual dysfunctions etc. Children are not seen as individuals with rights. As a result: Children’s basic rights are abused and neglectedChildren’s basic rights are abused and neglected Children are the easiest targets for trafficking Children are not involved in decisions affecting their life They are treated as extensions of parents Child Trafficking is a lucrative trade Lack of comprehensive legal framework and weak law enforcement Lack of political will
  10. 10. Addressing the problem What are we really concerned about? Is it how to stop child trafficking or how to guarantee children their right to protection? Can we address child trafficking without addressing theCan we address child trafficking without addressing the larger question of child protection? Is it the symptoms that bother us or are we also concerned about what leads to the problem – the root cause(s)? These are some questions we must ask!
  11. 11. State Civil Society Groups GlobalisationGlobalisation Unfair PoliciesUnfair Policies MigrationMigration DisplacementDisplacement UnemploymentUnemployment IlliteracyIlliteracyUnemploymentUnemployment IlliteracyIlliteracy PatriarchyPatriarchy Gender BiasGender Bias ConflictConflict ViolenceViolence Any Initiative
  12. 12. Initiatives must be directed atInitiatives must be directed atInitiatives must be directed atInitiatives must be directed at BUILDING A PROTECTIVEBUILDING A PROTECTIVEBUILDING A PROTECTIVEBUILDING A PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENT FORENVIRONMENT FORENVIRONMENT FORENVIRONMENT FOR CHILDRENCHILDRENCHILDRENCHILDREN This calls forThis calls forThis calls forThis calls for Permanency PlanningPermanency PlanningPermanency PlanningPermanency Planning
  13. 13. WHAT IS PERMANENCYWHAT IS PERMANENCYWHAT IS PERMANENCYWHAT IS PERMANENCY PLANNNING?PLANNNING?PLANNNING?PLANNNING? It is a rights-based approach to the fight against child trafficking. It is about initiatives that aim at a sustainable impact on children and their communities. It is about measuring the child impact of all policy and programmingIt is about measuring the child impact of all policy and programming for political, economic, social and cultural development. It is about adopting strategies that link up and address the root causes. It implies successful integration of survival, development, protection and participation actions.
  14. 14. Permanency Planning should not be a post-harm strategy. It has to deal with children who have been harmed as well as those who may not have suffered violence, separation from family, abuse and/or exploitation, but need to be protected in order to ensure that they remain within the social security and protective net. It is therefore about preventing harm and separation ofIt is therefore about preventing harm and separation of children from their family/community & about protecting children and maintaining the continuum of care in all situations
  15. 15. Increasing economic opportunity and removing barriers to economic success, along with counseling, medical and nutritional assistance, parenting training, income generation and other supports for maintaining stable families and a healthy community, play an important role in permanency planning. And so does linking with movements and campaignsAnd so does linking with movements and campaigns against globalisation, unfair trade policies, agricultural policies that are anti small and marginal farmers, labour laws and policies that are anti unorganised sector workers, privatisation of basic services such as health, etc.
  16. 16. Unfortunately, most measures supported so far in India to address trafficking through permanency planning are limited to care and protection of children post-harm and at best adopt awareness generation as a preventive action. Moreover, in adopting such measures, the life-cycle approach is missing. While all children have equal rights, their situations are not uniform. At the same time, childhood and the range of children’s needs and rights are one whole, and must be addressed holistically. Integration issues arise during consideration of almost every issueIntegration issues arise during consideration of almost every issue facing children today. In education, sexual abuse and violence in schools can be a hidden factor behind low retention rates. In health, violence can be behind many of the unexplained injuries that are dealt with by health services, or even the cause of longer-term disability. These links have to be recognized to ensure a holistic approach to child rights, particularly children’s right to protection. It should not be ‘Permanency Planning for a child’; rather, what is needed is ‘Permanency Planning for child rights, particularly child protection’
  17. 17. SAARC CONVENTION ON PREVENTINGSAARC CONVENTION ON PREVENTINGSAARC CONVENTION ON PREVENTINGSAARC CONVENTION ON PREVENTING AND COMBATING TRAFFICKING INAND COMBATING TRAFFICKING INAND COMBATING TRAFFICKING INAND COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND CHILDREN FORWOMEN AND CHILDREN FORWOMEN AND CHILDREN FORWOMEN AND CHILDREN FOR PROSTITUTIONPROSTITUTIONPROSTITUTIONPROSTITUTION Article 7Article 7 The State Parties to the Convention shall endeavour to focus preventive and development efforts in areas which are known to be source areas for trafficking
  18. 18. In South Eastern Europe, the Stability Pact Task Force (SPTF) on Trafficking in Human Beings, launched in September 2000, provided the Regional framework to prevent trafficking in its ‘National Programmes to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (National Plans of Action) Background Paper ‘. According to this paper, the broad area of prevention includes both prevention and awareness raising – both of which should be understood primarily as addressing the root causes ofbe understood primarily as addressing the root causes of trafficking SPTF pointed out that it was never able to engage in the development or implementation of prevention programmes. The main reason for this was the lack of donor interest in financing the prevention programmes proposed by the international organisations co-operating with the SPTF (e.g. UNOHCHR, UNICEF, IOM).
  19. 19. The Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking developed by UNOHCHR in 2002 proposed a broader understanding of prevention and awareness raising than the SPTF Guidelines The OHCHR Guidelines include not only interventions addressing the factors that increase vulnerability to trafficking, such as inequality, poverty and all forms of discrimination, but also advocate for the adoption of activities that address demand as a root cause of trafficking and public-sector involvement or complicity in trafficking The UNODC goes a step further in its Protocol on Trafficking in Persons Amongst other things, Article 9 of the Protocol calls for measures to protect victims from being trafficked again and other forms of revictimization The Protocol also seeks to prevent trafficking by requiring measures intended to make it more difficult for traffickers to use conventional means of transport and entry into States by requiring States parties to ensure that passports and other travel or identification documents - Articles 11 to 13
  20. 20. in India, EFFORTS AT Permanency Planning for Children haVE failed This is because – Prevention has received very little attention. Linking up with livelihood issues of the vulnerable communities as a strategy to deal with child trafficking is far from reality. Although globalisation and liberalisation seem inevitable,Although globalisation and liberalisation seem inevitable, demand for policies and action that is pro-poor, initiating campaigns and linking up with movements that attack government’s anti-people policies has not formed part of the rights based approach of permanency planning. The demand side is seldom addressed. Corruption in the border police and immigration department is a greater threat.
  21. 21. Other problems include - There is no uniform definition of the ‘child. This not only affects planning and programming for children but also leaves many of their problems unaddressed and leads to or perpetuates discrimination between children. India has failed to ensure for children even the basic civil rights and freedoms that citizens of India has failed to ensure for children even the basic civil rights and freedoms that citizens of a democratic country are entitled to enjoy. In the face of inadequate registration of births and without proper enumeration of children, the cycle of denial of rights of children who figure no where is inevitable. Poor implementation of the existing laws only worsens the situation.
  22. 22. Rehabilitation & Reintegration remains a Challenge All existing schemes for rehabilitation of trafficked victims are about women and girls trafficked for prostitution Re-trafficking as an issue has not been addressed by any of the existing rehabilitation programmes Community rehabilitation is yet to be understood and applied properly Institutional mechanisms are inadequate
  23. 23. Prosecution Of Offenders is Poor The absence of a legal definition of human trafficking and a law to deal with all forms of trafficking continues to affect prosecution of traffickers Another critical reason for poor rate of prosecution ofAnother critical reason for poor rate of prosecution of offenders is lack of victim protection and witness assistance Besides, unfriendly court procedures and delay in trials add to the problem
  24. 24. Government of India Admits …Government of India Admits …Government of India Admits …Government of India Admits … There is Lack of qualitative and quantitative data on: Children in need of care & protection Children in conflict with law Institutional and Non-Institutional Care system Standards of care are not established and implemented Standards of care are not established and implemented Infrastructure and Services are Inadequate There is lack of non-institutional and family based care system for children
  25. 25. Utilization of resources is skewed in terms of geographical spread; There is lack of coordination and convergence of programmes/services; There is inadequate emphasis for reintegration and restoration to families for rehabilitation;restoration to families for rehabilitation; Budgetary allocation for child protection is inadequate; Training and capacity building of functionaries responsible for child protection is inadequate.
  26. 26. CHILD ISSUES FAIL TOCHILD ISSUES FAIL TOCHILD ISSUES FAIL TOCHILD ISSUES FAIL TO BECOME A PRIORITY…BECOME A PRIORITY…BECOME A PRIORITY…BECOME A PRIORITY… In the year 2005 only 2.45 percent of the total questions raised in the Parliament were related to children (802/32,720) Only 9 questions (0.03 percent) were on child traffickingOnly 9 questions (0.03 percent) were on child trafficking Of every 100 Rupees budgeted in the 2006-07 Union Budget, only Four Rupees and Ninety-one Paise was for the over 440 million children of the country The share of child protection was the least - only Three Paise

×